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Kim, Natalia N.Transnational Women Protagonists in Contemporary Cinema: Migration, Servitude, Motherhood
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2015, Film (Fine Arts)
This thesis studies the cinematic representation of transnational women workers in contemporary American and European fiction films including Bread and Roses (2000), Dirt (2003), Spanglish (2004), and Amreeka (2009). The research considers this representation as it articulates issues in the current state of global migration, immigration laws, and women’s reproductive labor. Since the early 2000s, the growing numbers of women from the so-called `developing’ countries have been immigrating, alone or with their children, to `developed’ countries. Most often they are destined for employment in low-wage service jobs. This process, termed as the “feminization of migration” in the United Nations study (2006), has been addressed by filmmakers such as Ken Loach, Gregory Nava, Nancy Savoca and many others who have made films centered on the immigrant women protagonists. I argue that the cinematic impulse to portray the lives of underrepresented women and to appropriate their marginalized point-of-view signals a necessary turn to a transnational subjectivity determined by contemporary global economic and power relations.

Committee:

Ofer Eliaz (Committee Chair); Katarzyna Marciniak (Committee Member); Louis-Georges Schwartz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Film Studies; Fine Arts; Gender; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Transnational feminism; transnational film studies; American cinema; European cinema; women protagonists, reproductive labor; feminization of migration; transnational motherhood; female migration; female mobility; globalism

Costello, Matthew JohnRENTIERISM AND POLITICAL INSURGENCY:A CROSS-NATIONAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSNATIONAL RENT DEPENDENCY ON TERRORISM AND GUERRILLA WARFARE
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Sociology

Why do some nations suffer significantly higher rates of terrorism and guerrilla attacks? How important are the social, economic, and political opportunities and grievances stemming from international rent dependency? Drawing on the longstanding “greed vs. grievance” debate about the origins of civil war and related arguments about the political economy of rentier states and the “resource curse,” this dissertation examines the importance of multiple forms of international rents on two forms of political violence: (1) terrorist attacks on civilians; and (2) guerrilla attacks on the state and its personnel. Specifically, this dissertation analyzes the relative importance and mediating political mechanisms associated with five types of international rents: (1) exports of oil and natural gas; (2) economic aid and assistance; (3) military aid; (4) worker remittances; and (5) tourist revenues.

Using cross-sectional pooled time series techniques with zero-inflated negative binomial regression applied to a global cross-national dataset for 193 countries from 1971-2008, I examine how multiple dimensions of rentier states and various associated social, political and economic structures affect annual counts of terrorist and guerrilla attacks. The major findings of the study is that international oil and gas exports increase terror and guerrilla attacks, the latter effect largely mediated by economic and political factors. Additionally, nations with state-controlled oil and gas industries are more likely to suffer guerrilla attacks, while nations with privately controlled oil and gas industries are less likely to experience attacks. International military aid has an inverted U-shaped relationship with terrorism but does not affect guerrilla warfare, while economic aid and assistance affects neither. International tourism shows an inverted U-shaped relationship with terror and guerrilla attacks, suggesting that, at lower levels of dependency, political grievances lead to violent conflict. But, as international rent-dependency increases, the state can use rent revenue to suppress, buy-off, or otherwise co-opt dissent. International worker remittance rents increase incidences of terrorism, but not guerrilla warfare. These results show net of zero-inflation controls for the national capacity of international news coverage as gauged by the number of stories in Reuters international news wire.

Other results show that state repression consistently increases both terror and guerrilla attacks. Additionally, insurgency counts differ significantly by regime type. Press freedom is a robust predictor of terror attacks, and, less consistently, guerrilla attacks. In both cases, a free press likely acts as a facilitating factor. Similarly, nations with extensive forest cover or mountainous terrain are more conducive to attacks.

Taken together, this analysis suggests that international rentierism is a significant factor in fostering terrorism and guerrilla violence. Both the political grievances opportunities for sustained insurgent organization associated with international rentier states are important predictors. Given that multiple international rent sources are found to influence terrorism and guerrilla warfare, I find little evidence that rebels activity is spurred on by the existence of “lootable” resources. If so, only oil and gas rents should matter. Future research should address how state-controlled oil exporting and other rentier structures are associated with the political dynamics most relevant to predicting terrorism and guerrilla violence.

Committee:

Craig Jenkins, Dr. (Advisor); Edward Crenshaw, Dr. (Committee Member); Andrew Martin, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

International Rentierism; Transnational Terrorism; Transnational Guerrilla Warfare

Burkhard, Tanja JenniferHorizons of Home and Hope: A Qualitative Exploration of the Educational Experiences and Identities of Black Transnational Women
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, EDU Teaching and Learning
In this qualitative dissertation study, I will develop a theoretical framing that can be used for a deep and contextualized exploration of the experiences and narratives of Black transnational women within and outside of educational spaces. Positing that these experiences and narratives are shaped by settler colonialism/colonialism, racism, and heteropatriarchy, the goal of this study is to better understand Black transnational women’s narratives, stories, and experiences as connected to their languages, identities, and literacy practices. Doing so allows me to theorize their narratives, stories, and experiences by considering the complexities of anti-black racism, heterosexism, and colonialism both in their home countries and in the United States. In the hopes of contributing to the emerging body of work on the anticolonialism in knowledge production and education (Emeagwali & Dei, 2014; Kempf, 2009), as well as the notion of transnational identities and ways of being, meaning, as occupying multiple spaces simultaneously (Miron, 2014), this study is guided by the following research questions: (1) What lessons about the construction of race and gender can be learned from Black transnational/immigrant women? (2) What larger contexts impact the lives, identities, and educational experiences of Black transnational women (3) What hopes, fears, and/or goals drive the educational pursuits of Black transnational women? (4) What specific struggles do these women face when trying to access sites of formal education? Based on these questions, I will draw on Black and transnational feminist theories, critical literacy studies, and anti-and decolonial theories to explore the ways in which the English language, spoken and written, can be used to facilitate social justice for Black transnational women. To explore these questions, I conducted a series of conversational, in-depth interviews with each of the 7 adult immigrant women (ages 25-35) in this study. Each women self-identified as Black in the context of the United States, and have had to reckon with their positionality and changing identities within U.S. educational spaces.

Committee:

Valerie Kinloch (Advisor); Mytheli Sreenivas (Committee Member); Candace Stout (Committee Member); Cynthia Tyson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Education; Black Transnational Women; Anticolonial Approaches; Critical Literacy; Qualitative Research; Transnational Methodologies; Scholarly Personal Narrative

Benítez, José LuisCommunication and Collective Identities in the Transnational Social Space: A Media Ethnography of the Salvadorean Immigrant Community in the Washington D.C Metropolitan Area
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2005, Telecommunications (Communication)

This dissertation explores the crucial relationship between contemporary processes of international migration and mediated communication processes and practices across the transnational social space, specifically in the case of the Salvadoran immigrant community in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. In this dissertation, I aim to articulate the theoretical frameworks of transnational studies, diasporic media studies and structuration theory for understanding the local and transnational dynamics of production, circulation and appropriation of mediated texts and the configuration of collective identity representations through local and transnational Spanish-language media. Based on a media ethnography approach, which includes seventy in-depth interviews, one focus group and participant observation developed during twelve weeks of fieldwork, I analyze a sample of Salvadoran radio and television transnational programs, discuss some alternatives forms of communication and cultural expression, evaluate the diasporic uses of the Internet and new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), and the formation of new hybrid identities among Salvadoran immigrants articulated through the sociocultural mediations of soccer, religion, popular music and the construct of an ethnic market.

I conclude that structuration theory provides important sensitizing devices for mass communication research, especially for analyzing the dynamic of agents and structures in the practices of communication and the levels of signification, domination and legitimation in the structuration of communicative processes in society. Likewise, I emphasize the role of transnational media programs as a central mechanism of deterritorialization and reterritorialization for sociocultural ethnic roots, collective identity representations and mediated reunifications of transmigrant families. Similarly, I propose that the development of the Spanish-language media in the United States and the increasing transnational networks among contemporary immigrant communities not only challenges the traditional conceptualization of cultural assimilation but also suggests ground-breaking possibilities for linking second and third generations with new ethnic and collective identity expressions. Finally, I outline a preliminary agenda for designing and implementing media and cultural policies in El Salvador, which can seriously take into consideration Salvadoran transmigrants’ communication and information needs. This Salvadoran diaspora is sustaining the national economy of El Salvador and deserves new sociocultural and political rights, and participation in the transnational public sphere of a democratic society.

Committee:

Karen Riggs (Advisor)

Subjects:

Mass Communications

Keywords:

Communication and diaspora; Salvadoran immigrants; Communication and transnational space; Transnational social space; Structuration theory; Collective identities and media

Butcher Santana, KaseyFrom the Classroom to the Movement: Schoolgirl Narratives and Cultural Citizenship in American Literature
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2016, English
“From the Classroom to the Movement: Schoolgirl Narratives and Cultural Citizenship in American Literature” examines the relationship between girlhood narratives and discourses of cultural citizenship in American literature and human rights rhetoric. This dissertation analyzes the use of girls as symbols of national values in political rhetoric, as well as the relationship between girls as consumers of culture, and the ways in which girls conceive of their own citizenship and their place in American public life through specific political activities such as labor reform and the Civil Rights Movement. These relationships are demonstrated through life-writing such as autobiography and diaries, novels, educational materials, and other documents, which are analyzed using critical theory on gender, citizenship, and sentimentality. The first two chapters consider how girls position themselves as citizens and as members of specific communities in memoirs from immigrants at the turn of the twentieth-century and African American girls involved in the Civil Rights Movement. These chapters take up issues of gender and citizenship, as well as girls' control over narratives about their own lives, and how they respond to popular discourses of citizenship contemporary to their writing. The later chapters focus on these issues in transnational contexts, and consider the connections between citizenship, human rights, and cultural ideas about gender and childhood, as well as histories of oppression, empire, and neoliberal and capitalist means of circulating resources and “awareness.” The third chapter analyzes the construction of girlhood and citizenship on the border between the United States and Mexico, as well as issues around the dramatization of traumatic violence, through examining media accounts, novels, poetry, and testimonios about the feminicide in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. The final chapter critiques the construction of girlhood and discourses of compassion used in campaigns supporting girls' education in the Global South. Through analyzing the United Nations' Girl Up Campaign, the autobiographies of Malala Yousafzai, and the documentary Girl Rising, following Wendy Hesford and Sara Projansky, the chapter argues for organizations to evolve from a bias for the West and from framing girls as at-risk or can-do, moving beyond a politics of pity toward creating spaces for girls to exercise narrative agency, advocating for themselves.

Committee:

Anita Mannur (Committee Chair); Andrew Hebard (Committee Member); Edwards Erin (Committee Member); Kulbaga Theresa (Committee Member); Albarran Elena (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Literature; Gender Studies

Keywords:

american literature; girlhood studies; transnational feminism; citizenship; civil rights movement; immigration; gender; public sphere; global south; memoir; life-writing; ruby bridges; go set a watchman; malala yousafzai; juarez; feminicide; education

Marzec, Megan EWastelands, Revolutions, Failures
Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA), Ohio University, 2015, Studio Art
In three movements, this paper analyzes the way in which apparatuses of capture and control govern our lives. In the first movement, environmental injustice is used to illustrate how apparatuses create, maintain, and destroy spaces and bodies, and allow or prevent certain bodies to speak. In the second movement, anecdotal theory is presented as a way in which bodies typically barred from modes of discourse can find a temporary platform from which to speak. In the third movement, the paper dissolves into poetics upon realization of its own containment within the apparatus of academia, and points towards a way in which all apparatuses could be overcome. Includes documentation from the art exhibition: Wastelands, Revolutions, Failures.

Committee:

Katarzyna Marciniak, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Justice; Linguistics; Philosophy; Political Science

Keywords:

political philosophy; environmental justice; art; Tiqqun; Julia Kristeva; captalism; abjection; liminality; transnational; apparatuses; Jane Gallop; Mary Douglas; Gilles Deleuze; Felix Guattari; Pantex; Salton Sea; Picher, Oaklahoma; Tar Creek;

Paragas, FernandoEccentric Networks: Patterns of Interpersonal Communication, Organizational Participation, and Mass Media Use Among Overseas Filipino Workers
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2006, Mass Communication - Telecommunications (Communication)

This dissertation presents a framework on the transnational communication and media use of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) using data from a survey of 320 OFWs in 15 countries and sea-based operations. The framework depicts the eccentric nature of OFW networks across communication levels, demographic attributes, and territories.

Interpersonal communication was highly complex, with constant mediated and non-mediated correspondence inside and outside the host country. Almost as expansive were mass media networks, which often became a direct link with the homeland and sometimes served as a surrogate venue for interacting with the host country. Despite the global reach of groups for OFWs, as explained by 16 organizational informants, networks of institutional participation were the least complex. Few of the respondents joined organizations, and those who did were not active members.

Across demographic groupings, men and higher-income professionals – with their regular connection to the Philippines, culturally diverse workplaces, greater organizational membership and heavy media consumption – had more expansive transnational networks compared to their counterparts. Regardless of gender and occupational profiles, younger respondents were more likely to harness newer media, indicating the eventual shrinking of the digital divide in the general sample. Parent-respondents were very positive about the role of media in their family, but their media use patterns were similar to respondents without children, largely because of their smaller disposable income.

Across territories, the home country is still a pivotal body. The Philippines remains central in the discourse of OFWs, especially with the entry of Philippine media companies in their host countries. Within the host country itself, women, who supposedly labored invisibly in private workspaces, were more publicly social in parks, malls, and churches during weekends compared to men. Indeed, the extensive media use of men and their lack of friendly relations in the host country, suggested they could be living in expatriate bubbles that were tethered to the Philippines and existed quite invisibly from the host society.

The networks of the respondents were thus mainly transnational between the home and the host countries, except for those of higher-income professionals whose communication and media use patterns suggested an emergent globalism.

Committee:

Drew McDaniel (Advisor)

Subjects:

Mass Communications

Keywords:

Overseas Filipino Workers; OFW; migrant labor; transnational communication; Philippines; simultaneity; network; organizational participation; interpersonal communication; mass media; survey; textual analysis; interviews

Abu Sarhan, Taghreed MahmoudVoicing the Voiceless: Feminism and Contemporary Arab Muslim Women's Autobiographies
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, American Culture Studies/Ethnic Studies
Arab Muslim women have been portrayed by the West in general and Western Feminism in particular as oppressed, weak, submissive, and passive. A few critics, Nawar al-Hassan Golley, is an example, clarify that Arab Muslim women are not weak and passive as they are seen by the Western Feminism viewed through the lens of their own culture and historical background. Using Transnational Feminist theory, my study examines four autobiographies: Harem Years By Huda Sha'arawi, A Mountainous Journey a Poet's Autobiography by Fadwa Tuqan, A Daughter of Isis by Nawal El Saadawi, and Dreams of Trespass, Tales of a Harem Girlhood by Fatima Mernissi. This study promises to add to the extant literature that examine Arab Muslim women's status by viewing Arab women's autobiographies as real life stories to introduce examples of Arab Muslim women figures who have effected positive and significant changes for themselves and their societies. Moreover, this study seeks to demonstrate, through the study of select Arab Muslim women's autobiographies, that Arab Muslim women are educated, have feminist consciousnesses, and national figures with their own clear reading of their own religion and culture, more telling than that of the reading of outsiders.

Committee:

Ellen Berry, PhD (Committee Chair); Vibha Bhalla, PhD (Other); Radhika Gajjala, PhD (Committee Member); Erin Labbie, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Ethnic Studies; History; Religion

Keywords:

Arab Muslim Women; Transnational Feminist Theory; Contemporary Arab Muslim Women's Autobiography; Third World Women; Western Feminism; Women's Movement in the Arab Muslim World

Piper, EleanorA Transnational Reading of My Heart Will Cross this Ocean, The Dark Child, and Ambiguous Adventure
MA, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of English
This thesis provides a transnational reading of Camara Laye’s The Dark Child (1954), Cheikh Hamidou Kane’s Ambiguous Adventure (1962), and Kadiatou Diallo and Craig Wolff’s My Heart Will Cross this Ocean (2003)—three major works of African literature. I highlight key scholars and theory on transnationalism, exploring how the theory has emerged and developed in relation to an increasingly global world. I also consider the relationship between transnationalism, globalization, and postcolonial studies, noting their overlaps and divergences. This study also explores the theme of transnational identity, perceived as a shift in cognition from identity based in the local, regional, or national to one that considers broader connections to people all around the globe, through the experiences of the main characters. I observe that there are some parallel stages involved in developing a transnational identity but that the process varies significantly depending on the characters’ personal background, experiences, attitudes, and beliefs. In addition, this thesis also examines how the texts approach transnational concepts that are sometimes considered in polarities, such as the local and the global, tradition and modernity, and cultural authenticity and cultural homogenization, and instead provide a more complex picture of the interactions between the two. This thesis suggests that more non-Western literature ought to be incorporated into literary studies and explores the potential positive implications of utilizing transnational theory in literary studies to a greater degree.

Committee:

Babacar M'Baye (Advisor); Tammy Clewell (Committee Member); Claire Culleton (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Literature; Literature

Keywords:

transnational; transnationalism; African literature; literature; local; global; tradition; modernity; identity; globalization; culture; Amadou Diallo

Camara, SambaSufism and Politics among Senegalese Immigrants in Columbus, Ohio: Ndigel and the Voting Preferences of a Transnational Community
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, African Studies (International Studies)
The electoral ndigel is a voting command issued by some Senegalese Sufi leaders to their followers in support of one political party or another. Since 1946, this phenomenon has exemplified the religious leaders’ influence on the electoral outcomes. In the last decades, however, the electoral ndigel seems to have declined in influence, especially among the Senegalese voters in the diaspora who can partake in Senegalese elections through `distance-voting programs.’ By analyzing the electoral preferences of Senegalese citizens in Columbus, Ohio, this study argues that the decline of the electoral ndigel in this particular locality is based on the diasporic voters’ acquisition of a greater political awareness, achievement of financial independence and exposure to a politically more secular American culture. The study is structured in five chapters. Chapter 1 provides a historical background on the evolution of the religion-politics nexus in Senegal. It discusses different phases of Islamic militancy and explains how the state-tarixa relationship has evolved overtime. Chapter 2 examines how deterritorialization of Senegalese Sufi taalibes in general has contributed to the globalization of Senegalese tarixas in different ways. Chapter 3 discusses the methodology of research and data collection. Chapter 4 focuses on the case study, Columbus (Ohio), and discusses the translation of that globalization into `long-distance’ political participation. It also investigates how Senegalese immigrants integrate Columbus, Ohio in different modes. More importantly, the chapter also discusses different transnational factors which cause the Senegalese expatriate voters to opt for a more ndigel-free voting. Finally, chapter 5 presents a set of remarks and recommendations about the participation of Columbus Senegalese in the distance-voting programs.

Committee:

Brandon Kendhammer, Ph. D (Committee Chair); Loren Lybarger, Ph. D (Committee Member); Steve Howard, Ph. D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; African Studies; Black Studies; Cultural Anthropology; Divinity; Ethnic Studies; Islamic Studies; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Philosophy; Political Science; Regional Studies; Religion; Religious Congregations; Spirituality; Sub Saharan Africa Studies; Theology

Keywords:

Political Islam in Senegal; Senegalese immigrants in Columbus, Ohio; Religion and Politics; Migration and citizenship; Sufism and Politics; transnational Sufism; Voting command; Democracy in Senegal; deterritorialization; hybridized citizenship; Ndigel

Freeman, Bradley MAsian American Radical Literature: Marxism, Revolution, and the Politics of Form
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, English
My dissertation argues that Asian American writing between 1930 and 1970 contains a trenchant but overlooked tradition of radical political critique. The left-leaning Asian American writers whom I examine—Chinese American H.T. Tsiang, Filipino American Carlos Bulosan, and Japanese Americans Ayako Ishigaki and Milton Murayama—contest both economic inequalities in the U.S. and the racist, exclusionist sentiments of white working-class culture. From the 1924 Johnson-Reed Act to the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, exclusionary immigration policies nearly ended Asian immigration to the U.S. altogether. Consequently, anti-Asian racism prompted many upper-class Asian American writers, whom the critic Elaine Kim calls “ambassadors of goodwill,” to author narratives that translate traditional Asian culture for American readers, making it compatible with and congenial to American culture and values. In contrast, the texts I examine utilize Marxist critique to expose the racial divides that fracture the working class and oppress immigrant workers especially. By showing how these narratives incorporate Marxist frameworks, I build on recent scholarship on race, the proletarian novel, and the Communist left. If the proletarian genre hinges on working-class protagonists and protest, these writers differ from novelists like James T. Farrell and John Steinbeck who limit their vision of protest and revolution to the white working class. Ultimately, the first three chapters of my dissertation reveal how Tsiang, Bulosan, and Ishigaki imagine an international working class bent on a revolutionary end to both economic and racial oppression. My final chapter identifies a literary-historical shift in Murayama’s later proletarian novel, which no longer foresees revolutionary change as a legitimate possibility in the midst of the Cold War’s political gridlock. My project, then, argues for the prominence of radical political critique early on in Asian American literary history and shows the way in which this critique eventually gets folded into the well-known activist formations and literary traditions of the 1970s.

Committee:

Martin Joseph Ponce (Advisor)

Subjects:

American Literature; Asian American Studies; Ethnic Studies

Keywords:

Asian American Studies; Marxism; Transnational; Ethnic Studies; Early Asian American Literature

Toure, Paul N.Trajectoires littéraires et filmiques de la migration en Afrique francophone : de l’assimilation aux imaginaires transnationaux
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Arts and Sciences: Romance Languages and Literatures
This dissertation examines the influence of contemporary transnational culture in seven French and Francophone novels and films whose imaginations are primarily shaped by Francophone Africa and by themes such as immigration, Diaspora, mobility of goods and commodities, global and local identities, borders-crossing processes, circulation of knowledge, and cosmopolitanism. Focused on the novels Madame Bâ (2003) by Erick Orsenna (France), La préférence nationale (2001) and Le ventre de l’Atlantique (2003) by Fatou Diome (Senegal), Bleu, Blanc, Rouge (1998) and Black Bazar (2009) by Alain Mabanckou (Republic of Congo), and on the films Fatou la Malienne (2001) by Daniel Vigne (France) and De l’autre côté (2004) by Nassim Amaouche (France-Algeria), the research chiefly explores the development of a transnational imagination that highlights new multilateral connections in the Francophone world and the ways in which writers and filmmakers incorporate transnational practices/spaces and local histories into their narratives. In this perspective, the word “trajectoires” in the title is the key term that drives the analysis of the novels and films. It indicates the presence of two connected dynamics in these transnational imaginations. The first is physical and spatial: such dynamics implies the movements, flows of goods and information, itineraries of transient populations (legal and illegal migrants) between Africa and France, actions these populations undertake in the new global setting. The second dynamics is psychological: it is related to the attraction of France in Africa, particularly on the youth, and to the influence of colonial and postcolonial histories in France fifty years after the end of the colonial assimilation politics in Francophone Africa. Put together, these two dynamics have generated what has been recently termed the “colonial fracture” (Blanchard et al. 2005). First, I analyze the different ways transnational practices affect African local communities, the ways these communities react to these supra-national models, and the cultural and political problems they create. Secondly, I examine the various trajectories created by border-crossing agents from Sub-Saharan Africa, the Maghreb, the Caribbean (Haiti, Martinique) and France, and the transatlantic paradigm that emerges from them. Finally, I examine how the “métissage culturel et identitaire” discourse constructed here initiates a new and convivial ‘vivre ensemble.’

Committee:

Therese Migraine George, PhD (Committee Chair); Michele Vialet, PhD (Committee Member); Sanford Ames, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Literature

Keywords:

Transnational culture;Francophone Africa;France;Immigration and Diaspora;Colonial and postcolonial histories;Borders-crossing processes and cosmopolitanism

Tanaka, AkiQuestions of Identity for a Nigerian-Born Japanese Man in Kabukichyo, Tokyo
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2010, African Studies (International Studies)

The objective of this thesis is to examine the subculture and identity concerns of Nigerian-born naturalized citizens in Kabukichyo, Tokyo, through the life experiences of one man. The subculture in question is found in a unique business district of Tokyo in Japan known for its entertainment facilities and hostess/host industry which was established not only by Japanese-born nationals but also by diverse migrants. Nigerian men started to become involved in this industry in the 1960s, and they have maintained their involvement by owning clubs or working as "hosts." They are often considered to be temporary migrants; however, they have committed themselves by marrying Japanese women and being naturalized. Beyond a doubt, they have shaped a unique subculture in Kabukichyo. Nigerian men have a tendency to create a rather homogenized space in their work by associating with other African men. However, central to work for the clubs are activities aimed at "street catching," or the recruitment of Japanese hostesses and customers of both sexes. Therefore, a transnational communication has emerged out of Nigerians' culturally specific business style.

In the first part of this thesis, I describe the general characteristics and background of Nigerian men and their subculture in Kabukichyo. In the second part of this thesis, I examine a personal narrative of Mr. Omo, a Nigerian owner of a hostess/host club in Kabukichyo. This narrative provides a case study of identity formation in the Nigerian subculture of Kabukichyo. Mr. Omo describes his Africaness and Japaneseness in ways that can be considered to be transnational or postnational. His presentation reveals both his self-identification and his perspective about his family and co-workers in Japan. This work also shows that businesses in the hostess/host industry are some of the limited ways in which Nigerian men find economic opportunities in Tokyo. Despite their postnational identity characteristics, their appreciation of Japanese people and opportunities to live in Japan, Nigerian-born men still face personal challenges of belonging and acceptance by people in the country in which they now live.

Committee:

Diane Ciekawy, PhD (Advisor); Steve Howard, PhD (Committee Member); Francis Godwyll, PhD (Committee Member); Ghirmai Negash, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; Cultural Anthropology; Developmental Psychology; Gender; Geography; International Relations; Personal Relationships; Personality

Keywords:

Nigeria; Japan; Tokyo; Nigerians; migrants; immigrants; diaspora; brain drain; homogeneity, identity; citizenship, personality; postnational; transnational; individual; self; community; life history; narratives; sexuality; international; global

Field, Elliot RThinking outside the triangle: collusion and rivalry between transnational corporations and the state in Batam, Indonesia
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2006, International Studies - Southeast Asia Studies

The Singapore government unveiled a regionalization program in 1989 popularly known as the Singapore-Johor-Riau (SIJORI) Growth Triangle. The regionalization program brought about the rapid industrialization of Batam, Indonesia with the ardent support of government bodies in Singapore and Indonesia, as well as transnational corporations relocating labor intensive operations. This thesis examines how the relationship between transnational corporation managers and the state has shifted between collusion and rivalry since the unveiling of the SIJORI Growth Triangle. Interactions with government representatives and case studies of two transnational corporations currently operating in Singapore and Batam are used to evaluate the current relationship between transnational corporations and the state, as well as identify emerging trends in Batam’s state-firm relations.

Committee:

Yeong-Hyun Kim (Advisor)

Keywords:

Singapore; Indonesia; Batam; transnational corporations; multinational corporations; Growth Triangle; SIJORI; regionalization

Barbieri, Julie LautKamaladevi Chattopadhyaya, Anti-Imperialist and Women's Rights Activist, 1939-41
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2008, History
This paper utilizes biographies, correspondence, and newspapers to document and analyze the Indian socialist and women's rights activist Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya's (1903-1986) June 1939-November 1941 world tour. Kamaladevi's radical stance on the nationalist cause, birth control, and women's rights led Gandhi to block her ascension within the Indian National Congress leadership, partially contributing to her decision to leave in 1939. In Europe to attend several international women's conferences, Kamaladevi then spent eighteen months in the U.S. visiting luminaries such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Margaret Sanger, lecturing on politics in India, and observing numerous social reform programs. This paper argues that Kamaladevi's experience within Congress throughout the 1930s demonstrates the importance of gender in Indian nationalist politics; that her critique of Western "international" women's organizations must be acknowledged as a precursor to the politics of modern third world feminism; and finally, that Kamaladevi is one of the twentieth century's truly global historical agents.

Committee:

Judith Zinsser, PhD (Advisor); David Fahey, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Fredrickson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Womens Studies

Keywords:

Chattopadhyaya; All Indian Women's Conference; International women's organizations; Indian Socialists; Kamaladevi; Inter-war women activists; transnational feminist; Indian National Congress;

Christensen, Julie AMore Than Duffle Bag Medicine: An Ethnographic Analysis of a Student Movement for Global Health
BA, Oberlin College, 2013, Anthropology
Student activism around global health is occurring with visibility and fervor in the United States collegiate setting. Over the past two years, I have traveled across the US and Vietnam to immerse myself in the life of a nonprofit organization called GlobeMed. A largely student-led organization, GlobeMed partners each chapter with its own unique community health organization. My thesis is an ethnographic study that draws from narratives of young people, analyzes the organizational structure, and provides a broad contextualization of GlobeMed. First, I explore the history and development of GlobeMed. I then present life histories of young people involved in the organization to illustrate social and power dynamics within the network. Finally, I analyze how these components contribute to the way GlobeMed interacts with the simultaneously humanitarian and professional field of global health. This thesis contributes to existing anthropological scholarship by providing ethnographic insight into student activism in the United States around global health.

Committee:

Baron Pineda (Advisor); Crystal Biruk (Advisor)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences

Keywords:

global health; student activism; GlobeMed; network; movement; globalization; institution; ethnography; autoethnography; microentrepreneurship; transnational; partnership

Oweidat, Lana A. Disrupting the Western Gaze: An Arab-Islamic Intervention in Rhetoric and Composition Studies
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2014, English (Arts and Sciences)
Feminist rhetoricians, such as Wendy S. Hesford and Eileen E. Schell, criticize the field of Rhetoric and Composition for its limiting U.S. perspective and they call on scholars in the field to be more reflective on the American aspect of their works. They argue that many ironies have become evident in the field when taking into account transnational feminist rhetoric and postcoloniality. Answering their call for expanding the field's scope and focus, in this project I examine a series of cross-cultural encounters between the West and the Arab and Muslim worlds in the past and present and their ideological, political, and historical contexts, uncovering traces of discursive colonialist and Orientalist legacies disguised under the umbrella of multiculturalism. My examination reveals the prevalence of Islamophobia in the U.S. political, cultural, and thus academic scenes. I argue that encounters with Arab and Muslim Others are entangled in discourses of reduction, appropriation, Orientalism, and imperialism. Using a blend of rhetorical, postcolonial, and transnational feminist theories as my overarching theoretical lens, I explore the discursive construction of the Arab and Muslim agency through Western eyes, especially in the act of veiling. I examine the Muslim veil as site for the convergence of cross-cultural empathetic identification and the rhetoric of saving, which are both motivated by the imperial binaries of neoliberal feminist rhetoric. Against the backdrop of personal, statistical, anecdotal, and historical accounts of Islamophobia as a working discourse that affects the realities of Muslims and Arabs in the U.S. and around the world, I explore how the figure of the Muslim and Arab Other has been constructed as the West's new racial Other. I argue that little attention has been given to examining Islamophobia as a rhetorical racist discourse within which U.S. students are functioning. Therefore, it has become an ethical imperative for educators who are committed to issues of social justice and anti-racism to chart a new epistemological landscape by utilizing anti-Islamophobia pedagogical practices. I propose pedagogical conceptualizations that uncover the social, structural, and ideological dimensions through which Islamophobia as a racist discourse is constructed and enacted.

Committee:

Mara Holt (Committee Chair); Sherrie Gradin (Committee Member); Albert Rouzie (Committee Member); Ghirmai Negash (Committee Member); Julie White (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ethics; Multicultural Education; Rhetoric; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Multiculturalism; Transnational feminist rhetoric; Muslim veil; Orientalism; Islamophobia

Michaels, LaurieTransnational Labor in the Age of Globalization: Labor Organizing at the Farm Labor Organizing Committee
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2014, Sociology
This thesis explores the organizing strategies of the Farm Labor Organizing Committee (FLOC), and documents the precarious, hazardous and exploitative conditions faced by farm workers in Ohio and North Carolina, based on 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork. Farm workers experience dangerous conditions and poor pay, and are often subjected to human trafficking, sexual or physical abuse, and unsanitary housing conditions. Farm workers are often undocumented workers, facing hostile political and cultural discourses which position them as "illegal aliens," with the ever-present threat of deportation. FLOC's strategy of "supply-side organizing" in its campaign against Reynolds America Inc. and other strategies of transnational organizing are analyzed; it is suggested that such strategies are an effective response to economic liberalism, globalization, and effects of free trade policies such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). FLOC's use of community unionism, and its broader engagement with the Latino/a community, are also analyzed in the thesis.

Committee:

Mark Sherry (Committee Chair); Dwight Haase (Committee Member); Willie McKether (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

farm labor, transnational labor organizing

Kulbaga, Theresa A.Trans/national subjects: genre, gender, and geopolitics in contemporary American autobiography
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, English
This dissertation is situated at the intersection of 20th-century American literary and cultural studies, particularly contemporary formulations that urge a comparativist, hemispheric, or transnational approach to American literatures and cultures. Taking up this critical conversation through a study of genre, namely autobiography, I argue for a comparative and transnational approach to ethnic women's life narratives. Scholars of autobiography have examined how the genre, in its construction of the autobiographical subject as model citizen, participates in the project of U.S. citizenship and nation-building. What is less recognized is how ethnic and immigrant women autobiographers have pushed the borders of the genre and, by extension, have challenged the fantasy of the representative citizen-subject in the U.S. I argue that a number of contemporary autobiographers are rewriting the genre in order to represent the transnational subject—that is, the subject who does not identify with a single nation-state or whose national identity is inseparable from global social and economic contexts. These writers, I argue, use genre as a rhetorical strategy in order to redefine identity, citizenship, and rights through a global or transnational lens.

Committee:

Wendy Hesford (Advisor)

Keywords:

autobiography; transnational; american studies; american literature; women; gender; gender studies; women's studies; ethnicity; ethnic studies; race; geopolitics; globalization; genre; life narrative; life writing; documentary film; citizenship

Gerzher-Alemayo, Selam“Development from Abroad:” Ethiopian Migrants and Community-level Educational Development in Ethiopia
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2010, Educational Research and Evaluation (Education)
This dissertation research explores how Ethiopians living in the United States network to support community-level educational development in their community of origin. A qualitative case study of Awlaelo Schools Alumni Association (ASAA), an organization whose members come from Kilte-Awlaelo located in Tigray, Ethiopia discloses how the group is networking, fundraising, evaluating and monitoring educational programs they support in their community of origin while living abroad. Fifteen participants were purposefully selected for interviews. The study also used participant observations and focus group discussions. ASAA members are leveraging existing resources within their group and community of origin to accomplish their objectives and goals. Their work is done through one hundred percent volunteerism and their major networks are their friends, families, and community members all of whom raise funds, gather information from their community of origin, and make decisions. Educational and economic programs that promote self-sufficiency are among the resources that many students in Ethiopia are lacking. The ASAA members have taken a role to help and collaborate with their community of origin to enhance the overall educational resources.

Committee:

Francis Godwyll (Committee Chair); Jerry Johnson (Committee Member); Diane Ciekawy (Committee Member); David Moore (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Development; Education; Ethiopia; Transnational Studies; Diaspora Studies

SCHADE, SILKE KATHARINEREWRITING HOME AND MIGRATION: SPATIALITY IN THE NARRATIVES OF BARBARA HONIGMANN AND EMINE SEVGI &OumlZDAMAR
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2007, Arts and Sciences : Germanic Languages and Literature
This dissertation explores the creation of a personal sense of home within the experience of migration in two semi-autobiographical trilogies by contemporaries Barbara Honigmann and Emine Sevgi Özdamar. The interdisciplinary literary analysis draws on the fields of Urban Studies, Gender Studies, and Human Geography to examine the interdependence between these seeming binaries – home and migration – in six works: Honigmann’s Roman von einem Kinde (1986), Eine Liebe aus Nichts (1991), and Damals, dann und danach (1999), and Özdamar’s Das Leben ist eine Karawanswerei (1992), Die Brücke vom Goldenen Horn (1998), and Seltsame Sterne starren zur Erde (2003). The dissertation begins with a discussion of scholarship on Özdamar and Honigmann, and on concepts of home, space, and place, migration, exile, and nomadism. Four central chapters examine each protagonist’s critical engagement with and reinvention of the varied spaces she inhabits. The textual analysis explores physical, social, linguistic, spiritual, and gendered spaces as points of contact between home and migration. It demonstrates the ways in which artistic and literary spaces blur the boundaries between home and away, familiarity and foreignness. In these texts, home and migration emerge not as static concepts, but as two very similar dynamic processes. Özdamar and Honigmann create new and particular perspectives that come out of allegiances to multiple localities, and from real and imagined “double locations.” By taking these works out of their potentially competing fields of German-Jewish Studies and transnational studies and examining them instead through the common lens of spatiality, this dissertation challenges the discourse that locates Honigmann’s and Özdamar’s texts as marginal or “Other” in relation to the German literary canon. The dissertation concludes with speculations on the term “cosmopolitanism,” arguing that Özdamar and Honigmann rewrite the term cosmopolitanism as a highly personal and individual patchwork of allegiances to people, places, communities, and traditions. This dissertation extends existing ways of thinking about home, and migration, and cosmopolitanism and explores the permeability of boundaries, not only between these concepts, but between the disciplines of scholarship it draws upon.

Committee:

Dr. Katharina Gerstenberger (Advisor)

Keywords:

Germany; German-Jewish Literature; German-Turkish Literature; Transnational Literature; Honigmann; &214;zdamar; Home; Migration; Space; Gender

Potter, George E.Global Politics and (Trans)National Arts: Staging the “War on Terror” in New York, London, and Cairo
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Arts and Sciences: English and Comparative Literature

In the post-9/11 era, over a hundred theatric performances exploring the fallout from the “war on terror” have been staged in Cairo, London, and New York. Though never discussed in relation to one another, the works from major cultural centers on three continents provide valuable insights into how people from three cultures have responded to the wars and political policies since 9/11, as well as how they have attempted to form their resistance to those policies.

To explore this, my study begins with a historiography of “terrorism,” exploring the term’s roots in the French Revolution as a means by which to discuss state violence, a use that was standard throughout the nineteenth century. However, during the twentieth century, as the nation-state became the normative structure for political organization, resistance to it—“subnationals,” as they would come to be called in State Department parlance—were redefined as “terrorist.” Therefore, the construction of the United Nations, the development of human rights discourse, and the codification of terrorism laws occurred within the same era of organizing (un)acceptable political behavior.

The next three chapters of the dissertation then undertake examining theatric works within each of the nations under consideration alone. From there, the following five chapters focus on formal or thematic concerns—the political efficacy of musical theater, representations of Afghanistan, the staging of Iraqi voices, stories of soldiers returning from war, and diasporic theater—in cross-cultural analyses, comparing how similar narratives and structures have been used in different cultural contexts to resist both the “war on terror” and local forms of political oppression. The final chapter of the dissertation looks at Naomi Wallace’s theater-making practices, before closely examining her play The Fever Chart: Three Visions of the Middle East, one of the few American dramas to draw connections between Palestine and Iraq, as well as one of the few plays about the “war on terror” to have been staged in Cairo, London, and New York.

Through an examination of these performances, I argue for the necessity of a more intimate form of transnationalism, one that can understand the effects of global political events on the smallest spaces of distant lives, as well as one that resists the underlying systems of oppression, rather than their symptoms. The conclusion then expands on this argument as not only a call for artistic production, but also for scholarly endeavors in a world where artistic production has become more global and diffuse.

Committee:

Jana Braziel, PhD (Committee Chair); Joshua Chambers-Letson, PhD (Committee Member); Gary Weissman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Theater

Keywords:

theater;war on terror;Egypt;United States;United Kingdom;transnational

Dowman, SarahMapeando la cultura Kruda: Hip-Hop, Punk Rock y performances queer latino contemporáneo
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Spanish

In a globalized world, sociopolitical and cultural movements enter new spaces as borders are obscured and alternate routes are explored. Weaving in and out of local, regional, and global cultures through sound, lyrics, and performance, musical subcultures such as hip-hop and punk rock can serve as alternative spaces where the marginalized can challenge dominant societal norms through lifestyles, belief structures, and artistic expression that cross or exist without borders. This thesis explored how these subcultures are re-appropriated in distinct contemporary U.S. Latino/a and Latin American contexts through analyses of the revolutionary feminist Cuban hip-hop group, Las Krudas, the work of the Uruguayan-American activist Martin Sorrondeguy in his hardcore punk and queercore groups, Los Crudos and Limp Wrist, and a graphic novel entitled, Spit and Passion, by the Cuban-American artist, Cristy C. Road. From a performance studies perspective, this thesis utilized the theories of Judith Butler as well as Mikhail Bahktins concept of the carnival to study how these artists actively participate and create what was denominated the "cultura Kruda" within the transnational Latin American context. The cultura Kruda was argued to be an "imagined" activist "community" which promotes a sense of shared solidarity that transcends local and national borders. Through their abrasive messages and boundary pushing performances, these queer Latino artists challenge and reject not only the dominant discourses of race, gender, and sexuality of their respective societies, but also those of the traditionally male-dominated heteronormative subcultures themselves, ignoring borders and building bridges.

Committee:

Pedro Porben, PhD (Advisor); Cynthia Ducar, PhD (Committee Member); Francisco Cabanillas, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Caribbean Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; Hispanic American Studies; Hispanic Americans; Latin American Studies; Music; Performing Arts

Keywords:

popular culture; gender; sexuality; race; identity; music; punk rock; hip-hop; performance; transnational; US Latino; Cuba; cultura Kruda; graphic novel

Azanu, BenedineTransnational Media Articulations of Ghanaian Women: Mapping Shifting Returnee Identities in an Online Web Series
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Mass Communication (Communication)
This study examines returnee African women’s identity articulations in the web series An African City. Specifically, the research focuses on the appropriation of a U.S. popular cultural text perceived as more powerful by a Ghanaian producer in the creation of counter-discourses, cultural spaces, and identities in alternative media. Using multi-theoretical lenses – a framework of in-betweeness - the study is grounded in the theory of articulation to examine how the web series An African City uses Sex And The City in response to Western monolithic representations of African women. A social constructivist framework that considers identities as shifting subjectivities are interrogated through the theoretical lenses of transnational postcolonial feminism, using a framework of in-betweeness informed by hybridity and conviviality as intempestivity. The study makes theoretical links to transnational postcolonial feminisms, invoked by specific intersections of returnee African women. Using articulation analyses, thematic links are made between the series and in-depth interview with the series producer and focus group interviews with African women in Ghana and American diaspora. The argument is made that a continuum of `outsidenes’ and `insideness’ informs any system of identity and belongingness where identities shift ever so often. It is further argued that while An African City web series represents one of many re-configured identity formations embedded within Eurocentric African women’s identities that conform to globalizing homogenization of capitalist cultural productions, the series creates and occupies a space of conviviality that engenders dissensus in the distribution of Ghanaian women’s representation in particular and Black women in general. Examining diasporan African women identity articulations is important particularly when African women use media technologies to represent themselves in alternative media spaces in a bid to enrich research on stereotypical portrayals of African women. Also, the tendency to focus on more “serious” non-fiction genres like news, to the detriment of those genres considered fictional and often taken for granted by their entertainment value, warrants such a research.

Committee:

Steve Howard (Committee Chair); Jenny Nelson (Committee Member); Raymie McKerrow (Committee Member); Edna Wangui (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; African Studies; Film Studies; Gender Studies; Mass Communications; Sub Saharan Africa Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Returnees; African women; identity articulation; web series; gender and media; in-betweeness as a framework; transnational feminism; Ghana

Li, ZhanWestern media corporations' risk and strategies in Post-WTO China
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Communication
The media industries play a major role in the trend of globalization today. Western transnational media corporations (TNMCs) have been actively expanding their businesses around the world for maximized profits. China’s accession to WTO in 2001 demonstrated further openness of the economy to international competition. This study aimed to examine Western TNMCs’ risk and strategies in the Chinese media market after WTO in an attempt to provide insights into the global media giants’ perceptions, positions, and plans regarding the market. International business theories highlighted the effect of a firm’s external conditions on its strategy. Examination of Western TNMCs’ strategic behavior in transitional and emerging markets revealed that their equity ownership differs by location as affected by the level of risk they perceive in the market. Based on its external conditions, a firm’s perception of risk in terms of uncertainties about the market affects its control strategy in terms of equity ownership. Employing this innovative theoretical model, the study aimed to determine whether China’s WTO entry would lead to Western TNMCs’ lowered uncertainty perceptions and higher equity ownership in China as compared to before WTO, and a. The primary research method used in this study was interviews. A total of 15 informants from Western TNMCs and 17 from Chinese media organizations and government agencies constituted the final sample. Results of the study suggested that Western TNMCs’ risk perceptions showed no major discontinuity in China’s post-WTO era. In addition, their perceptions were basically consistent with the actual conditions of the Chinese media market, as well as those of the Chinese media professionals and policy makers. These findings reflect the Chinese government’s gradualism strategy in economic reforms and development, and in regulating the media industries. In response to the risk they perceive in a long run, Western TNMCs have plans for increasing control. A majority of them indicated possibilities to engage in higher forms of ownership. Also, they will continue to develop connections with governments and distributors, localize their products, and differentiate the products vis-à-vis their competitors. All these plans comprise a roadmap for Western TNMCs’ long-term development in China.

Committee:

John Dimmick (Advisor)

Keywords:

transnational media management; international media market; media industries; international risk; perceived environmental uncertainty; China's media market; WTO; market entry strategy; market control strategy

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