Search Results (1 - 25 of 62 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Galindez, Kyle RDefend Mother Earth! And Sign My Petition? Metaphors, Tactics, and Environmental Movement Organizations
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Arts and Sciences: Sociology
Social movement scholars studying environmental organizations find that an organization’s goals, tactics, and other factors are partially determined by how the organization interprets the natural world and the place of humans within it. Other scholars note that the concept of nature is expressed through metaphor, which often has consequences for how we act toward the natural world. In this project, I suggest that differences in tactics within the environmental movement may be explained by how an organization makes use of nature metaphors. Drawing from framing theory, I conduct a qualitative discourse analysis of documents made available on the websites of two environmental movement organizations: Earth First! and the Sierra Club. These organizations were selected to reflect differences in tactics. Findings indicate that the use of nature metaphors influences how an organization defines environmental problems, but does not determine the organization’s tactical decisions. These results indicate that ideas about nature are less influential in shaping the tactical decisions of environmental organizations and that other factors must be considered as well.

Committee:

Annulla Linders, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Adrian Parr, Ph.D. M.A. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

environmental movements; social movements; content analysis; nature metaphor; radical social movements; discourse analysis

Cassanos, SamPolitical Environment and Transnational Agency: a Comparative Analysis of the Solidarity Movement For Palestine
BA, Oberlin College, 2010, Politics
The arguments presented in this paper attempt to fill particular gaps in the scholarly knowledge of the transnational solidarity movement for Palestine. Chapter One is a descriptive history of transnational solidarity for the Palestinians since the beginning of the second intifada (fall 2000). The next chapter puts the US based component of the Palestine solidarity movement in a comparison with recent US solidarity movements for East Timor and Central America. Chapter Three connects the subjective transnational framing tactics of the movement to the objective, structural conditions of the international system. Chapter Four extends the analysis in Chapter Three by examining the role of new media such as viral videos and low-budget documentaries in the construction of the solidarity movement.

Committee:

Stephen Crowley (Advisor); Benjamin Schiff (Other)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

Palestine; Solidarity; US Foreign Policy; East Timor; Central America; Social Movements; Transnational Social Movements; Social Movement Theory; Political Opportunity Framework; Israel; Occupied Palestinian Territories; Palestine-Israel Conflict

Schoene, MatthewTransnational Social Movement Activism in the New Urban World
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Sociology
The world currently stands at a crossroads. Globalization has raised living standards all over the world, but globalization is also defined by rising inequality and extreme polarization (Sassen 2013). This disparity between rich and poor is most prominent in cities, now the primary lived experience for the majority of people. Grassroots social movement organizations (SMOs) represent an important avenue for advancing social justice in the globalized urban world, but there are significant gaps in the current understanding of this process. Most importantly, there is reason to believe that cities act as movement spaces (Nicholls 2009) that offer a better environment for SMOs as compared to less urban areas. However, it is not clear precisely how cities encourage social movement activism at both the organizational and individual level, how or if this process differs across national borders, or how much activism depends on contextual effects as opposed to individual factors. This dissertation advances previous research by studying urban social movement activism in a cross-national, multilevel framework. First, I examine whether the global economic competitiveness of a city encourages SMO persistence. Using a sample of 672 SMOs in 67 global cities drawn from the Transnational Social Movement Organization Dataset 1953-2003 (Smith and Wiest 2012), I test the organizational, urban and national determinants of two organizational outcomes: viability and age. Results indicate that global urban competitiveness, professionalization, alliances with intergovernmental organization actors and urban resources best predict SMO persistence in global cities. Next, I explore how urban status, relative deprivation and resource levels influence the likelihood of individual participation in six different forms of social and political activism in Europe's recent protest wave. Using the 5th wave of the European Social Survey, a series of multilevel logistic regressions indicate that European cities encourage citizen activism by connecting SMOs to the kinds of people most likely to participate. Finally, I further examine Europe's protest wave and study how successful grassroots actors were at achieving media standing as compared to institutionalized, bureaucratic actors during Europe's anti-austerity movement. A content analysis of 4,486 quotes published in the New York Times from January 2010-March 2013 indicates that institutionalized elites were better able to achieve media standing, but the overall sentiment was decidedly anti-austerity. Nevertheless, austerity became European policy, which indicates that the international media as measured here did not have a strong effect. The findings of this dissertation indicate that cities act as movement spaces by promoting a better match between the supply of and demand for human and material resources, creating international and local networks of activism and connecting organizations to important allies like nongovernmental organizations and media actors. Results also indicate that resources play a strong role in SMO formation and persistence. Taken together, these findings point to a type of social movement convergence, in which organizational form and activity looks somewhat homogenous across national borders. I conclude with a discussion of the implications for future transnational social movements.

Committee:

Rachel Dwyer, PhD (Committee Chair); Andrew Martin, PhD (Committee Member); J. Craig Jenkins, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Social Movements; Globalization; Urban Sociology; Urban Social Movements

Solic, MargaretA Nation Against Itself: Domestic Violence, Feminism, and the State
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, History
This dissertation examines the history of activism around domestic violence. It looks at how activists defined domestic violence as an abuse of power in the 1970s and how they proposed solutions that sought to empower battered women. It argues that in the post-World War II United States, two related factors kept society from recognizing domestic violence as a social ill and not an individual problem. First, after World War II, the suburban home, and the heterosexual marriages it protected, was shrouded more from public scrutiny than it had been in any earlier period. Second, social workers, judges, and activists defined domestic violence in the late 19th and early 20th century as a problem confined to homes of color, caused by supposed ethnic, racial, and class deficiencies. These two factors worked together to keep domestic violence out of public conversation and to shield white men in particular from accusations of abuse. In the 1970s, however, inspired to make the personal political, battered women began to look inward and critically examine the conditions of their abuse. They began to see their abuse as resulting from a gendered exploitation of power. Using legal records, this dissertation examines the ways in which battered women called on the police to abandon arrest avoidance policies. They argued that such policies violated their right to equal protection under the law and inspired changes to police department policies around the country. This led to the development of mandatory arrest laws, which required police to arrest a perpetrator when they suspect that abuse has taken place. Battered women also tried to propose solutions that existed outside of the state, starting battered women’s shelters and working to empower women to leave abusive relationships. My dissertation explores this movement by examining three case studies. First, I look at two court cases that battered women brought against police departments in New York City and Oakland, respectively, to challenge their arrest-avoidance policies. These cases demonstrate that low-income and women of color led the fight to change police policy on domestic abuse. I also look at a shelter that was founded in Bangor, Maine in the early 1970s. This case gives us insight into how shelters established themselves as alternative institutions, both to state-run shelters and to patriarchal homes. It also demonstrates how feminist activism thrived outside of major east coast cities like New York and Washington, D.C., where much scholarship on the women’s movement is centered.

Committee:

Judy Wu (Advisor)

Subjects:

History; Womens Studies

Keywords:

history; women; domestic violence; social movements; race; privacy

Weeda, Jocelyn R.Cultivating the Fire With(In): Teacher's Resistance in an Age of Corporate Reform
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Educational Leadership
The groundswell of resistance to corporate educational reform among teachers over the last few years is palpable. What some have termed “The Education Spring” reflects efforts by teachers from across the nation to develop a collective voice in opposition to the standardization of their students. This dissertation provides empirical data on the lives of teachers and their work as teacher activists outside the classroom. Using narrative inquiry of teachers’ individual and collective participation in acts of resistance in local, regional, and national events, as well as critical discourse analysis of textual sources including interviews, observations, social media and print news media, I found that this movement has elements of both individual development through becoming agentic (self-authorship) as well as collective action. Specifically, I identify four emergent themes of discomfort, disruption, connection, and sustainability. These emergent themes suggest that a sense of self-authorship is at the core of teacher resistors’ work when they decide to become involved in the struggle for a collective voice.

Committee:

Lisa Weems (Committee Chair); Kathleen Knight-Abowitz (Committee Member); Thomas Poetter (Committee Member); Sheri Leafgren (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Sociology

Keywords:

teacher resistance, educational reform, standardization, narrative inquiry, critical discourse analysis, teachers work, social movements, United Opt Out

Black, JenniferLock My Body, Can't Trap My Mind: A Study of the Scholarship and Social Movements Surrounding the Case of Imprisoned Radical Mumia Abu-Jamal
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Comparative Studies

Abstract

In the thirty years since a death sentence was imposed on Black journalist and former Black Panther Mumia Abu-Jamal, formations of civil support have organized along the lines of a social movement referred to as the “Free Mumia” movement. The movements which coalesce on his behalf are international in scope and have become foundations upon which to pitch battles for broader issues of economic and racial justice. Notwithstanding imprisonment, Abu-Jamal has continued his work of advocacy journalism in the form of political commentaries, broadcasted essays and published works. This outpouring of social commentary and academic production provides substance for the movement on his behalf and contributes to the bank of Black political thought. Yet for all the attention Abu-Jamal’s case has provoked, and despite the movements which unite on his behalf, the Free Mumia movement, and the role of Abu-Jamal’s scholarship remain understudied phenomenon. By using the reflections and experiences of thirteen individuals who have participated on campaigns for his freedom, this project identifies the trajectory of Abu-Jamal’s scholarship and explores the relationship between his academic production and the movements on his behalf. It establishes him as an imprisoned radical intellectual whose voice contributes substantively to the formation of our era’s Black radical scholarship and it establishes the Free Mumia movement as a broad based international movement that advances a twin agenda of economic and racial justice.

Committee:

Maurice Stevens, PhD (Advisor); Anthonia Kalu, PhD (Committee Member); James Upton, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; Black History; Black Studies

Keywords:

Mumia Abu-Jamal; Political Prisoners; Imprisoned Radicals; Prison Industrial Complex; Black Panthers; Social Movements; Free Mumia

Dixon, MarcThe politics of union decline: business political mobilization and restrictive labor legislation, 1930 to 1960
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Sociology
This dissertation considers how business groups mobilized politically to deal with the “labor question” that exploded within various regions of the U.S. during the 1930s. I extend organizational, political, and cultural framing perspectives on social movements to address how a seemingly ascendant union movement suffered such a series of political setbacks during a period of unparalleled strength. Drawing on event history techniques as well as historical case study methods, I analyze the surge of restrictive labor legislation that spread across states between 1938 and 1960, and especially the growth of the Right-to-Work movement that sought to limit union activity and contain labor to a narrow geographic space. The analyses speak to the enduring question for political sociologists and social movement scholars of how social movements and their opponents affect the political process. Event history results reveal that business and labor organization are meaningful for policy adoption in their own right. Political opportunities, and the presence of sympathetic law-makers in particular, are also influential in determining where and when social movement actors may be successful in securing favorable legislation. Just how business and labor actors attempt to sway policy, however, is more complex. Historical case studies of representative anti-labor campaigns extend these insights further, and inform our understanding of how social movements matter. The cases suggest a number of mechanisms though which social movements and countermovements may influence the political process, and point to the importance of framing in particular. The historical insights also extend the quantitative findings by bringing focus to, and illustrating the importance of, the interaction of these contenders at a more proximate level in addition to their presence or absence across states. This study advances social movement perspectives by probing the political mobilization and cultural work of more elite actors, employers, and their associations, and their bearing on a range of movement processes. The project also provides an important historical window into the political relations of business groups and labor unions in the U.S., and demonstrates the relative success of employer efforts to curtail labor organization.

Committee:

Vincent Roscigno (Advisor)

Subjects:

Sociology, General

Keywords:

Social Movements; Contentious Politics; Labor

Middlebrooks, Justin M.The Intersection Between Politics, Culture, and Spirituality: An Interdisciplinary Investigation of Performance Art Activism and Contemporary Societal Problems
Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA), Ohio University, 2012, Dance

This investigation integrates extensive multidisciplinary research concerning contemporary societal problems as well as theories regarding the significance of utilizing performance art as a means for social activism. The research for this study exposes political corruption, cultural manipulation, and spiritual indoctrination. Politics, culture, economics, and spirituality are disscussed as four major dominant power structures within contemporary culture.

Another major component discussed in this essay is the initial stages and rapid acceleration towards a paradigm shift within modern culture. Evidence suggests the corruption of the ideals held by most institutions are obscuring and deterring workable solutions to our collective problems. Additionally, this paper articulates the characteristics of a new emergent planetary culture.

Committee:

Marina Walchli, Ms. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Art Criticism; Communication; Cultural Anthropology; Dance; Earth; Economics; Education; Environmental Economics; Environmental Justice; Ethnic Studies; Fine Arts; Mass Media; Music; Performing Arts; Pharmacology; Religion; Spirituality; Sustainability; Theater; Theology

Keywords:

performance art; activism; social problems; protest art; spirituality; culture; politics; dance; performance; social movements; music festivals; economics

Neilson, Lisa A.Collective Action and the Institutionalization of Corporate Social Responsibility in the United States, 1980-2010
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Sociology

In recent decades, an expanded notion of corporate responsibility has developed. Still grounded in the primary goal of generating profits, there is now a widespread expectation that businesses should benefit society in ways that transcend their economic contribution. This study explores the relationship between civil society and the private sector in shaping this change in expectations of corporate social responsibility.

Using an original dataset of 803 articles from thirteen major U.S. daily newspapers, I examine patterns in public discourse about business-targeted collective action spanning from 1980 to 2010. I conduct pooled time series analyses of the relationships between business-targeted collective action, the establishment and growth of corporate responsibility reporting, and the socioeconomic conditions in which these activities are embedded. My findings suggest business-targeted collective action rises in response to increasing corporate power and declines in response to the institutionalization of corporate social responsibility. These results contribute unique perspective to the social movements and business ethics scholarship by focusing on the social processes that underlie corporate social responsibility politics and policies.

Committee:

Randy Hodson, PhD (Committee Chair); Rachel Dwyer, PhD (Committee Member); Andrew Martin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Mass Media; Organization Theory; Social Research; Sociology; Sustainability

Keywords:

social movements; civil society; social responsibility; business ethics; institutionalization; legitimacy; business and society; organizations

Schoene, MatthewFriend or Foe? The Media Coverage of Chicago’s Public Housing Transformation
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, Sociology
How does the newspaper participate in public housing reform battles? Contemporary urban theory suggests that the local media tends to support elite actors in their quest for urban growth and redevelopment, but social movement research demonstrates that the press has the power to either help or harm groups. For low-income groups, media attention plays an especially important role. This question has consequences for both urban theory and social movement tactics, but it is unclear if media coverage is biased in any way, what factors motivate the media to pay attention in the first place, and how these factors contribute to both supportive and unsupportive coverage. This paper conceptualizes housing battles as a social movement and focuses on Chicago’s Plan for Transformation, the most radical example of public housing reform to date. A content analysis of a sample of Chicago Tribune newspaper articles indicates that newspaper coverage was skewed towards the pro-development side, but only slightly. Negative binomial regression then indicates that case-specific group actions rather than contextual, city-level issues better explain variation in both supportive and unsupportive coverage of the issue. Implications for urban theory, social movement strategy and future research are discussed.

Committee:

Rachel Dwyer, PhD (Committee Chair); Andrew Martin, PhD (Committee Member); Claudia Buchmann, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

urban redevelopment; public housing; social movements; media

Wight, Robert Alan“We are Nature”: Exploring Ecovillagers’ Perceptions of Nature and Uses of Technology
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2008, Arts and Sciences : Sociology
This case-study investigates the morals, values, ideas, and actions of people living in environmentally oriented communities. Known as ecovillages, these intentional communities represent an incredible storehouse of valuable information for how humans can peacefully interact and use the natural environment in a way that is mutually beneficial for both parties. Environmental sociologists need to study these cooperative social formations to help our larger society understand, adapt, and change some fundamental aspects of our culture. This call to research is important because many contemporary human societies are now coming face to face with the consequences of their industrial, consumer driven, and environmentally degrading lifestyles. All life on earth, including humanity would benefit if our species adopted a new framework from which to view the natural environment, and our relationship to it. Using semi-structured interviews, I met with 18 members of three Ohio and Kentucky ecovillages. I assess what “nature” means to the ecovillagers and compared their perceptions with past and present perceptions as a way to understand both the continuity and novelty of their worldviews. I also investigate how their alternative, simple, and yet at times technologically advanced communities deal with the environmental issues facing humanity at the dawn of the 21st century.

Committee:

Kelly Moore, Dr. (Committee Chair); Rhys Williams, Dr. (Committee Member); Steve Carlton-Ford, Dr. (Other)

Subjects:

Earth; Ecology; Sociology; Technology

Keywords:

Ecovillages; Sustainable Culture; Nature - Culture Divide; Environmental Sociology; Social Movements

McKevitt, SusanWhat Keeps Them Going: Factors that Sustain U.S. Women's Life-Long Peace and Social Justice Activism
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2010, Leadership and Change
This dissertation is a mixed methods sequential study on the factors that sustain U.S. women's life-long peace and social justice activism. The specific cohort of women sought for this study was those who entered their social justice activism during the late 1950s through the early 1970s and were active in the U.S. civil rights struggles, the anti-Vietnam war movement, or participated in the second phase of the women's liberation movement. Through utilizing a snowballing process, fifty-seven participants were obtained for the quantitative survey phase of the study from which the ten participants (five White, five women of Color) were selected for the qualitative or interview stage. Based on the survey and interview data, four factors emerged as sustaining life-long peace and social justice activism: historical perspective, relationships, gender and race, and having a personal spiritual belief. The study also offers definitions for activist, social justice, long-term (or life-long), explains how peace is looked at herein, and briefly addresses adult development, feminist standpoint, and essentialist theories. This study begins to fill the gap in research on social justice and peace activist by including women, focusing on sustainability factors, and by extending the concept of life-long or long-term activism. Further research opportunities are suggested as this study is an entry into the subject matter, along with some suggestions to current and future peace and social justice activists on how to sustain their activism for the long haul. The study concludes with some personal reflections. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Laurien Alexandre, PhD (Committee Chair); Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Member); Philomena Essed, PhD (Committee Member); Bettina Aptheker, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Gender; Psychology; Social Research; Womens Studies

Keywords:

peace; social justice; activism; life-long; women; mixed method; social movements

Krol, BrianLatent Network Construction of Men's Movement Organizations Online
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Communication Studies
In literature related to new social movements, little has been presented about movements focusing on issues and concerns pertaining to men as a group. The reason for this may have to do with the “dominant” position all men are believed to hold in most societies. Despite this view, movement organizations have been established to challenge social constructs of masculinity and expose how such constructs act as barriers to forming a dialogue that fully include men into discussions regarding gender politics. This analysis seeks to address these discussions among men’s movement organizations by providing a way of conceptualizing network formation of men’s movement organizations online. Using Connell’s concept of hegemonic masculinity as a theoretical base, a qualitative content analysis of fifteen men’s movement organization websites between April and June of 2012 is carried out to understand how network formation can take place among these organizations despite different perspectives to the degree in which men are benefactors of current social conditions. The analysis shows that two major factions exist in categorizing men’s movement organizations: Pro-feminist men who primarily focus on how men can change to benefit women, and anti-feminist men who suggest that men are harmed as much as women due to socio-economic structures. Regardless of this chasm, thematic intersections do exist between organizations in both factions that rhetorically connect them to each other in such a way that suggest a unifying desire to challenge hegemonic masculine norms and promote a progressive form of masculinity. This potential conciliation of movement organizations is complicated by the way pro-feminist and anti-feminist groups challenge ideographs. The tactics utilized in online forums where ideographs are challenged reveal a different type of social movement strategy, negotiated mobilization, that suggests organization leaders and members act in such a way that indicates awareness of how those both within and outside the organization perceive the messages they produce. This new strategy, negotiated mobilization, can provide further insight on how new social movement’s use of alternative media impacts networked activism.

Committee:

Joshua Atkinson, Dr. (Advisor); David Jackson, Dr. (Other); Michael Butterworth, Dr. (Committee Member); Ellen Gorsevski, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

New social movements; Social movement strategies; Mens movements; Network construction; Networked activism; Hegemonic masculinity; Alternative media

Stearmer, Steven MatthewDiaspora Social Movements in Cyberspace: Epistemological and Ethnographic Considerations
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Sociology
The concept that social networks impact individual and organizational choices is as old as Sociology itself. Theorist from Durkheim to Simmel, and Weber to Parsons have all struggled with how to quantify and measure the real or imagined influence of social structures on individual choice. Network analysis proceeds from a similar framework as structuralism in that is assumes that the choices of one individual will be constrained by their place within the broader interconnectivity of the other actors. Interpretation then is based on the assumption that one’s networks can be categorized, and that the meaning derived from that network are the same for all individuals within it. Several theoretical papers call these assumptions into question, but researchers examining online networks, especially from an international social movement perspective, have yet to examine their methods to verify that they capture the full extent of online networks, and if everyone associated with the network understands their place in it the same way. Our ability to gather and analyze data far outstrips our theorizing. In this dissertation I will examine the assumptions about what constitutes a network based on current collection techniques and show the current methods produce a systemic bias that cannot account for the entire issue based network, leading to errors in interpretation and the false identification of movement leaders. The new method, called Query Driven Sampling (QDS), uses webmaster tools to accurately record the missing inbound links and more fully complete the network compared to the outbound/co-link method. The second chapter will examine online Kurdish activism using the QDS method. With this method I demonstrate how online social activists within diasporic settings react differently to perceived risk even within the same ethnic community. In the final chapter I ask Kurdish activists to explain from their perspective, how they conceptualize, interact and grow their activist network. Results from these analyses challenge the ability of current methods to accurately define what constitutes a network, to properly identify the key actors within the network, and correctly identify how state level immigration policies influence offline security and how understand how this translates into online behavior.

Committee:

Craig Jenkins, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Andrew Martin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Vincent Roscigno, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Network Analysis, Ethnic Social Movements, Kurd, Online Networks

Morales, Monica D.A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis of Web 2.0 Technology Use in Egypt & China, 2005-2010
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2015, International and Comparative Politics
Taking a cue from scholars’ suggestions to focus on the intersections of various fields of study, this research aims to find the commonalities among representative theories of democracy, mass media and social movements. Assessment of each reveals that all three areas of study encompass space for the interface of the media and the public. The confluence of these elements, when paired with Information and Communication-based technologies, yields what is introduced here as the Integrative Conceptual Model of Internet Analysis. Using this model gives way to a focus on Internet-mediated scenarios through a framework that evaluates the type of agent interaction, network formation, agents’ dialogue and the incident’s outcome. This is applied to three incidents in both the People’s Republic of China and Egypt from 2005 to 2010. The interplay between media and citizens is explained through overarching messages and interactions that may undergird the networks that mobilize collective action.

Committee:

Laura Luehrmann, Ph.D. (Advisor); Vaughn Shannon, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Judith Ezekiel, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Mass Media; Middle Eastern Studies; Political Science; Web Studies

Keywords:

Internet; Web technology; social movements; media; communications; public sphere; China; Egypt; Deng Yujiao; Sichuan Earthquake; Sanlu Milk; Kefaya; Khaled Said; April 6 Youth

Brettschneider, Phillip TInequality, Egalitarianism, and Occupy Atlanta
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2014, Anthropology
This research seeks to answer whether knowledge of critical social science allows protesters in egalitarian, utopian movements to subvert the reproduction of inequality. Ethnographic research, including semi-structured interviews and participant observation, as well as artifact analysis, was conducted at the Occupy Wall Street protests in Atlanta during their tenure in Woodruff Park, from October 7th, 2011 to October 25th, 2011. Preliminary observations and interpretations were posted online for informants to read on a Wordpress blog. Data were analyzed with a qualitative, interpretive lens. This thesis argues that critical social science produces inequality rather than subverting it, and that it is necessary for anthropologists to shift the lens of analysis in order to support egalitarian action. This thesis argues that critical social science perspectives construct inequality in the present and construct a privileged role for social scientists as the sole analysts of inequality. Within the lens of critical social science, inequality will necessarily be reproduced and multiplied as a consequence of misrecognizing cultural capital. By contrast, this thesis argues for analyzing egalitarian social movements in terms of their practice of equality rather than their end goals. This thesis also argues for opening the fieldwork process and disseminating interpretations and observations to informants in order to produce a more equitable academic discourse.

Committee:

Jeffrey Cohen (Advisor); Kendra McSweeney (Committee Member); Anna Willow (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology

Keywords:

social movements; equality; utopianism; occupy wall street; occupy atlanta, atlanta

Lutzel, Justine AnnMadness as a Way of Life: Space, Politics, and the Uncanny in Fiction and Social Movements
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2013, American Culture Studies
Madness as a Way of Life examines T.V. Reed's concept of politerature as a means to read fiction with a mind towards its utilization in social justice movements for the mentally ill. Through the lens of the Freudian uncanny, Johan Galtung's three-tiered systems of violence, and Gaston Bachelard's conception of spatiality, this dissertation examines four novels as case studies for a new way of reading the literature of madness. Shirley Jackson's The Haunting of Hill House unveils the accusation of female madness that lay at the heart of a woman's dissatisfaction with domestic space in the 1950s, while Dennis Lehane's Shutter Island offers a more complicated illustration of both post-traumatic stress syndrome and post-partum depression. Thomas Mann's The Magic Mountain and Curtis White's America Magic Mountain challenge our socially-accepted dichotomy of reason and madness whereby their antagonists give up success in favor of isolation and illness. While these texts span chronology and geography, each can be read in a way that allows us to become more empathetic to the mentally ill and reduce stigma in order to effect change. This project begins with an introduction to several social justice movements for the mentally ill, as well as a summary of the movement over time. The case studies that follow illustrate how the uncanny and the spatial may effect the psyche and how forms of direct, structural, and cultural violence work together in order to create madness where it may not have existed at all or where it is considered a detriment when it is merely another way of living. The madhouses in the texts examined herein, and the novels from which they come, offer a way to teach us how to enact change on behalf of a community who still suffers from discrimination today.

Committee:

Ellen Berry (Advisor); Francisco Cabanillas (Committee Member); Ellen Gorsevski (Committee Member); William Albertini (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

American Literature; American Studies; Architecture; Germanic Literature; Literature; Medical Ethics; Peace Studies; Psychology

Keywords:

Politerature; Madness; Cultural Violence; Uncanny; Social Movements; TV Reed; Gaston Bachelard; Johan Galtung; Sigmund Freud; Shirley Jackson; Dennis Lehane; Thomas Mann; Curtis White

Kaminski, ElizabethListening to drag: music, performance, and the construction of oppositional culture
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Sociology

This study examines how music is utilized in drag performances to create an oppositional culture that challenges dominant structures of gender and sexuality. I situate this analysis in literature on the role of music and other cultural resources in the mobilization of social movement protest. Drawing from multiple sources of data, I demonstrate that drag queen performers make use of popular songs to build solidarity, evoke a sense of injustice, and enhance feelings of agency among audience members – three dimensions of cognition that constitute a collective action framework, conducive to social protest.

The analysis is based on observations of drag performances; content analysis of the lyrics of drag songs; intensive interviews with drag queens at the 801 Cabaret in Key West, Florida; focus groups with audience members who attended the shows at the 801 Cabaret; and interviews with drag queen informants in Columbus, Ohio. I demonstrate how drag performers use music to construct new alliances and understandings of gender and sexuality among gay and heterosexual members of the audience. The data illustrate that drag performers strategically select songs to evoke an array of emotions among audience members. First are songs that utilize sympathy, sorrow, and humor to build solidarity. These include songs that are intended to educate heterosexuals about gay life as well as songs that parody heterosexuality. Second are songs that express rage and anger over dominant conceptions of gender and sexuality, thus fostering a sense of injustice. Third are songs that heighten audience members’ perceptions of agency by portraying images of powerful women and demonstrating the ability to live one’s life outside of hegemonic gender and sexual constraints.

During drag shows, audience members and performers alike engage in gendered and sexual behaviors that transgress binary categories of homosexual/heterosexual and feminine/masculine. Drag shows thus constitute oppositional cultures, or free spaces, where participants enact behaviors that are suppressed in the dominant culture and build politicized views of gender and sexuality. This study therefore provides an empirical example of how music is used as a cultural resource to challenge dominant institutions and construct collective action frameworks necessary to mobilize political protest.

Committee:

Vincent Roscigno (Advisor)

Subjects:

Sociology, General

Keywords:

gender; sexuality; music; social movements

Jordan, Nicholas A.The Effects of Workgroup Gender Composition on Unionization and Union Strength
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2010, Sociology
Why are women less like to be union members, yet more likely to desire union representation? Most available explanations for this emphasize the supply side, especially the resources and job characteristics of female workers. This study examines a more structural explanation: That female dominated workplaces are less like to become unionized, and more likely to have weaker unions, because of gender stratification. The Williams/Acker theory of gendered organizations suggests that this is at least partly due to gender bias embedded at the organizational level. This reflects the devaluing of “women’s work” which targets workplaces as well as occupations in which women constitute a major share of the workers. Drawing on the Workplace Ethnography dataset, we analyze the effects of workgroup gender composition on unionization and union strength along with a range of standard controls for the resources and job characteristics of workers. The percentage of female workers is shown to significantly reduce the likelihood of unionization, as well as decreasing the likelihood of forming a stronger union. These show net of controls for the average level of worker seniority and education, local unemployment levels, paternalistic management, as well as size of the workplace, occupational skills of the workers, and locally owned companies. These findings indicate that gender is operating independent of the individual actors to present further obstacles to female union membership. So, while women are attitudinally more supportive of unionization, the larger system of gender stratification hinders women’s access to the benefits that unionization can provide.

Committee:

J. Craig Jenkins, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Edward Crenshaw, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Andrew Martin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Randy Hodson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

gender; uninization; stratification; inequality; union strength; collective action; social movements

Oyakawa, Michelle Mariko"Turning Private Pain Into Public Action": Constructing Activist-Leader Identities in Faith-Based Community Organizing
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Sociology
The importance of local leaders and experienced activists to the success of social movements has been established in the sociological literature. These activist-leaders do not spontaneously emerge out of nowhere, however, the process through which these activist-leaders emerge has not been explored. This study contends that these individuals have constructed an activist-leader identity through a process of politicizing the personal and personalizing the political. The role of identity in social movements has recently been emphasized as an area of interest, specifically collective identity. Scholars have been grappling with the question: what is the nature of the relationship between individual identity and collective identity in social movements? This case study of a faith-based community organizing group (FBCO), ELIJAH, draws upon 32 interviews, participant observation, and archival data to address these two issues through understanding the process by which an activist-leader identity comes about. The findings indicate that activist-leaders go through a process of politicizing their personal experiences and personalizing their political beliefs and actions. This results in a politicized personal narrative that motivates sustained activism and makes the collective identity with the social movement an integral part of the activist-leader’s identity. This study provides an important contribution to the growing literature on identity in social movements and helps to address the question of how activist-leaders come about as well as the question of how individual and collective identities are related to one another.

Committee:

Korie Edwards, PhD (Advisor); Townsand Price-Spratlen, PhD (Committee Member); Andrew Martin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

identity; collective identity; social movements; narrative; organizing; activism

Dahl, Garrett ThomasEmpowerment of Cyclist Collective Identity in the Social, Safe, and Celebratory Spaces of Critical Mass
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2009, Sociology (Arts and Sciences)
This study seeks to understand the formation of activist collective identities within the temporary biketivist spaces of the Critical Mass cycling event. I collected data through participant observation in Critical Mass rides in Athens, Ohio, Columbus, Ohio, and Minneapolis, Minnesota from June of 2008 through February of 2009 in addition to semi-structured interviews with cyclists. These methods elicited data that speaks to the relationship between police, automobiles, and Critical Mass cyclists. While the Critical Mass and automotive majority exhibit a contentious relationship that solidifies cyclist collective identity around a common opposition, police play a more complex role of enforcer, referee between automobile and cyclist, and fuel to the carnival of transgression. As Critical Mass expresses emergent collective identities within an auto-centric cultural environment, a social, safe, and celebratory space allows for actualization of social movement tactics and goals.

Committee:

Stephen Scanlan (Committee Chair); Joseph Deangelis (Committee Member); Bruce Hoffman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Critical Mass; Cycling; Collective Identity; Space; Social Movements

Kahil, SouhadA Rhetorical Examination and Critique of Hezbollah, the Party of God
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Communication Studies
Rhetorical examination and critique of Hezbollah – the Party of God is an analysis and interpretation, of Hezbollah as a social movement whose discourse is rooted in Arabic and Islamic discourse traditions. Hezbollah is a poorly understood movement. It is portrayed as a one-dimensional terrorist group. Hezbollah members are portrayed as plane hijackers, kidnappers and suicide bombers. But the Party of God has a rhetorical life – even the rhetorical construction of the martyr is worth examination from a culturalperspective. The following study examines how persuasive discourse constructs Hezbollah identity and purpose. Further, this study examines how the political and military elements in the context of Lebanese modernism are reflected in movement’s discourse.

Committee:

Alberto Gonzalez (Advisor)

Subjects:

Speech Communication

Keywords:

Hezbollah; Cultural Rhetoric; Social Movements; Middle East; Islamic Resistance

Faye, BabacarPOLITICAL SPONTANEITY AND SENEGALESE NEW SOCIAL MOVEMENTS, Y'EN A MARRE AND M23: A RE-READING OF FRANTZ FANON 'THE WRETCHED OF THE EARTH"
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2012, American Culture Studies/Ethnic Studies
Radhika Gajjala, Advisor This project analyzes the social uprisings in Senegal following President Abdoulaye Wade's bid for a third term on power. From a perspectivist reading of Frantz Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth and the revolutionary strategies of the Algerian war of independence, the project engages in re-reading Fanon's text in close relation to Senegalese new social movements, Y'en A Marre and M23. The overall analysis addresses many questions related to Fanonian political thought. The first attempt of the project is to read Frantz Fanon's The Wretched from within The Cultural Studies. Theoretically, Fanon's "new humanism," as this project contends, can be located between transcendence and immanence, and somewhat intersects with the political potentialities of the 'multitude.' Second. I foreground the sociogeny of Senegalese social movements in neoliberal era of which President Wade's regime was but a local phase. Recalling Frantz Fanon's critique of the bourgeoisie and traditional intellectuals in newly postindependent African countries, I draw a historical continuity with the power structures in the postcolonial condition. Therefore, the main argument of this project deals with the critique of African political leaders, their relationship with hegemonic global forces in infringing upon the basic rights of the downtrodden. And last, I argue for the relevance of cyberculture and online social media which stands as a counterhegemonic platform. In addition to that, I was more interested in focusing on how online users self-critically talk about the nation and politics and the long-awaited moment in setting afoot a Nouveau Type de Senegalais.

Committee:

Radhika Gajjala (Advisor); Dalton Anthony Jones (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Studies

Keywords:

Cultural Studies; Frantz Fanon; New Social Movements; Postcoloniality; Y'en A Marre; Senegal

DiGiulio, LauraFood Policy Councils: Does Organization Type Matter
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2017, Environment and Natural Resources
Food Policy Councils (FPCs) have proliferated rapidly across the United States during the last ten to fifteen years. However, FPCs manifest through a wide array of governance structures and organizational characteristics. This includes, but is not limited to, classification as a 1) nonprofit organization, 2) grassroots coalition, or 3) government- embedded council. I seek to identify whether there are differences between these three types of FPCs in terms of their institutional and organizational characteristics, discourses, and strategies. Due to the diversity and growth of the FPC movement, implications of these differences in governance structure are not well understood. While some studies cite important benefits of formal government support, others have found that independence from government agencies allows FPCs greater ideological freedom. I analyze 24 case studies, which combines 2015 survey data with analysis of the missions, visions, goals, activities, and membership/partner information as found on FPC websites. Bivariate analyses using the same survey data, but with a larger sample of 173 FPCs, complement and provide context for the case studies. This research aims to contribute to the literature about FPCs, as well as agrifood movements generally, while providing a deepened understanding of the activities and dynamics of these unique community-government collaborations towards improved food policy.

Committee:

Jeff Sharp (Advisor); Kerry Ard (Committee Member); Jill Clark (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Public Policy; Sociology

Keywords:

food policy council; agriculture; food security; progressive; reformist; community development; social movements; sociology; organization; public policy

Stachowicz, Tamara LMelungeon Portraits: Lived Experience and Identity
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2013, Leadership and Change
The desire to claim an ethnicity may be in response to an institutional and systemic political movement towards multiculturalism where ethnic difference is something to be recognized and celebrated (Jimenez, 2010; Tatum, 1997). Those who were a member of a dominant or advantaged group took that element of their identity for granted (Tatum, 1997). Identity work has included reflections and congruence between how individuals see themselves and how they perceive others to see them, including Optimal Distinctiveness Theory where one determines the optimal amount of individual distinctiveness needed to feel a healthy group and personal identity (Brewer, 2012). When most of the people one is surrounded by can verify and support an accepted identity construction, the process is less complicated, and attention is not drawn to the differences because there are very few, if any. As the dominant culture becomes increasingly bombarded with the celebratory aspects of an ethnic identity, it is likely that one will begin searching for one's own (Jimenez, 2010; Tatum, 1997). This study will present portraits of individuals who are considering an ethnic identity as they are searching for belonging and inclusion from the group with which they desire to identify. In short, through the use of portraiture, I intend to privilege the voices and experiences of several co-researchers as they describe their lives, explain whether or not they have accepted or rejected a Melungeon identity, how they came to that decision, and what it means in their lived experience. This dissertation is accompanied by the author's MP4 video introduction, as well as 15 MP4 videos of the coresearchers who participated in this study (see the List of Supplemental Media Files). The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Carolyn Kenny, PhD (Committee Chair); Lize Booysen, DBL (Committee Member); Katherine Vande Brake, PhD (Committee Member); Dara Culhane, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

American Studies; Cognitive Psychology; Cultural Anthropology; Developmental Psychology; Epistemology; Ethnic Studies; Families and Family Life; Individual and Family Studies; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Psychology; Social Psychology; Social Research; Sociology

Keywords:

portraiture; phenomenology; identity; social identity; collective identity; ethnic identity; Appalachia; Melungeon; tri-racial; mountaineer; social movements; identity movement; social identity theory; leadership

Next Page