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Sutherland, Samuel SMancipia Dei: Slavery, Servitude, and the Church in Bavaria, 975-1225
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, History
While the history of slavery in the Middle Ages remains a hotly debated subject, most traditional narratives posit a significant decline in the use of slavery in the Latin West at some point in the early Middle Ages, leaving slaves to be found only in insignificant numbers or in `peripheral’ regions to the north. There is substantial reason to revise this narrative, however, particularly in light of the evidence from the German duchy of Bavaria in the years between 975 and 1225 CE. There, a significant and economically important population of slaves can still be found in the twelfth century, along with a diminished but still active local slave trade. The evidence for the continued vitality of slavery in central-medieval Bavaria is contained mostly in the records of donation to monastic and ecclesiastical institutions that were collected in libri traditionum. From a survey of the donation records contained within the surviving libri traditionum of twenty-seven Bavarian monasteries and churches, it is possible to reconstruct the past condition of servile individuals manumitted as tributary freedmen of the Church, and to discover the still substantial population of slaves owned by the Church itself.

Committee:

Alison Beach, Ph.D. (Advisor); Christina Sessa, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sara Butler, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; History; Medieval History; Middle Ages; Religious History

Keywords:

slavery; medieval slavery; slave trade; serf; serfdom; Bavaria; medieval Bavaria; medieval Germany; concubinage; cartulary; libri traditionum; servi cottidiani; mancipia; mancipium; ancilla; famulus; servus

Bowden, Ashley CamilleIntersections of History, Memory, and “Rememory:” A Comparative Study of Elmina Castle and Williamsburg
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, African-American and African Studies

The representation of freed and enslaved people of African descent at sites such as Elmina, Ghana, and Williamsburg, Virginia, are subject to much criticism and praise. “Founded” by the Portuguese in 1482 and later controlled by the Dutch, Elmina is distinguished as the first of its kind. Initially established as a trading center between Africans and Europeans, those interactions soon gave birth to Elmina as a dungeon for holding Africans as slaves for sale into slavery. Williamsburg, a living history museum, is identified as the second colonial capital following the Jamestown settlement. On the eve of the American Revolution its citizens were confronted with questions of freedom, independence, and bondage. While many white settlers fought for independence and freedom from England, they simultaneously embodied slavery and unequal treatment towards enslaved and free African Americans.

Today, both Elmina and Williamsburg reflect historical spaces as memory of the past. This thesis explores the ways that contemporary historical interpreters depict Elmina and Williamsburg. Some of the goals of this thesis are to study and analyze the sites’ contemporary flaws, the sources these flaws, the ways that the histories of these sites are packaged for guests, and to explore how the sites’ guests are encouraged to re-interpret and identify with the trans-Atlantic slave trade and slavery. A comparative analysis of the ways that Elmina and Williamsburg are interpreted by visitors, site administrators and the people that live in and around these sites was conducted to understand how these sites are memorialized. Finally, this thesis addresses questions of “musemification,” preservation, tourism, and the role that these sites play in shaping contemporary identities within and outside the African Diaspora

Committee:

Walter Rucker, PhD (Advisor); Leslie Alexander, PhD (Committee Member); Ahmad Sikainga, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; African History; Cultural Anthropology; History; Library Science; Museums

Keywords:

History; Memory; Rememory; Slavery; Slave Trade; Elmina; Ghana; Williamsburg; Virginia; Museums; Historic Sites; Sites of Memory; Representations of Slavery

Meader, Richard D.Organizing Afro-Caribbean Communities: Processes of Cultural Change under Danish West Indian Slavery
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2009, History
Nineteenth-century observers visiting the Danish West Indian islands of St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, consistently describe slavery there, as the mildest in comparison with slavery in the American South or other Caribbean islands. This thesis questions the “mildness” of slavery, arguing that the observers witnessed the end result of a century-long process of independent slave community building outside the confines of the plantation system. First, the Danish colonial system relied on other European immigrants and settlers to populate their islands and used African slave labor to forge sugar-island plantations in the Caribbean. Slaves organized around ethnic and national identities they brought from Africa especially during the slave rebellion in 1733. This rebellion clearly reflected that slavery in the early eighteenth century was anything but mild on the Danish colonies. The introduction of provisioning grounds, shortly thereafter, not only required slaves to provide their own food, and therefore stayed rebellious intent, but provided opportunities to forge cultural and material relationships using Obeah practices, also transported from Africa, as the central organizing component. This continued until the abolition of the slave trade in 1802, which changed the demographic makeup of the islands and fostered the creation of families who utilized similar, yet more complex, relationships derived from the provisioning grounds. Finally, slaves used all the components of family, culture, religion, and provisioning grounds to participate in an annual “saturnalia” during the Christmas season. This turned society upside down as slaves mocked the system that kept them in subordinate social positions. These processes of community development over the previous century reveal a world that operated outside the formal structures of colonial society, and while treated inhumanly, slaves still found ways to mitigate the inherently harsh and demeaning system they lived in.

Committee:

Charles Beatty Medina, PhD (Advisor); Cynthia Ingham, PhD (Committee Member); Peter Linebaugh, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Danish West Indies; slavery; Afro-Caribbean; Danish slavery; Denmark; St. Croix; St. John; St. Thomas; Virgin Islands

Purtee, Edward O'ConnorThe Underground Railroad from southwestern Ohio to Lake Erie
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1932, History

Committee:

Wilbur Siebert (Advisor)

Keywords:

fugitive; slaves; anti-slavery; Abolitionists; Slavery; negroes; UNDERGROUND

Buchsbaum, Robert MichaelThe Surprising Role of Legal Traditions in the Rise of Abolitionism in Great Britain’s Development
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2014, History
The abolition of British slavery in the 19th century raises the question of how the British achieved antislavery against colonial opposition. While historical theories have focused on economic, political and religious factors, no account of abolition is complete without a thorough investigation of the history of evolving British legal traditions. This thesis analyzed a number of British homeland court cases and antislavery laws. English legal traditions established principles of freedom long before abolition in Britain, and then upheld them in respect to blacks on British soil in the 18th century. On the other hand, these traditions exposed a void in British homeland law on slavery that failed to provide any positive legal basis for freedom beyond its shores, forcing abolitionists into a long battle to build social and political pressures to create such positive laws. This was facilitated by a gradual expansion of Parliamentary authority to impose such antislavery laws.

Committee:

Christopher Oldstone-Moore, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Kathryn Meyer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Opolot Okia, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; African History; African Literature; African Studies; American Studies; Black History; Black Studies; British and Irish Literature; Economics; European History; European Studies; History; International Law; Law; Legal Studies; Philosophy; Political Science; World History

Keywords:

Abolitionism; Great Britain; Parliamentary authority; Slavery; positive laws; antislavery; legal basis; Slave Trade; British soil; 18th Century Slavery; colonial opposition; abolition; Somerset; law; Anstey; Quakers; David Brion Davis; Drescher; Eric

Nevius, Marcus Peyton“lurking about the neighbourhood”: Slave Economy and Petit Marronage in Virginia and North Carolina, 1730 to 1860
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, History
Titled “lurking about the neighbourhood”: Slave Economy and Petit Marronage in Virginia and North Carolina, 1730-1860,” this dissertation examines petit marronage, reflected in the actions of small groups of enslaved people who hid out for long periods of time in the region’s swamps and forests. Founded upon a case study of the Great Dismal Swamp, this project argues that maroons who “lurked about” remained an integral source of much needed labor, a fact that at once tied maroons to the two states’ broader slave societies while the swamp functioned as, one historian has noted, a “rival geography” that enslaved people used to resist bondage. Enslaved people were the core labor source for whites who sought to build classic plantations, such as Henry King Burgwyn of Northampton County, North Carolina. But for others, such as Dismal Swamp Land Company agent Samuel Proctor, the contradictions inherent to the fallacy of race were less of a concern. To these men, utilizing enslaved labor to develop its swamplands was of foremost importance. To negotiate the conditions of their labor, as slaves or as quasi-free men, was of utmost consequence to Virginia and North Carolina’s maroons. Because slave labor was so central to the aims of plantation owners, land company agents, and commission merchants, enslaved peoples’ resistance against outright exploitation exerted significant pressures upon slave societies. The most persistent form of this pressure was petit marronage. Local white commission merchants dispatched and hired enslaved and free blacks to perform the arduous tasks required in the production of swamp products. Some of these bondspersons fled such camps into the deepest regions of the swamp, but retained access to the broader world outside the swamp through contact with slave laborers. As a result, petit marronage provided the quintessential complication to the formations of race, slavery, and early capitalism in the lower Chesapeake and in the Albemarle. To make the case for this argument, this work is founded in a primary source base including runaway advertisements; planters’ and merchants’ records, inventories, letterbooks and correspondence; colonial, provincial and state records; abolitionist pamphlets and broadsides; slave narratives; and the records and inventories of private companies.

Committee:

Leslie Alexander, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Kenneth Goings, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Margaret Newell, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; History

Keywords:

African American History; American History; American Slavery; American Maroons; Petit Marronage; Virginia; North Carolina; Slavery and Capitalism; Abolitionism; Great Dismal Swamp

Smouse, Trisha NicoleAssessing the Needs of Human Trafficking Awareness, Services, and Barriers to Access in Central Ohio
Master of Social Work, The Ohio State University, 2010, Social Work

Human trafficking, a form of modern day slavery, is alive, well and thriving around the world. In fact, human trafficking is the fastest growing international criminal industry and it is happening in the Central Ohio community. There has been no research regarding the level of human trafficking awareness among service providers in Central Ohio, nor the existence of services for victims of human trafficking in the area. Thus, an exploratory study was conducted to identify Central Ohio’s current levels of awareness and capacity to serve trafficked persons.

This paper will discuss the definition, nature, and scope of human trafficking around the world, Ohio, and Central Ohio. The survey was intended to answer the study’s research questions: (1) What is the level of human trafficking awareness amongst service providers in the Central Ohio area; (2) What services currently exist for trafficked victims; (3) According to service providers, what are the barriers to providing services to trafficking victims; and (4) What assistance or support do service providers need to effectively serve trafficking victims? A broad spectrum of potential agency representatives from organizations offering a variety of services was represented in the sampling frame.

Overall the study found that while the majority (62%) of service providers is aware that human trafficking is a problem in Central Ohio, there is a need for training regarding identification, needs of trafficking persons, and response protocols. Furthermore, the Trafficking in Persons Study Commission estimated 1,861 foreign born persons and domestic youth were trafficked over the course of a year in Ohio. Nonetheless, only 111 identified human trafficking cases are being served by service providers statewide. Similar findings were identified for Central Ohio. Likewise, despite the prevalence of human trafficking in Central Ohio, services for victims are greatly lacking. Especially interesting is that of 45 agency representatives, only 22% of organizations have knowingly encountered trafficked persons and only 18% are currently providing services to victims of human trafficking. The study further discovered that there is only one service provider targeting services to minor victims of human trafficking as opposed to four agencies targeting adult victims in Central Ohio. Since so few anti-trafficking specific agencies exist in Central Ohio, barriers to service provision were examined.

In addition, the study found that there are many obstacles for both service providers and trafficked persons in Central Ohio. Interestingly, aside from the lack of funding and resources; barriers for both service providers and clients centered on knowledge attainment. Trafficked persons often present complex and challenging needs, thus the need for services may arise with short notice. Given the vast array of needs presented by victims of human trafficking in Central Ohio, collaborative efforts are necessary to adequately provide immediate and effective needed services.

This needs assessment only begins to systematically explore levels of human trafficking awareness, service availability, and barriers of service provision in Central Ohio for trafficked persons. Through this needs assessment, gaps have been identified concerning current human trafficking awareness and services and recommendations have been made for Central Ohio.

Committee:

Joseph Guada (Committee Chair); Sharvari Karandikar-Chheda (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Work

Keywords:

Human Trafficking; Central Ohio; Modern Day Slavery; Needs; Services; Awareness; Trafficking In Persons; Victims of Human Trafficking; Trafficked Persons

Fain, Cicero M.Race, River, and the Railroad: Black Huntington, West Virginia, 1871-1929
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, History
My study compliments works within the new urban history paradigm elevating the purposeful nature of black agency in the migratory process, the development of a black working-class, community development, and black response to Jim Crowism. By focusing explicitly on the multi-layered transition of southern rural and semi-rural black migrants to life in the urban-industrial enclave of Huntington, West Virginia, between 1871 and 1929, this study adds to our knowledge of southern black migration and the migrant experience, the nature and parameters of community, and the extent and character of black response to Jim Crowism.Strategically located adjacent to the Ohio River in the Tri-state region of southwestern West Virginia, southeastern Ohio, and eastern Kentucky, and founded as a transshipment station by financier Collis P. Huntington for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad in 1871, Huntington grew from a non-descript village to the state’s most populated city by 1930. Huntington’s black population grew in concert, so much so that by 1930, the city’s black population comprised the second largest in the state, behind Charleston, the state capital. Black migrants, drawn by the promise of jobs linked to the C & O’s construction through the primeval New River Valley, the completion a decade later of the Norfolk and Western Railroad line southwest of the C & O, and Huntington’s attendant rise as a commercial, manufacturing, and industrial center, increasingly settled within its confines throughout the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century. Here, they navigated the socioeconomic and political dynamics of race, space, class, gender, and region. Examination of the black experience in Huntington provides an alternative to the southern-rural or northern-urban understanding of black life. Unlike the massive inter-regional migration that transformed the urban north during the Jim Crow era and the inter-war years, Huntington’s urban-industrial growth, like that in the rural-industrial southern West Virginia coalfields, resulted from the intra-regional migration of southern blacks. Though commonalities linked the two experiences, the urbanization process posed different challenges, burdens, and opportunities to the black migrant. Unlike the autonomy black coal miners’ experienced in the mines, direct and intensive supervision marked the urban industrial workplace. This study compliments recent literature de-emphasizing the ghettoization paradigm. While socioeconomic forces and racism constrained black ability to live where they wanted, no ghetto existed in Huntington for the length of this study. Part of this development can be traced to growing black residential concentration within the city and the multi-class (and in some places) interracial character of predominately black neighborhoods. Unlike studies asserting proletarianization as a conceptual model to encapsulate the black working class experience, race, not class served as the primary foundational and operative of the Afro-Huntingtonian experience. However, this conclusion does not mitigate the development of class fissures within black Huntington. The rise of a professional class during the late-nineteenth and early twentieth century marked an important milestone in the maturity of black Huntington, one that challenged the status quo of white Huntingtonians and complicated black aspirations.

Committee:

Stephanie Shaw, PhD (Advisor); Kenneth Goings, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Hall, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

African American; black; migrant; laborer; Central Appalachia; urban-industrial; Ohio River Valley; slavery; community formation; southern West Virginia; Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad; Civil War; Jim Crow era; proletarianization.

Iheduru, Adaobi C.Examining the Social Distance Between Africans and African Americans: The Role of Internalized Racism
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Wright State University, 2013, School of Professional Psychology

African immigrants are continuously migrating to the United States and comprise a major part of the immigrant population. In a recent U.S. Bureau of Census report on foreign-born residents in the United States, African immigrants numbered 364,000 out of 1.6 million foreign-born people of African origin living in the United States (Rong & Brown, 2002). Much of the psychological literature about immigration is framed in terms of issues of adjustment. (Ward & Kennedy, 2001). Despite the growing number of African immigrants and the awareness of incidents of acculturative stress and adjustment difficulties among various immigrant groups, there are limited studies that have examined the adjustment of African groups to racism and racial discrimination in the United States. This study explores the complex and what might be described by some scholars as the somewhat nonexistent relationship between Africans and African Americans within the United States. For the purpose of this discussion the author is hypothesizing that racism plays a prominent role in this dynamic of social “distance” between Africans and African Americans. An emphasis is placed on internalized racism as a variable in the divide that keeps these two groups with common African ancestry from being able to form a larger sense of community.

Separate focus groups were conducted with African American and African participants in an effort to better understand the nature of the relationship between both groups. During focus groups, the origins of prejudice and stereotypes about both groups were discussed, and ways of ameliorating existing social distance was explored.

Participants also completed the Modified Nadanolitization Inventory (Taylor, Wilson, & Dobbins 1972), an internalized racism scale that measures the presence of racist beliefs among participants. Results from this study provides information regarding the role of internalized racism which arose from slavery, colonization, racism, discrimination, and white domination, as applied to the hypothesis of “social distance” in the relationship between Africans and African Americans in the United States. Suggestions for future research studies are also provided.

Committee:

James Dobbins, PhD, ABPP (Committee Chair); Kathleen Malloy, PhD, ABPP (Committee Member); Julie Williams, PhD, ABPP (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Studies; Black Studies; Clinical Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

Internalized Racism; Racial Identity; Acculturation; Immigration; Colonization; Slavery; Africans; African-Americans; Racism

Knight, Felice F.Slavery and the Charleston Orphan House, 1790-1860
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, History
This study examines the use of slave labor by the Charleston Orphan House, an institution widely acclaimed to be the first public orphanage for white children in the United States. The institution, which was founded in 1790, hired, purchased, and acquired through natural birth, gift, and bequest more than 100 slaves before the Civil War. All of the slaves worked in domestic labor of one sort or another. From 1790 to 1803, the orphanage utilized hired slave labor alone, but in 1804 it purchased its first group of slaves. This study traces the challenges that the officials of the institution faced between 1790 and the eve of the Civil War, and their efforts to face many of these challenges through hiring and buying slaves. The study pays particular attention to the institution’s quest to provide a service to poor and orphaned white children in part through the use of slaves.

Committee:

Stephanie Shaw (Advisor)

Subjects:

African Americans; History

Keywords:

Charleston; slavery; orphanages

Zakim, MichaelAntislavery and a Modern America: Free Soil in Ashtabula County, Ohio, 1848
BA, Oberlin College, 1981, History

Ashtabula County's commitment to the politics of antislavery was built upon unqualified belief in the greatness of the American system of government as expressed in the Constitution and realized by a free and hardworking Northern society. It was also based on an equally vociferous rejection of slavery and Southern life as inhumanely degrading, elitist and antidemocratic, un-Christian, and antimodern. The unfettered opportunity of the individual to prosper was what America had fought the Revolution for and created the Constitution to protect. It was what Ashtabulans saw as the key to social progress, what had brought America to the threshold of greatness. Anything which would block such an achievement could not be allowed to continue. That the outstanding obstacle to this vision was an entirely domestic problem -slavery- made it even more intolerable, and its detractors more anxious to do away with it.

For most of the country, the Free Soil experiment of 1848-1853 was a fleeting political moment that failed because it spoke a vocabulary not yet understood by most Northerners. In Ashtabula, however, that was not the case. Instead, for the independent farmers of Austinburg, Colebrook, Cherry Valley and numerous other towns, Free Soil was the precise antidote to Southern political power and the moral outrage of slavery. Their enthusiastic adoption of Free Soil was a conscious rejection of the politics of the past which had proven not only incapable of solving the slavery dilemma but was mired in controversies made moot by a new political era, a free soil era. They were hardly out for political gain but committed strongly enough to the new party to swallow the humiliation of supporting their life-long nemesis, Martin Van Buren. They were the vanguard for the rest of the North.

Committee:

Carol Lasser (Advisor)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Ashtabula;Ohio;Free Soil;slavery;antislavery;

Clayton, John EdwardAn Antislavery Mission: Oberlin College Evangelicals in "Bleeding Kansas"
BA, Oberlin College, 1990, History

This paper tells the story of four men. They are, by the standards of history, obscure individuals, not nationally known and their names will not be found in the texts on American history. Yet, their lives are important in the on-going attempt to understand the abolitionists' response to slavery.

Samuel Lyle Adair, John Huntington Byrd, Harvey Jones and Horatio N. Norton were tied to a common mission--the defeat of slavery in Kansas. Between 1854 and 1856 all four emigrated to Kansas as missionaries of the American Missionary Association. Upon arrival, they established churches and preached a message of Christian brotherhood to often unsympathetic congregations. The Kansas they encountered was scarred by the struggle over slavery. Harsh frontier living conditions combined with the almost daily sectional violence to create an environment of hardship and struggle. Yet all remained in Kansas and refused to turn away from the struggle for freedom.

Committee:

Gary Kornblith (Advisor)

Subjects:

African American Studies; History

Keywords:

Oberlin College;antislavery;American;Kansas;slavery;mission;

Reynolds, Todd ArmstrongThe American Missionary Association's antislavery campaign in Kentucky, 1848 to 1860 /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1979, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Slavery

Cormany, Clayton DouglasOhio's abolitionist campaign : the rhetoric of conversion /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1981, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Abolitionists;Anti-slavery movements

Schneider, Leann GCapturing Otherness on Canvas: 16th - 18th century European Representation of Amerindians and Africans
MA, Kent State University, College of the Arts / School of Art
This thesis explores various methods of visual representation used to portray non-white Others by white European artists throughout the Age of Discovery and the dawn of colonialism. There are three major phases of visual representation of Others in European Renaissance and Baroque art. These will be examined and compared to suggest a visual manifestation of the shifting ideas of race throughout these centuries. The representation of black Africans in Europe and the New World, the court commissioned paintings of Albert Eckhout in Dutch Brazil, and lastly, the development of the casta genre in New Spain will be investigated in connection with a changing perception of race. When explored as a group, these representations of Others offer insight into the contemporary racial mindset and expand upon the understanding of the development of established races based on physical appearance in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. By following the introduction of the black African into the works of Renaissance painters, over the bridge of Albert Eckhout’s titillating Baroque works recording supposed ethnographic realities in Dutch Brazil, and ending in colonial Mexico with casta paintings, one can see European racial concepts forming, morphing, and leading to an almost explicitly visual understanding of race.

Committee:

Gustav Medicus, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; African History; African Studies; American Studies; Art History; Caribbean Studies; Comparative; Cultural Anthropology; Ethnic Studies; European History; Hispanic American Studies; Hispanic Americans; History; Latin American History; Latin American Studies; Modern History; Native American Studies; Native Americans; Native Studies; World History

Keywords:

Albert Eckhout; Otherness; colonialism; slavery; representation; race; race in art; european representation of otherness; others; non-western; brazil; portugal; art; art history; baroque art; renaissance art; medici; casta painting; casta; mexico; paint

Lengyel, Christian M.Pictures of a Forgotten Past: The Socio-Historic Significance of Wartime Vignettes on Confederate Currency
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2014, History
Recently scholars have begun to reassess the importance of monetary imagery as a reflection of subjects integral to past societies. This study looks at the vignettes featured on the Treasury notes issued by the Confederate States of America, and attempts to determine their cultural and historical significances. Using Grover Criswells seventy defined varieties of Confederate bills, as well as correspondences and records from the Confederate Treasury Department, I explore how these pictures promoted the diverse Southern causes of agriculture, patriotism, and victory. Further, besides advocating these aforementioned concepts, I demonstrate that early wartime representations acted as indicators of Confederate citizens advanced intelligence and practical self-sufficiency. In contrast to those who argue that the C.S.A.'s tableaus functioned as proslavery propaganda, I argue that they reflected a broader set of ideals among Southern Civil War society. By statistically testing the frequency that slave scenes were employed, I directly challenge these allegations and find that they represent a very small portion of the aggregate iconography. Instead, my analysis shows that several other vignette-types- namely commercial and mythological figures - were more regularly utilized. However, in October of 1862, these metaphoric depictions disappeared from circulation and the diversity of monetary images started to fade. In turn, realistic portraits of Confederate leaders and Southern capitol buildings dominated C.S.A. scrip with little room for variation. While this shift may have been due to a concerted effort to decrease counterfeits and conserve resources, I suggest that it was actually intended to convey a more overt sense of nationalism after Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation.

Committee:

Scott Martin, Dr. (Advisor); Ruth Herndon, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Civil War; Currency; Vignettes; Blueback; Agriculture; Patriotism; Victory; Treasury Notes; Allegories; Mythologies; Industry; Commerce; Indians; Slavery; Children; Women; Value; Worth; Buildings; Capitols; Confederate States of America; Paper Money

Tisel, David Unfree Labor and American Capitalism: From Slavery to the Neoliberal-Penal State
BA, Oberlin College, 2013, Politics
From Marx to Friedman, most theorists of capitalism claim that capitalist development promotes free labor and diminishes the productive use of "pre-capitalist" forms of unfree labor such as slavery or serfdom. Such theories have trouble explaining both the persistence of different types of unfree labor throughout the capitalist era of American history and the resurgence of prison labor in the contemporary neoliberal period. Applying works by Connor and Habermas, this paper argues that the American history of unfree labor under capitalism has been shaped by the "contradiction" between private, concentrated capital accumulation and generalized public legitimation of the capitalist state. Both slavery in the antebellum south and convict leasing in the postbellum south were examples of accumulation by unfree labor. Then, under Fordism, unfree labor declined as Marx would expect. However, in the neoliberal period, unfree labor returns in the form of prison labor under racialized institutions of mass incarceration; the racial disproportionality of U.S. prisons are heir to past racializing institutions such as slavery and Jim Crow. However, contemporary prison labor differs from past examples of unfree labor in that today it is generally unproductive materially, but it persists because political elites use it as a legitimating spectacle that reinforces ideological-cultural values at the core of neoliberal capitalism: that everyone, especially the African American "underclass" must work. The ongoing insertion of capitalist institutions into U.S. prisons through prison labor and privatization are the results of ideological attempts to reconcile contradictory elements of the neoliberal-penal state: the ideology of free markets and limited government conflicts with the "big government," coercive reality of mass incarceration, and the cost of maintaining the massive carceral apparatus conflicts with the neoliberal obsession with governmental and economic efficiency. The neoliberal-penal state holds together, both materially and discursively, through the blending of markets and extra-economic discipline; hence the return of unfree labor, despite predictions of its demise.

Committee:

Marc Blecher (Advisor); Chris Howell (Advisor)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

Unfree Labor; Capitalism; Slavery; Mass Incarceration; Prison Labor; Prison-Industrial Complex; Legitimation; Spectacle; Neoliberalism; Political Economy; Marx

Brown, Toni O.L.“If Someone Finds Out You're a Perv:” The Experience and Management of Stigma in the BDSM Subculture
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2010, Sociology (Arts and Sciences)
Apart from a few studies, relatively little sociological attention has been accorded the BDSM subculture. Past literature on this subculture has been limited in focus and previous studies have implemented less than well rounded sampling. Drawing on data collected through an ethnographic approach across eleven states, this study examines the lived experiences of BDSM participants. Specifically, attention is focused on how BDSM participants experience stigma in four distinct manners, including negative public portrayal, value diminishment, mockery and shunning and discrimination or prejudice. Attention then turns to the stigma management strategies BDSM participants employ, including concealment, disclosure or collective action, reappropriation of negative labeling and disengagement from mainstream society. Consistent with previous research surrounding stigma management, this study reveals that BDSM participants, like other deviant groups, take an active role in defining their identity and controlling their social interactions.

Committee:

Leon Anderson, PhD (Committee Chair); Christine Mattley, PhD (Committee Member); Ursula Castellano, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Personal Relationships; Social Psychology; Social Research; Sociology

Keywords:

BDSM; Bondage; Discipline; Dominance; submission; slavery; Sadism; Masochism; Sadomasochism; Stigma; Sexuality; Subculture; Ethnography; Deviance; Kink; Pervert; Fetish; Poly; Dungeon; Reappropriation; Labeling; Paraphilia; DSM; Leather; Spank

Brantley, Demario Jamar"Unraveled Pieces of Me: A Sociological Analysis of Former African American Slave Women's Experiences and Perceptions of Life in Antebellum Arkansas"
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2012, Sociology
This thesis examines former African American slave women's experience during American slavery. Using archival qualitative interviews from the 8th volume of The American Slave (1941), I examine perceptions of life under slavery, perceptions of life since freedom, comparison of the slavery vs. freedom, and perceptions of types and sources of social support in the interviews of 35 African women who had lived as slaves in the 19th century U.S. Standpoint theory and black feminist thought provide the theoretical framework for the research. Findings suggest that various forms of physical and emotional violence characterized most of the women's perceptions of life under slavery. Some perceived slave life as privileged and easy going and found life since freedom problematic. Some of the women identified changes in gender norms and roles and a decline in work ethic as particularly troubling in the younger generation. They depicted life under slavery as more respectable in terms of community solidarity, work ethic, gender roles and family dynamics. Life since freedom was characterized as chaotic and on the roads to ruin. Participants identified social support in the form of financial assistance in weddings and other life events. Participants derived social support from other slaves, from their mothers or mother figures, but mostly from slaveholders and their families. Finally, I discuss sociological contributions of this study as well as directions for future research.

Committee:

Kathryn Feltey, Dr. (Advisor); Cheryl Elman, Dr. (Committee Member); Tiffany Taylor, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; Black Studies; Gender; Sociology

Keywords:

slave women; 19th century Arkansas; African American; perceptions of freedom; perceptions of slavery; mothering; standpoint theory; black feminist thought

Hicks, KeishaSumptuous Soul: The Music of Donny Hathaway Everything is Everything Donny Hathaway, 1970
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, American Culture Studies/Ethnic Studies
The song "This Christmas" by Donny Hathaway is played only once a year during the holiday season. His presence is so strong during the holidays for African Americans because he is one of thedistinctive cultural markers of the season. The question at hand is why is he relegated to the Christmas season but what about the rest of the year. In 2010, National Public Radio (NPR) created the series 50 Great Voices as a way to expose NPR listeners to artists who were not at the forefront of public consciousness. On June 26, 2010 Donny Hathaway debuted as the "Neglected Heart of Soul" but does"neglected" hold up. I believe "neglected" becomes situational depending on who is doing the remembering. The objective of my dissertation is to locate Donny Hathaway as a central figure in 1970s Soul music, to understand his growing influence over contemporary artists, and his musical legacy. I used Stuart Hall's "representation" as my overarching theoretical framework. I wanted a theory that would be fluid enough to be relevant in the different phases of Donny Hathaway's musical career. By using representation I was able to identify and understand the musical influences of Donny Hathaway. The use of representation allowed me to understand the cultural production of young Black men and women as they challenged the "politics of respectability" of the times. I have always have loved 1970s Soul music. I never knew my combined passions for music and the narratives of the marginalized. I became interested in the musical legacy of Donny Hathaway because he was one of the major forces in early 1970s Soul music. In my dissertation I have situated Donny Hathaway's music within an African American tradition, which is an amalgamation of Gospel, The Blues, Jazz, and Soul music. I wanted to give a voice to the importance of Donny Hathaway's music because he often gets overlooked because of who his contemporaries were, Roberta Flack, Stevie Wonder, and Marvin Gaye. My desire for this project is to introduce a new way of understanding the musical legacy of Donny Hathaway.

Committee:

Angela Nelson, Ph.D. (Advisor); Rebecca Mancuso (Other); Ellen Berry (Committee Member); Radhika Gajjala, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; American Studies; History; Sociology

Keywords:

Donny Hathaway; Roberta Flack; Stevie Wonder; Marvin Gaye; Soul music; Gospel music; Enslaved Persons; slavery, Jazz; Ric Powell Trio; Howard University; Dizzy Gillespie; Chano Pozo; Lalah Hathaway; Arif Mardin; Atlantic Records; Jerry Wexler

Case, Alison ASocial Ethics in the Novels of Harriet Beecher Stowe
BA, Oberlin College, 1984, English

Harriet Beecher Stowe has engendered a good deal of critical contradiction, both in her own time and since. Most of more extreme controversy centers on her popular and influential anti-slavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin. Although the New England novels are generally considered to have some merit as examples of "local color" fiction, Stowe earned her place in the canon of American literature primarily on the basis her authorship of UTC. But the place is an uneasy one. UTC's popularity and impact make it too big an event in American literary history for it, or its author, to be disregarded, but disputes about its intellectual, moral, and artistic legitimacy are rife. It has been variously described by critics as disastrous and miraculous, awkward and artful, dishonest and sincere, keenly intelligent and irrationally emotionalistic, racist and anti-racist, feminist and all-too-oppressively feminine.

But whatever else may be said about UTe, few would dispute that Stowe wrote it openly, self-consciously, and unapologetical in a woman's voice, which, for a novel addressing social and political issues of national importance, was at the time something unusual (and controversial) in itself. It is perhaps seems less unusual today, but I would suggest that in some respects the controvery has remained constistent, and that much of the critical argument about UTe may be attributed to the problems of interpreting a woman's voice fairly in a man's world.

Committee:

Sandra Zagarell (Advisor)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; Literature

Keywords:

Uncle Toms Cabin; Harriet Beecher Stowe; anti-slavery;

Molnar, Lauren B.Pigeonholing without Hybridizing: The False Reduction of Toni Morrison's Beloved
Master of Arts in English, Cleveland State University, 2011, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
While Morrison's Beloved uses apparitions as symbolic association for slavery, the totality of what the incarnation of Beloved represents has been minimized by critics. Various genres are circulating in Beloved: magical realism, the historical novel, the gothic novel, and the ghost story. However, potential problems arise when attempting to pigeonhole the novel into simply one genre; this is too limiting and nullifies a critic's insight by disregarding other possible dimensions within the text. Beloved moves through genres as it progresses and more attention needs to be paid to this shift. The narrative begins as a ghost story, but switches genres once the ghost incarnates; this pushes the text into magical realism, while still based on a historic episode. An eradication of the possible dimensions of the text diminishes the novel to a false reduction. A comingling and hybridizing of genre evolution is essential, otherwise ownership of the novel is lost.

Committee:

Jeff Karem, PhD (Advisor); Adrienne Gosselin, PhD (Committee Member); Adam Sonstegard, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; African History; American Literature; Black History; Black Studies; Ethnic Studies; Folklore; History; Literature

Keywords:

Toni Morrison; Beloved; ghost; apparition; incarnation; magical realism; slavery; genre; hybridization; false reduction; symbolic association; Margaret Garner

Kusi, Carolyn Amelia“Am I Not a Woman”: The Myth of the Strong Black Woman
Master of Liberal Studies, University of Toledo, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences
Black women have struggled for years to live within the confines of historical and traditional expectations. Many Black women’s earliest memories are of being abused and being told that their sole purpose in life is for the benefit of their families, communities, churches, and masters. For generations Black women, as an historical category, have lived a silent existence while pushing back their pain, emotions, and fear. In the early 1800s Sojourner Truth’s challenges and hurdles in the early 1800s vastly resembles that of a woman in 2009. She was faced with the worst kinds of racism, sexism and hate-ism, but her mission for righteousness prevailed anyway. This thesis will examine narratives of personal experience, historical data, and previous research studies, within a theoretical framework, to demonstrate and deconstruct the myth of a Strong Black Women.

Committee:

Jamie Barlowe, PhD (Committee Chair); Lawrence Anderson, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

African Americans

Keywords:

African American women; Black women; Strong Black Woman; myths; slavery; silence

Stiegler, Morgen LeighAfrican Experience on American Shores: Influence of Native American Contact on the Development of Jazz
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Music Ethnomusicology

Over the past century, musicians and researchers alike have argued how specifically “African” or “European” jazz is. Some camps stand by a clearly African origin of Jazz with its common elements of syncopation, polyphony, and presence of “blue” notes and raspy timbre elements that cannot be traced to Western music, while others who attribute jazz a more Western parentage often cite non-African elements such as a written music tradition and the use of Western harmonic structure. An inconsistency in these arguments, however, emerges in some styles of jazz; for example, early jazz, blues, and ragtime were not always “swung.” This inconsistency, among others, might be attributable to European music, to some styles of African music, or even to Native American music, a possibility that has been largely overlooked by jazz scholars. Jazz is often characterized by the “African” elements of oral transmission, repetition, and the centrality of rhythm; these elements, however, are also characteristic of most Native American musics.

Despite the debates above, the exact origins of jazz remain obscure. One point that scholars most often agree on is that, regardless of where jazz's musical roots lie, the very beginnings of this American music were synthesized by the “African experience on American shores” (Gerard 136), which involved cultural contact with both Europeans and Native Americans during and after slavery and into the period when jazz started to develop in cities such as New Orleans and Chicago. The living experience of Africans in America, in at least some parts of the country, was often collective with Native Americans. These two groups frequently shared blood, culture, and sometimes even the experience of slavery together.

The shared African American and Native American history can be seen not only in remaining musical and cultural remnants in New Orleans (often considered the birthplace of jazz) but also in the heritage of many of the jazz “greats,” such as George Lewis, Don Cherry, Miles Davis, Charlie Parker, Baby and Warren Dodds, Oscar Pettiford, and Don Pullen, who all claimed both Native American and African American heritage.

In such a project, methodology and interpretation are difficult tasks. Because race, identity and cultural negotiation were key elements in this contact and the subsequent formation of jazz, I utilize Winton and Corr's model of “Hybridity, Mixture, and Racial Separation” as a starting point for this project. With few exceptions, little research has been done on the Native American influence in the development of jazz. Ron Welburn is one of the few who has done significant work on the Afro-Native American identity in the development of jazz (Welburn, ed. Brooks 2002). In addition, several jazz artists have generated crossover albums, including Jim Pepper, Don Pullen, and Catherine Dupuis. This thesis does not seek to “prove” anything new about jazz. Rather, I examine some burning and perhaps unanswerable questions regarding jazz history. Is it possible that even jazz, a traditionally African American music, has a little bit of Seminole, Creek, or Cherokee embedded within it? Is it at all likely that the Native American stomp dance may partially originate from Africa or at least influenced by Africans? This ethnography explores both the historical and musical “common ground” that I believe could have influenced America's native music: Jazz.

Committee:

David Harnish, Dr. (Advisor); Chris Buzzelli (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; American History; American Studies; Black History; Fine Arts; Folklore; History; Music; Native Americans; Native Studies; Social Studies Education

Keywords:

Native Americans in Jazz; American Indians in Jazz; Native American influence on the development of jazz; Native Americans jazz; Development of jazz; New Orleans; Cultural sharing; African and Native American cohabitation; slavery in North America

Childs, David J.The Black Church and African American Education: The African Methodist Episcopal Church Educating for Liberation, 1816-1893
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2009, Educational Leadership

Many Americans in the nineteenth century argued for limited education for blacks –or no education at all for African Americans in the south. As a result, black churches took up the role and pushed for education as a means to liberate African Americans. The African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church stands as a good exemplar for a black denomination that explicitly expressed in their policies that they understood the connection of education to African American liberation. This study is a historical analysis of the AME Church’s advocacy of African American empowerment through education from 1816 to 1893. In the AME Church’s nineteenth century doctrinal statements and publications the leaders explicitly stated that education was a necessary component for black liberation. In this dissertation I argue that, although there were other organizations that pushed for African American education in the nineteenth century, the African Methodist Episcopal Church stood at the fore in advocating for education and connecting it to African American liberation. My primary question is: How did the AME Church connect their advocacy for black education to liberation for African Americans in the nineteenth century?

The dissertation will explore two aspects of liberation in the nineteenth century. During the first half of the nineteenth century–from the AME Church’s founding in 1816 through the end of the Civil war in 1865 –the Church worked toward a liberation that was focused on the abolition of slavery and overcoming racial oppression. In the latter half of the nineteenth century from 1865 to 1893 –with the death of Bishop Payne– the AME Church focused on a liberation that was geared toward the notions of uplift and self-agency within the black community, namely black social, economic, and political advancement.

The last chapter will examine how this historical analysis has implications for transforming African American education in present times. The text will examine the black church and its ability to empower the African American community through education, focusing on research that has been done on the role of the contemporary black church in African American education.

Committee:

Kate Rousmaniere, PhD (Committee Chair); Mark Giles, PhD (Committee Member); Kathleen Knight-Abowitz, PhD (Committee Member); Carla Pestana, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; African History; American History; American Literature; American Studies; Bible; Black History; Education; Education History; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; History; Literacy; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Philosophy

Keywords:

Black Church; African American history; Black history; Black education; African American education; Church history; theology; black spirituality; slavery; slave history; slave religion; Albert Raboteau; Cornel West; Michael Dantley; urban education

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