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Seleem, Amany YoussefThe Interface of Religious and Political Conflict in Egyptian Theatre
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Art
Abstract Using religion to achieve political power is a thematic subject used by a number of Egyptian playwrights. This dissertation documents and analyzes eleven plays by five prominent Egyptian playwrights: Tawfiq Al-Hakim (1898- 1987), Ali Ahmed Bakathir (1910- 1969), Samir Sarhan (1938- 2006), Mohamed Abu El Ela Al-Salamouni (1941- ), and Mohamed Salmawi (1945- ). Through their plays they call attention to the dangers of blind obedience. The primary methodological approach will be a close literary analysis grounded in historical considerations underscored by a chronology of Egyptian leadership. Thus the interface of religious conflict and politics is linked to the four heads of government under which the playwrights wrote their works: the eras of King Farouk I (1920-1965), President Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-1970), President Anwar Sadat (1918-1981), and President Hosni Mubarak (1928- ). While this study ends with Mubarak’s regime, it briefly considers the way in which such conflict ended in the recent reunion between religion and politics with the election of Mohamed Morsi, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, as president following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. This research also investigates how these scripts were written— particularly in terms of their adaptation from existing canonical work or historical events and the use of metaphor—and how they were staged. The staging of these works highlights the problems faced by Egyptian directors interested in this inherently political work as they faced censorship issues. Only a few of the scripts have English translations, the rest are only available in Arabic. When a published English translation is unavailable, I have provided English translations of key selections from the texts with the original Arabic in the appendix.

Committee:

Lesley Ferris, Professor (Advisor); Nena Couch, Professor (Committee Member); Beth Kattelman, Professor (Committee Member); Patrice Hamel, Professor (Other)

Subjects:

Middle Eastern Studies; Theater; Theater Studies

Keywords:

Religious and Political Conflict; Egyptian Theatre; Tawfiq Al-Hakim; Ali Ahmed Bakathir; Samir Sarhan; Mohamed Abul Ela Al-Salamouni; Mohamed Salmawi; King Farouk I; President Gamal Abdel Nasser; President Anwar Sadat; President Hosni Mubarak

McKinniss, Sean AndrewUnderstanding No-Confidence Votes against Academic Presidents
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2008, Educational Policy and Leadership

Since at least 1989, over seventy faculties or faculty senates have voted no-confidence in their academic presidents. Although these votes are symbolic, as only an institution’s governing board can remove a president, they nonetheless bring paralysis to the campus community. What, then, are the sources of these votes of no-confidence?

Data suggest that most of these votes are held because faculty members believe that shared governance principles have been violated. This study examines this phenomenon at three institutions – Baylor University, Texas A and M University at Kingsville, and Goddard College – through case studies. This examination uses literature on university governance and organizational culture to explore shared governance, its sanctity in higher education, and how the notion of shared governance is rooted in academic culture. Because shared governance problems are indicative of organizational conflict, conflict management literature is used to help identify ways that these problems can be addressed.

By understanding the sources of no-confidence votes against presidents, colleges and universities can attempt to stop them from occurring. The practical benefits are profound; the campus community can heal and participants can truly fix institutional issues in a productive manner.

Committee:

Tatiana Suspitsyna (Advisor); Ada Demb (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

no-confidence; shared governance; president faculty conflict; university president; vote of no-confidence

McCandless, Richard ThomasKorean War and Vietnam War Strategies: A Comparison
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2009, History
This paper argues that had the United States military with the backing of the United Nations invaded North Vietnam without driving too close to China’s border with Vietnam, its chances of winning the Vietnam War may have been dramatically improved. The study focuses on lessons that United States military should have learned from the Korean War and whether or not those applicable lessons were applied in the Vietnam War. The study focuses on the United States military’s proximity to the Chinese border in both conflicts and the strategic effect of having the United Nations’ support in both conflicts.

Committee:

Allan Winkler, PhD (Committee Chair); Amanda McVety, PhD (Committee Member); Daniel Cobb, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Military History

Keywords:

Korean War; Vietnam War; General Westmoreland; General MacArthur; President Harry S Truman; President Lyndon B. Johnson; Cold War; Southeast Asia; Ho Chi Minh; Syngman Rhee; Kim Il Song, Ngo Dinh Diem; Tonkin Gulf Resolution

Smith, Karen DeniseSpinning Straw into Gold: Dynamics of a Rumpelstiltskin Style of Leadership
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Leadership Studies
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine gender differences in the approach, analysis, and resolution of ethical dilemmas within professional communication posed by the employment of spin. Spin is defined as the deliberate shading and manipulation of language to achieve a desired reaction from followers, with effective use resulting in the maintenance of organizational and position power. Read against the backdrop of the work of Gilligan (1982), who argues for an ethic of care and responsibility in the resolution of ethical dilemmas, and Kohlberg (1984), who argues the centrality of a morality of justice as integral to this resolution, results of this study challenges the authors’ respective stances relative to a gendered meta-analysis and resolution of ethical dilemmas, particularly when applied within the culture of higher education. The additional aim of this study was to capture and contrast from male and female participants the variables they viewed as salient in their resolution of what the researcher has argued and posed as an ethical dilemma within professional communication, the employment of spin. Thus, professional communication dynamics, linguistic negotiation of the workplace, and the language and leadership tools necessary for ownership of occupational power were examined and contrasted by gender. The study was limited to five leaders in positions of influence in the field of higher education. The study addressed five research questions. All of the questions focused on participant interpretation of a researcher-developed instrument labeled Gauge of Language Negotiation. Each of the participants provided an ethical dilemma from their professional experience, an interpretation of the Gauge of Language Negotiation, a representation and charting of each of the ethical dilemmas offered along the gauge continuum, and a conceptual description of their thinking relative to their approach, analysis, and resolution of ethical dilemmas involving spin, with direct application to the Gauge of Language Negotiation. Results of interviews revealed parallel approach, analysis, and resolution of ethical dilemmas employing the use of spin across gender lines. Leader patterns of observation relative to the approach to ethical dilemmas were exhibited in five conceptual areas: empathy, focus on players/relationships, focus on issues, focus on rationale, and focus on strategy toward solution. Leader patterns of observation relative to the analysis of ethical dilemmas were also exhibited in five conceptual areas: dilemma conflict identification, identification of moral pull, salience, weighing, and resolution of ethical scenarios. The types of dilemmas offered by participant leaders, as well as the end goals sought by the leaders revealed consistent ethics of care and justice in dilemma resolution and effects on leader constituencies.

Committee:

Patrick D. Pauken Mark A. Earley (Advisor)

Keywords:

leadership; language use; spin; case study; gender; deception; higher education; university; college; president; ethics; ethical dilemmas; gauge of language negotiation; professional communication; salience; moral pull

Bartone, Christopher ANews Media Narrative and the Iraq War, 2001-2003: How the Classical Hollywood Narrative Style Dictates Storytelling Techniques in Mainstream Digital News Media and Challenges Traditional Ethics in Journalism
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2006, Film (Fine Arts)

Mainstream news media organizations have adopted classical Hollywood narrative storytelling conventions in order to convey vital news information. In doing so, these organizations tell news stories in a way that paints political realities as causal agents, delicate international crises as sensational conflicts, and factual profiles of public figures as colorful characterizations. By establishing artificial narrative lines and unnecessarily antagonistic conflict, the press has at times become an unwitting agent of government policy and, in part, altered the course of international events. The classical Hollywood narrative is the storytelling model on which the American media based its coverage of United States foreign policy after September 11, 2001. The sensationalized coverage culminated in a cinematic presentation of events that led to the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq. Since September 11, a narrative plot unfolded, the characters were defined, and the tension rose. The news media primed the audience as if the American people were watching a well-executed and often predictable Hollywood narrative. And though there was no evidence that proved Iraq had played a role in the September 11 attacks, by March of 2003 the war seemed inevitable and possessing of seemingly perfect narrative logic.

Committee:

Adam Knee (Advisor)

Keywords:

Media and the Iraq War; Media and September 11, 2001; Media and 9/11; Film and the Iraq War; Cinema and Media; Politics and Media; War and Media; Corporate media and War; President Bush Iraq and the Media; Media ownership and the Iraq War; Iraq War and pr

Liu, Diana LInforming Trade Policy: Interest Group Influences on U.S. Congressional and Executive Steel Trade Protection
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2013, Political Science
This research contributes to the current scholarship regarding the influence of domestic interest groups on United States (U.S.) foreign trade policy and it is unique in that it specifically considers the likelihood for approval of protectionist trade policy by an executive administration. It investigates this question: What is the relationship of influence between domestic interest groups and presidential trade policy protection? Research that considers this research question may have important policy implications in that it allows scholars, citizens, and state officials to better understand how interest groups influence foreign trade policy. Specifically, one may find the following contributions from this work: scrutiny of the relationship between interest groups and presidential foreign trade policy output, unique interest group operationalization, specific case study analysis of the Bush Administration's aberrant favor toward protectionist trade policy during the World Trade Organization (WTO) Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) case of United States--Countervailing duty measures concerning certain products from the European Communities (WT/DS212)_2002, and insight into the influence of interest groups of various kinds as I apply my theory in a time series analysis of administrations from 1964-1992 in order to observe the accuracy of my theory across time and when considering various administrations and industries of trade.

Committee:

John Rothgeb, Jr. (Advisor); Augustus Jones (Committee Member); Abdoulaye Saine (Committee Member); Andrew Cayton (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

interest group; lobby; US Steel; congress; roll-call vote; president; presidency; presidential statement; information; informational influence; trade; steel protection; Bush; tariff; protection; Bush steel tariff; WTO; foreign policy output

Orndorff, Harold NelsonThe Social Media Presidency: New Media and Unilateral Information Dissemination
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2011, Political Science
Two concurrent developments have been taking place in American politics over the past few decades: the development of social media and the growth of presidential power. It is the assertion of this work that the emergent social media is offering the presidency the ability to bypass the fourth estate. In short, the presidency is gaining autonomy in the 21st century not just from other governing institutions, but from the press itself. In order to document this change, this work proposes to examine the data from the current Obama administration to assess and examine how social media is changing executive governance and offering the presidency new press autonomy. Such an evolution can only serve to not only change the executive interaction with the press, but also with the populace at large.

Committee:

Ryan Barilleaux (Advisor); Christopher Kelley (Committee Member); Bryan Marshall (Committee Member); Andrew Cayton (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

media; new media; social media; president; presidency; press; presidential power; technology and politics

Knight, Margaret V.Philander Chase Knox : cabinet officer
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 1934, History

Committee:

Homer Hockett (Advisor)

Keywords:

KNOX; Taft; Roosevelt; SECRETARY OF STATE; President

Watson, Kimberly AnnThe Role of Mentoring, Family Support and Networking in the Career Trajectory of Female Senior Leaders in Health Care and Higher Education
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Leadership Studies

This life history study provides insight into the career paths of six females who attained the highest career level – president – in their organizations by exploring the influence of mentoring, family support, and networking in their career trajectories.

Three female senior leaders from Health Care and three female senior leaders from Higher Education in the Midwest participated in the study. The leaders’ personal experiences were captured in narrative form through personal interviews with the researcher and coded and analyzed for patterns and themes. Daniel J. Levinson’s adult development stages (Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson and McKee, 1978) were used to frame the four phases of career progression in the participant’s lives and provide a foundation for a conceptual model depicting the influence of mentoring, family support and networking.

Findings showed that the support of family was apparent throughout the female senior leaders’ lives and their career trajectories. Mentors were most prevalent during pre-adult, early adult and the first part of middle adult stages. As the careers of the female leaders progressed into the later parts of early adult and throughout the middle adult stages, the importance and active use of networking was critical to obtain and maintain their current senior leadership position.

Three themes emerged in this study: (1) Informal mentoring facilitated the women’s climb up the administrative ladder to senior levels, (2) Strong family support was essential throughout the women’s career trajectories, and (3) Networking was important as a career management strategy.

Recommendations include that employers integrate mentoring and networking programs into their human resource policies. Secondly, that educators integrate these findings into course curriculum to inform females of the importance of mentoring, strong family support and networking in their career progression. Recommendations for future research include interviewing women who are relatively “new” to senior leadership positions. In addition, it is recommended that researchers explore strengths and limitations of informal and formal mentoring programs for women aspiring to senior leadership positions and to expand beyond the two sectors explored in this study, and use the themes in this study as variables for a quantitative research study.

Committee:

Dr. Julie H. Edmister (Advisor); Dr. Mark A. Earley (Committee Member); Dr. Diane Frey (Committee Member); Dr. Judy Jackson May (Committee Member); Dr. Martha Shouldis (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Community Colleges; Education; Gender; Health Care; Higher Education; Management; Womens Studies

Keywords:

life history; leadership; women; female; senior leaders; health care; higher education; president; career trajectory; career progression; career path; mentoring; family support; networking

Steiker, Jason Henry Agard Wallace and Latin America (1932-1946): The Limits of American Liberalism
BA, Oberlin College, 1981, History

The crowd waited anxiously, expecting the nominations for Vice President to begin momentarily. Throughout the galleries the chant began, "We want Wallace!" It swelled into an uproar and the chairman of the convention, Sam Jackson, despite all of his efforts, could not stop the chanting and the noise. Finally Jackson called for adornment. The entire stadium retorted "No!" Sam Jackson spoke up, "The ayes have it" and the days work at the convention ended despite all the booing the Chairman's action instigated. The next day, the anti-Wallace forces had manipulated enough delegates to nominate Harry S. Truman for Vice President on the second ballot at the 1944 Democratic convention as the regulars within the party flexed their muscle.

The fight between the liberal New Dealers and the more conservative Dixiecrats and City Bosses within the Democratic party had been won by the latter. The defeat of Wallace was supposedly proof of this fact. Political and economic democracy which Wallace believed to be at the foundation of the liberal principles guiding the Democratic party were only a myth. The conservative elements within the Democratic party, worried over the idealistic rhetoric Wallace used, fought to maintain the status quo. In his seconding speech for President Roosevelt, Wallace states that: "The future belongs to those who go down the line unswervingly for the liberal principles of both political and economic democracy regardless of race, color or religion. In a political, educational and economic sense there must be no inferior races." These goals were not be realized. Yet despite the fears of the city bosses and southern politicians caused by this type of rhetoric, Henry A. Wallace was a liberal and his reform measures were limited.

Committee:

Clayton Koppes (Advisor)

Subjects:

History; Political Science

Keywords:

liberals;Vice President;Democratic convention;1944;Wallace;Henry A Wallace;Truman; Harry S Truman;Roosevelt;Latin America;race;

Howell, Roger WilliamPeace and Human Rights in the Nuclear Age (The Encyclical and the Speech of 1963)
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2012, Theological Studies

This thesis examines Pope John XXIII’s encyclical Pacem in Terris and President John F. Kennedy’s Commencement Address at American University. Both documents were produced in the spring of 1963 by two leaders who would leave the world stage that same year. This thesis examines these documents in the light of their historical setting and what they mean to humanity in the 21st century.

Pacem in Terris and the Commencement Address at American University are two documents that provide perspective that resonates with the present, and provides a reminder of how elusive peace is today. Pacem in Terris is the cornerstone for Catholic social justice on peace and human rights. President Kennedy’s Commencement Address at American University, but for a few phrases, is largely forgotten. The nuclear age, gave urgency to Pope John XIII to make cooperation a priority among nations with the publication of Pacem in Terris. The significance of my research is to show that it is possible to commit to a vision that will lead to a peace that is solid yet flexible, to meet the challenges before humanity.

Committee:

Sandra A. Yocum, PhD (Advisor); Dennis M. Doyle, PhD (Committee Member); William L. Portier, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Peace Studies; Theology

Keywords:

Nuclear; Peace; Pacem in Terris; Human Rights; Pope John XXIII; President John F. Kennedy; Thomas Merton

Obeta, MiracleA TALE OF TWO REGIMES/COUNTRIES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEMOCRATIC TRANSITIONS IN GHANA AND THE GAMBIA
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2009, Political Science
This paper assesses the political transmutations from “Military to Civilian Leadership” of Jerry Rawlings in Ghana and The Gambia under Yahya Jammeh. It examines why Ghana seemed to have “successfully” transitioned to a more democratic dispensation under Rawlings and why The Gambia, under Jammeh, failed to do so. It addresses three key research questions: firstly, how and why did Ghana successfully “transition” to a leading democracy in the continent under the watch of Jerry Rawlings? Secondly, how and why did The Gambia “fail” in its transition efforts to move toward more democratic norms under President Yahya Jammeh? Finally, what accounts for the different pathologies and outcomes in the transition programs of Rawlings’s in Ghana and Jammeh’s Gambia? The basic argument the paper makes is that the varying political and economic outcomes in The Gambia and Ghana are attributable to the levels of regime/ leadership commitment to democracy and perhaps, more importantly, to neo-liberal reform in both countries.

Committee:

Abdoulaye Saine, PhD (Committee Chair); Cyril Daddieh, PhD (Committee Member); William Hazleton, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

Jerry John Rawlings; President Yahya Jammeh; Democracy; Neoliberal Reform; Ghana; The Gambia

Grimm, Jasminne MIs the prerogative power evident in the American executive? If so, what are the historical and modern uses?
Bachelor of Science, Ashland University, 2013, Educational Foundations
This thesis will address the following question: Is there such a thing as the prerogative power in the presidency, and if so what are the different avenues in which the prerogative power is used by the President?

Committee:

Christopher Burkett, PhD (Advisor); Michael Schwarz, PhD (Committee Member); Lawrence Herrholtz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Political Science

Keywords:

prerogative; American executive; president; presidency; prerogative power; executive orders

Babu, ManojCharacteristics of Effective Leadership of Community College Presidents
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Management
The performance measures facing Community College Presidents (CCP) in the United States is reaching a level of scrutiny that is unprecedented. The social needs of the community, in an effort to create a true learning environment, become dependent on the effectiveness of CCP. Community Colleges play a vital role in the upward mobility and social access to higher education in the U.S. while the upcoming changes in the educational system reveal a new set of skills that is mandatory for a successful presidential tenure. The presidents of these educational post-secondary institutions are becoming more aware of their leadership roles and expectations from groups such as students, community, and their respective board of trustees. This study delves into the core leadership competencies that lay the foundation and groundwork for a successful CCP. The key findings of this research include essential areas of leadership effectiveness such as emotional and social intelligence, shared vision, and community engagement. Ultimately, this research attempts to answer the question: “What does it take to become an effective community college president?” This research also provides a compelling argument into the emotional and social leadership skills set needed to be successful as a CCP using comparative analysis, statistical evidence, and a multi-rater system of analysis. The major theme categories, as found by this research, needed to be an effective CCP are emotional intelligence, sense of purpose, social intelligence, involving external stakeholders, and cognitive intelligence. It is the intent of this research to identify competency markers as indicators for an effective CCP. In an attempt to identify core competencies relevant to the success of CCPs, this research focuses on three completed studies, each one building on the next in succession. The first study is a qualitative approach using critical incident behavior analysis during formal interviews with CCPs. The second is a quantitative approach to the insights and expectations of community college faculty. Finally, the third study is a quantitative focus on the competencies of effectiveness and engagement of CCPs. In addition, the third study is a multi-rater design analysis with a 360 feedback survey from direct reports of the presidents of community colleges. These three studies create a mixed-method network of evidence and logic formulated to lay a foundation for CCPs. Ideally, the information compiled from this research can be used by current and future community college administration. The competencies that once led to a successful CCP tenure have changed and have been replaced with new expectations from the community college board of directors, students, and communities. This research outlines what is required to have a successful tenure as a CCP in today's post-secondary education system.

Committee:

RICHARD BOYATZIS, Ph.D. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory

Keywords:

Leadership, Post Secondary, Community College President, competencies

Birdsong, Daniel R.Who Owns the Blank Slate? The Competition for News Frames and Its Effect on Public Opinion
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Arts and Sciences : Political Science

The ability of officials in government to define policy options is the paramount power in politics (Schattschneider, 1960). Media allocate power and legitimacy to issues, people, and institutions by how they choose to cover them (Graber, 2006). The allocation of power is dependent on what information media filter to the public and how media define the issues, events, and remedies with the chosen information. Previous literature finds that journalists and reporters are dependent on elite sources of information, especially within the realm of foreign policy (Cohen, 1963; Bennett, 1990; Entman 2004). Past research also finds media reflect the policy debate in Washington (Bennett, 1990; Entman 2004).

Using the intervention into Bosnia of the 1990s, I investigate how media allocate power among their various sources. Through a content analysis of the Congressional Record and Major News Media (ABC World News Tonight, the NewsHour on PBS, the New York Times, and CNN) I explain the scope of the debate regarding the intervention into Bosnia through the frames presented by the White House, the Congress, and Major News Media. Moreover, I test whether Major News Media reflected the debate within Washington. The intervention allows me to test the outcome of “going public,” and whether Major News Media counterframed the White House frame. Lastly, this dissertation examines the influence information has on opinions regarding the intervention into Bosnia, the differences between partisans, and the effect of media coverage has on aggregate public opinion.

This research shows an interesting development: the increased use of elite foreign sources by Major News Media in constructing narratives surrounding foreign policy issues and remedies. Furthermore, while it illustrates that media still rely on elite sources, the case of Bosnia shows that the “media debate” did not reflect the “official debate” in Washington. I also show that President Clinton could not effectively control how media portrayed the policy of intervention by going public; his speech had no significant effect on how Major News Media framed the intervention into Bosnia. I show that during a time of instability within the media environment, (January 1993 - April 1993) increased levels information had a positive effect on support, and that partisanship was an inconsistent predictor of support. Also during this time of media instability, an increased level of information within partisan groups (Republicans and Democrats) was an inconsistent predictor of support. However, in a period when the media environment shows stability (October 1995 - December 1995), and when partisans in the press were distinct from each other, both increased levels of information and partisanship were effective predictors of support. Looking within the groups of partisans during this time of stability in media, I find that an increase in information enhances the odds of support among Democrats, but not for Republicans.

Committee:

Barbara A. Bardes, PhD (Committee Chair); Stephen T. Mockabee, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Margolis, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

News Frames; media; president; public opinion

Spahr, Thomas W.Occupying for Peace, The U.S. Army in Mexico, 1846-1848
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, History
This dissertation examines the United States‘ execution of the military occupation of Mexico during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). It argues that the occupation was successful and played an important role in achieving the American strategic objectives. The occupation succeeded because (a) President James K. Polk and his military commanders formulated a sound and flexible strategy, (b) a relatively competent corps of professional army officers executed that strategy, and (c) the United States Army maintained consistent military superiority over the Mexicans throughout the conflict. This dissertation examines the military occupation in terms of the American management of the Mexican population down to the city level, and the American reaction to Mexican resistance after the conventional army was defeated and driven from different parts of the country. The Americans were successful during the occupation because they applied an artful blend of conciliation toward the population, calibrated coercion, and co-option of much of the Catholic clergy and Mexican elite. The American victories on the conventional battlefield and conciliation of the population did not in themselves convince the Mexicans to cease resistance. The Army eventually succeeded by transitioning to a more punitive policy, targeting those who resisted or abetted resistance, particularly the elite, and by demonstrating to the Mexicans that they were committed to continuing the occupation indefinitely. Throughout the occupation the Americans demonstrated a flexible strategy that exploited social and racial fault lines in Mexican society. This dissertation does not ignore the faults of the American army in Mexico, often undisciplined and driven by its perception of racial superiority over its adversary. The army committed many atrocities against the Mexican population, and in other circumstances these acts might have undermined the overall effort. Yet the faults of the United States Army did not undermine the occupation because of aggressive efforts by the American leadership to control its troops, the consistent American ability to defeat the Mexicans in battle, and Mexico‘s own inability to unite against the foreign invader. Mexico‘s isolation from external support further hindered its attempts to resist. While misconduct and racism did not undermine the U.S. effort, they did contribute to a legacy of antipathy between the neighboring states. Finally, while the American military occupation succeeded in achieving the U.S. strategic objectives, it left Mexico frail and vulnerable to invasion by other foreign powers.

Committee:

Mark Grimsley, Ph.D (Committee Chair); John Guilmartin, Ph.D (Committee Member); Kenneth Andrien, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Randolph Roth, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; History; International Relations; Latin American History; Military History; Military Studies

Keywords:

Mexican War; military occupation; occupation; counterinsurgency; guerrilla warfare; wartime president; Winfield Scott; John Wool; Zachary Taylor

Wu, Su YaPresidential Use of Divine Election Cues in Foreign Policy Crises
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Political Science
How can the power of religion be used for political ends? In this project, I explore how US presidential use of divine election cues activates the otherwise latent power of religion to mobilize greater foreign policy support in domestic audiences. Combining insights from religious studies, presidential communication studies, and political science, I argue that presidents’ use of religious rhetorics are foreign policy cues that shape how publics understand and construct attitudes about foreign policy. However not all types of religious rhetorics are effective foreign policy cues. I focus on divine election rhetoric that claims God is on America’s side, God has uniquely blessed America to be His agent in the world, and America has a religious obligation to bring about God’s will in the world. When presidents use these types of divine election cues, they increase the geostrategic salience of the crisis and expectations of success. These framing effects then produce mobilization effects and higher public support for the president’s foreign policy agenda. Divine election cues use religious framing and are thus more effective among religious Americans. Since there are religious Americans across the partisan spectrum, I expect the use of divine election cues can mobilize both co-partisans from the President’s party and contra-partisans otherwise opposed to the President. Using an original dataset on presidential religious rhetoric and an original compilation of all foreign policy polls fielded during US foreign policy crises from 1946 to 2006, I find robust historical evidence that presidential use of divine election cues do mobilize co-partisans and contra-partisans. These findings are corroborated by a survey experiment that identify the framing effects of the divine election mechanism and further evidence of the co-partisan and contra-partisan mobilization effects of divine election cues. Finally, I conclude by discussing how my empirical findings can inform and inspire further research on the role and influence of religion in international politics.

Committee:

Christopher Gelpi (Committee Chair); Bear Braumoeller (Committee Member); Paul Djupe (Committee Member); William Minozzi (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

Religion; Foreign Policy Public Opinion; US Foreign Policy; President; Religious Rhetoric

Bucklin, MaryMadame President: Examining the Influence of Gender on Women University Presidents' Leadership
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Education : Urban Educational Leadership
Women university presidents are now successfully leading major doctoral-granting universities, both public and private, and their numbers are trending upward, rising from token status numbers (13% in 2007) to a minority status of presidents (currently at approximately 20%). Assuming that gender (the socially-constructed expectations of being masculine or feminine) does not relinquish its effects on women once they reach this position, the purpose of this study was to determine how gender affects women presidents of doctoral-granting universities and their abilities to fulfill the requirements of their positions. This study shifts the focus of previous research from how did sex (the biologically-defined categories of either male or female) affect these women’s abilities to acquire the position of president to how do gender-role expectations affect these presidents’ abilities to lead. Using the open-ended interview technique, eight women who have experience leading doctoral-granting universities were interviewed and the following patterns were found: they have all worked their way up the ranks of the university in similar ways; they have learned to appropriate some traditionally/stereotypically male characteristics and methods from their male mentors; and they have downplayed gender in order to not complicate their already difficult positions. Clearly, gender plays a role in how these women function in their positions; however, they chose to move on, working for the good of the university and not allowing gender to hamper them.

Committee:

James Koschoreck, PhD (Committee Chair); Roger Collins, PhD (Committee Member); Annette Hemmings, PhD (Committee Member); Sylvia Stevens, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

gender;leadership;women;president;university

Morris, Mark HowardPresidential Pardon Power: Discretion, Disuse, and Mass Media Coverage
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2004, Political Science
Despite a constitutional foundation and relatively active use until recent years, presidential pardon power remains a little studied and poorly understood executive power. This dissertation seeks to partially remedy this void in the literature with a systematic analysis of the power to pardon. In addition, presidential pardon power has fallen into a state of near disuse in the last two decades. Can factors be identified that explain this trend towards disuse of presidential pardon power? Might these or similar factors then have the potential of affecting the use of other presidential powers? Put another way, are the factors influencing the use or disuse of the pardon power transferable to other presidential powers?

Committee:

Ryan Barilleaux (Advisor)

Subjects:

Political Science, General

Keywords:

president; pardon power; discretion; mass media

Breland, AndrewGetting Along or Striking Out: The Effects of Presidential-Congressional Relations on Public Approval
Master of Arts, Case Western Reserve University, 2015, Political Science
The President and Congress are, perhaps, the two most visible and thought-about institutions in the US government. Traditionally, we think of these actors as separate and adversarial. What if they would both benefit, however, from getting along? This thesis shows that Presidential and Congressional approval grow as the President and Congress take fewer unilateral actions and act with less hostility toward each other. Specifically, using a new dataset of presidential and congressional actions, this paper shows that while inter-branch conflict gets more intense (more vetoes, overrides, investigations, etc.), approval for both institutions actually goes down. This brings into question whether the President and Congress are actually adversarial and leads to new avenues of research for scholars of the federal government.

Committee:

Joseph White (Advisor); Karen Beckwith (Committee Member); Justin Buchler (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

President; Congress; approval; presidential-congressional relations; federal government; Gallup; vetoes; investigations; ideology;

Conway, Catrina M.Some Secrets You Keep: Reconsidering the Rockefeller Commission
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2016, History (Arts and Sciences)
In 1975, allegations by journalist Seymour Hersh in the New York Times of CIA domestic spying program launched a year of investigations into the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The accusations led to the establishment of the Rockefeller Commission by President Gerald Ford, the Church committee by the Senate, and the Pike committee by the House. A great deal of scholarship has analyzed the impact of the congressional committees, however, the Rockefeller Commission has largely become a historical footnote to their investigations. Utilizing research conducted at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and the Rockefeller Family Archives, my work reconsiders the Rockefeller Commission and how the Ford administration utilized the Commission in an attempt to preempt the congressional investigations. Although the Commission, at first, failed to achieve Ford’s goals, by the end of 1975 Ford used the Commission’s work to legitimize his reforms to the U.S. intelligence community.

Committee:

Chester Pach (Committee Chair); Paul Milazzo (Committee Member); Ingo Trauschweizer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Rockefeller Commission; President Gerald Ford; Year of Intelligence; Church Committee; Nelson Rockefeller; Commission on CIA Activities within the United States

Palmer, GavinVirtuous Empire: The Jeffersonian Vision for America
BA, Oberlin College, 2012, Politics

In structuring this paper I will first consider the argument that Jefferson was an anti-government thinker, and in the same chapter I will show how Jefferson’s embrace of expansive federal authority as president renders this interpretation untenable. In the next section I will present an alternative interpretation of Jefferson’s political thought. In my view, Jefferson was not an enemy to the government, but to its use for corrupt ends that benefitted elites at the expense of the public. This interpretation is consistent with Jefferson’s actions in the three major periods of his political career.

In section 4 I will explain how Jefferson’s political thought draws from the classical republican tradition. A central aspect of this strand of political thought is the relationship between virtue and corruption. Jefferson thought public officials demonstrated corruption when the failed to act in the public interest. This was essentially the same view expressed by Algernon Sidney. Further, when public officials demonstrated corrupt behavior, Jefferson thought it was up to the people to protect their own interests by actively participating in public affairs. This is Jefferson’s definition of civic virtue. In his view, the people have a responsibility to combat the forces of corruption, and whenever civil society fails at this task the republic experiences (perhaps irreparable) moral decay. The theory that the virtue of the citizen is essential to sustaining a republic can be traced back to Aristotle. As I will show in this section, the influence of these classical republican thinkers pervades Jefferson’s political project of building a Virtuous Empire in America.

In section 5 I will consider a criticism presented by Robert W. Tucker and David C. Hendrickson; namely, that Jefferson appealed to the reason of state in his role as President and thus compromised his principles by placing national interests ahead of the interests of the people. I will respond to this criticism by differentiating between the version of reason of state that the Federalists appealed to in the 1790s and the type of reason of state Jefferson utilized as president. The key difference is that Jefferson used federal authority primarily to preserve a strong civil society in America. In the case of the Louisiana Purchase this meant accumulating more land to preserve the agrarian nature of the republic; the Embargo act was simply Jefferson’s alternative to warfare, which Jefferson believed to be the impetus for most governments to abuse their powers, a state of affairs that was antithetical to republican principles. In the end, neither the Louisiana Purchase nor the Embargo Act weakened civil society in the way Hamilton’s National Bank or Adams’ Alien & Sedition Acts had done, even though these initiatives were also justified by an appeal to national interests.

Finally, I will show how Jefferson’s attempts to build a Virtuous Empire failed in his lifetime because of the corrupting effect of slavery, and how the role of money in American politics threatens the Jeffersonian project today.

Committee:

Harlan Garnett Wilson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

Jefferson; America; politics; president; Jeffersonian; government;

Wonderly, MeghanA Son's Dream: Colonel Webb Cook Hayes and the Founding of the Nation's First Presidential Library
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, History
Today presidential libraries are expected from every former president. Presidents begin to plan their libraries before exiting office. It was not always so. Over time, the American public and their government altered their views of presidential documents. For years, presidential documents had been considered personal property, so former presidents did as they wished with them. During his presidency Franklin D. Roosevelt created the National Archives to preserve presidential papers. His presidential library was the first in the federal presidential library system and therefore receives much recognition for being the first presidential library. However, twenty years before Roosevelt’s library existed there was the Hayes Memorial Library and Museum. Now known as the Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Library & Museums, Roosevelt used it as a model for his presidential library. Therefore, it influenced the federal system of presidential libraries. This project argues the Hayes Memorial Library and Museum exists due to the determination and resourcefulness of its founder Colonel Webb Cook Hayes. It further states that by creating the first presidential library, Webb influenced the federal presidential library system. This project analyzes the creation of the Hayes Memorial Library and Museum, following its journey from conception to fruition. This thesis first outlines the life of founder Colonel Webb Cook Hayes, revealing what led him to create the memorial: influences that shaped his interests, sources of his power, and passions that drove him. Then the text examines the difficulties surrounding the creation of the Hayes Memorial. It was managed and owned by the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society. Because no presidential library existed before it, the Hayes Memorial had to become the model for others to follow. This project follows the complications that arose due to the innovative concept of a presidential library and how Webb assisted in managing them. The sources for this project include Hayes family papers, local collections and historical newspapers. It also includes various texts on the history of presidential libraries, place, local history, and memory. Gathering these sources and examining them together sheds new light on the creation of the presidential library concept.

Committee:

Rebecca Mancuso (Advisor); Nicole Jackson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

president; Hayes; library; presidential library; presidential museum; museum; history; military; Ohio; Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society; Webb; Colonel Webb Cook Hayes; Rutherford Birchard Hayes; Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Kotenko, Diana G.Prospective Reappointment and the Monetary Policy Preferences of the Federal Open Market Committee Members
MA, Kent State University, 2009, College of Business Administration / Department of Economics
The main purpose of the research is to investigate the behavioral of the Governors and Bank Presidents at the meetings of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). We have a hypothesis that the Bank presidents and Governors behave differently. We suppose that the governors of the FOMC which are completing a term of another governor and are eligible for reappointment change their behavior as there is a short amount of time prior the reappointment. This correlation has a big effect on the decision making at all meetings as very few of the governors serve for their full term; as a full term is 14 years, there is a high turnover among the governors at FOMC. Therefore, the time left to the reappointment of each governor may be causing a bigger impact on the decision making than the monetary policy. This research is contributing to the political economy literature in the area of Federal Reserve Bank of the United States of America. We have a unique data set as we do not use a dissent voting data. Even though dissent data sets are available for a much longer periods of time, they lose much of the relevant information. The motivation for our research is the fact that all of the governors of the Federal Open Market committee are appointed by the President of the U. S. and in this way he can reach the policies in which he is interested.

Committee:

Michael Ellis, PhD (Advisor); Eric Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); Dandan Liu, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economics

Keywords:

Federal Reserve Bank; Federal Reserve System; Board of Governors; Federal Reserve Bank Presidents; Federal Funds Rate; Taylor Rule; Great Moderation; Power of Appointment; President; Political Economy

Luce, Russell RalphPresident George W. Bush: A Portrayal of the Iraq War Through Cartoons
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2005, Speech Communication
The purpose of this thesis is to analyze political cartoons found on Daryl Cagle's (2005) website. By using the work of Benoit, Klyukovski, McHale, & Airne (2001), a Fantasy Theme Analysis is performed. This analysis argues that the cartoonists create a vision that is critical of President Bush and that they form an argument in an attempt to sway public opinion. Furthermore, this analysis suggests implications for the use of Fantasy Theme Analysis and the study of visual rhetoric as a field of study.

Committee:

Ben Voth (Advisor)

Subjects:

Speech Communication

Keywords:

political; cartoon; fantasy theme analysis; president; bush

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