Search Results (1 - 20 of 20 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Shapiro, Jonathan ChiraHyphenated Japan: Cross-examining the Self/Other dichotomy in Ainu-Japanese material culture
BA, Oberlin College, 2017, Anthropology
This is a historical ethnography that examines how shifts Japanese national identity and values of homogeneity have affected Japan’s minority Ainu population. I argue that the symbolic position of Ainu culture has historically been rearranged to suit prevailing ideas about Japanese nationality and culture without input from Ainu. Using theoretical understandings of Self-Other dichotomies, I examine the particular way these practices manifested in Meiji Japan to create modern Japanese national identity, and how these functioned both against the West and people colonized by Japan. From there, I look at how cultural nationalism was objectified as present from time immemorial in Japan through the installation of key parts of Japaneseness and Ainuness into symbolic objects (most notably food and the forms of food-getting) and using these symbols to retroactively label Ainu culture as an aspect of Japanese nationality. Finally, I look at how contemporary Ainu have subverted this practice using cultural objects to work against a “vanishing ethnicity” narrative and reject the idea that being Ainu is inaccessible in modern contexts.

Committee:

Crystal Biruk (Advisor); Baron L. Pineda (Advisor)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Cultural Anthropology; History; Native Studies

Keywords:

Ainu, Japanese, Hokkaido, Meiji, discrimination, colonialism, Indigenous studies, modernity, racism, material culture, post-colonial studies, Japanese history, nationalism, assimilation

Wright, Kelly F.Coloring Their World: Americans and Decorative Color in the Nineteenth Century
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Arts and Sciences: History
Certain events in recent history have called into question some long-held assumptions about the colors of our material history. The controversy over the cleaning of the Sistine Chapel posited questions about color to an international audience, and in the United States the restoration of original decorative colors at the homes of many historically significant figures and religious groups has elicited a visceral reaction suggesting the new colors challenge Americans’ entrenched notions of what constituted respectable taste, if not comportment, in their forebears. Recent studies have even demonstrated that something as seemingly objective as photography has greatly misled us about the appearance of our past. We tend to see the nineteenth century as a faded, sepia-toned monochrome. But nothing could be further from the truth. Coloring Their World: Americans and Decorative Color in the Nineteenth Century, argues that in that century we can witness one of the only true democratizations in American history—the diffusion of color throughout every level of society. In the eighteenth century American aristocrats brandished color like a weapon, carefully crafting the material world around them as a critical part of their political and social identities, cognizant of the power afforded them by color’s correct use, and the consequences of failure. In their “classless” and not fully literate society glossy colorful carriages spoke with grandiloquence about their owners’ place in the world. In an aristocracy of the untitled, verdigris parlors bore the same power to intimidate as a gilded family crest. But their time was the last time that color could be so easily wielded. From the first flushes of pink and green in the early nineteenth-century homes of American elites, to the industrialized, commodified, synthesized hot pinks and electric blues available to literally everyone by century’s end, color collapsed class lines. No longer even remotely a trapping of aristocracy by the beginning of the twentieth century, color’s caché was replaced by a confidence in its easy access and ubiquity. But this access came with new rules, and self-appointed arbiters of taste dictated its use more and more. This process took place in several stages which form the parts of this dissertation. Part One explains how color first made its way into the interior of the country from 1800 to 1840, a process facilitated by the Market Revolution. Part Two describes how the harnessing of steam power and industrialization gave every class of Americans unprecedented access to all forms of decorative color. Within each phase Americans manipulated and consumed decorative color in distinctive ways, and the evidence of that is built into their material culture. As shocking as it may be to some, our past was a colorful place. Scarlet, not sepia, was its color. This dissertation is an attempt to explain why.

Committee:

Wayne Durrill, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Frederic Krome, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Christopher Phillips, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History

Keywords:

color;Market Revolution;industrialization;material culture;photography;textiles

Dirks-Schuster, Whitney MarieMonsters, News, and Knowledge Transfer in Early Modern England
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, History
How do you know what you know? This dissertation examines the process of knowledge transfer (the interaction of multiple individuals in the process of exchanging and acting upon information which is deemed significant) through a focus on the phenomenon of monstrous births (a contemporary and non-derogatory term used to describe physically deformed humans and animals) in early modern England. In a sense, this study utilizes monsters as the contrast dye in a knowledge-transfer myelogram: monstrous births can highlight the path which knowledge takes between producer and consumer, as well as how the consumer subsequently acts upon that knowledge. A broad variety of media were utilized to this end – including printed, visual, material, oral, and manuscript sources – revealing that the nature of each medium affected the kinds of knowledge exchanged, as well as the process by which the exchange took place. Thus cheap print might privilege news of the prodigious, while gossip focused on the actions of local individuals, and manuscript culture compiled and commented upon specific cases of monstrosity. I argue that balladeers, artists, neighbors, natural philosophers, diarists, and others transferred and consumed knowledge about monsters throughout the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries because they provided news- and gossip-worthy entertainment that could also, under the proper circumstances, reveal the will of God or the internal workings of Nature. Of course, monsters were not at all times all of these things to all people; the precise significance of monstrosity changed depending upon the media in which it was disseminated. However, I have located over 700 descriptions of perhaps 500 individual monstrous births, prodigies, and unusual creatures between 1531 and c. 1800 in a wide variety of media: more than 150 extant pieces of cheap print, 78 advertisements for monster shows, nearly a dozen painted portraits, numerous etchings, a court case and its three attendant ceramic plates, 88 articles published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, two diaries, and a manuscript monster compendium. The remarkable scale and variety of this interest vindicates the use of monstrosity to the study of knowledge transfer in sixteenth- through eighteenth-century England.

Committee:

Noel Geoffrey Parker (Advisor); David Cressy (Committee Member); David Staley (Committee Member); Pamela Lucchesi (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

monster; monstrous birth; early modern; England; Europe; knowledge transfer; conjoined twin; cheap print; print culture; manuscript culture; visual culture; material culture; Philosophical Transactions; Royal Society of London; gossip; commonplace book

Kim, JeenaTea Parties, Fairy Dust, and Cultural Memory: The Maintenance and Development of Alice in Wonderland and Peter Pan Over Time
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Popular Culture
This thesis considers how and why recognizable elements of Peter Pan and Alice in Wonderland are widely disseminated throughout present-day popular culture despite the age and relative obscurity of the literary stories on which they are based. I examine three different approaches to Alice and Peter in our contemporary moment: material culture, adaptation, and fictionalized origin stories. Using such theorists as Roland Barthes, Judith Butler, Mikhail Bakhtin, Victor Turner, Jean Baudrillard, and Michel Foucault, I argue that articulations of Peter Pan and Alice in Wonderland persist as access points to feelings of childhood enchantment, inspiration, and innocence, rather than just as specific texts, images, or characters that must be faithfully recreated. This phenomenon provides insight into how older frames of reference are continuously and smoothly adapted to reflect contemporary ideologies and values with minimal cognitive dissonance in our shared cultural memory despite wide divergences from earlier sources.

Committee:

Jeremy Wallach, Dr. (Committee Chair); Esther Clinton, Dr. (Committee Member); Marilyn Motz, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Gender Studies; Literature; Mass Media

Keywords:

Alice in Wonderland; Peter Pan; gender; culture; literature; British literature; popular culture; adaptation; J M Barrie; Lewis Carroll; Charles Dodgson; material culture; costume; imperialism; historical fiction; biopic;

Briesacher, Erika L.Cultural Currency: Notgeld, Nordische Woche, and the Nordische Gesellschaft, 1921-1945
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
The phenomena of material culture, collecting, economics and hyperinflation, and festival are related to identity formation, yet their connection is understudied. This dissertation contributes to the existing literature by analyzing not only how the Nordische Gesellschaft emerged but how it evolved between 1921 and 1933. Additionally, the cultural performances endorsed by the Society essentially retained the spirit of regional, local, and national identity fostered by the 1921 Nordische Woche festival in Lübeck. The expansion of the Nordische Gesellschaft beyond the borders of its home city demonstrates competing and often contradicting voices that were present in Germany on the topic of dominant identity. Rather than highlighting the organizational framework of the Society, my study views the group through the lens of culture, affected by and affecting Lübeckers and Germans at large. The material culture left behind by groups such as the Nordische Gesellschaft and events such as Nordische Woche add to the growing literature on European material culture, expanding it to account for overlooked sources such as collectable money, souvenir programs, and printed ephemera.

Committee:

Richard Steigmann-Gall, PhD (Advisor); Shelley Baranowski, PhD (Committee Member); Rebecca Pulju, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Harp, PhD (Committee Member); David Purcell, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

material culture; Nordische Woche; Nordische Gesellschaft; inflation; national identity; collecting

Gonzalez-Posse, Maria EugeniaGalatea’s Daughters: Dolls, Female Identity and the Material Imagination in Victorian Literature and Culture
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, English

My dissertation examines the doll as a nexus between materialism and imagination in the literature and popular culture of the Victorian period. The emergence of the doll as we conceive of it today is a Victorian phenomenon. It was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that a dedicated doll industry was developed and that dolls began to find their way into children’s literature, the rhetoric of femininity, periodical publications and canonical texts. Surprisingly, the Victorian fascination with the doll has largely gone unexamined, and critics and readers have tended to dismiss dolls as mere agents of female acculturation and symbols of passivity. Guided by the recent material turn in Victorian studies and drawing extensively from texts only recently made available through digitization projects and periodical databases, my research seeks to provide a richer account of the way this most fraught and symbolic of objects figured in the lives and imaginations of the Victorians. Given this treatment, the doll emerges as an object celebrated for its remarkable imaginative potential. The doll, I argue, is therefore best understood as a descendant of Galatea – as a woman turned object, but also as an object that Victorians constantly and variously brought to life through the imagination.

The chapters of my dissertation examine how this imaginative potential was put to use but also how it was perceived as coming under threat by the pressures of materialism and commercialization. In my first chapter I examine how the “doll memoir,” a once popular subgenre within children’s literature in which dolls are endowed with subjectivity as the narrators of their own stories, co-opted the imagination to generate a sense of disciplinary surveillance in its young readers, threatening to reverse the power relationship between girls and their dolls. In chapter two, I examine the fanciful animation of dolls in play as a precursor to the animation of characters in literary production and, in particular, Dickens’s use of this trope to articulate a vision of the author that draws from the child’s more fluid relationship with the material world. In chapter three, I study the rise of the luxury doll industry and consider how the material excess and consumer promiscuity associated with this “doll of the period” was perceived not only as endangering childhood imagination but also used by writers like Eliza Lynn Linton and Mary Elizabeth Braddon to explore femininity as a commodified form. In my final chapter I turn to narratives of doll production in periodical publications to show how a visit to the factory could deconstruct the fantasy of the doll by reducing it to its material parts, but could also give rise to a more imaginative way of understanding commodities as objects shaped by their material histories. As a mediator between the real and the ideal, I argue, the doll embodies a new kind of imagination, one that operates in conjunction with, rather than against, materiality, and in which woman acts both as medium and as agent.

Committee:

David G. Riede (Advisor); Jill Galvan (Committee Member); Clare A. Simmons (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Literature

Keywords:

Dolls; gender; imagination; material culture; Victorian literature; Victorian culture

Coleman, Feay Shellman"The Palmy Days of Trade": Anglo-American Culture in Savannah, 1735-1835
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Arts and Sciences: History
This dissertation is a transnational study that traces the religious, economic, and cultural factors that kept the bonds between Savannah, Georgia and Great Britain strong and vital long after the United States achieved political independence. Through an analysis of Savannah’s pre-eminent merchant family, the Boltons, and their associates, this study demonstrates that enduring connections to Great Britain influenced both the built environment and cultural spaces that Savannahians occupied for about a century-- from Georgia’s founding in 1735 until 1835. Evidence drawn from material culture as well as a fresh reading of traditional sources support this thesis. In addition to documents, primary sources that anchor the analysis include buildings and neighborhoods where Savannahians worshiped, lived, and worked in England and America. Because material culture embodies the social meanings of the economic, religious, and domestic purposes it serves, analysis of specific buildings and neighborhoods in Savannah as counterparts to English prototypes proves the case for common culture. Throughout the dissertation, both material culture and a traditional array of documentary sources reinforce the arguments. Since this study embraces material culture and urban spatial relationships as potent sources, resulting insights break boundaries that have limited scholarship in the past. Scholars have long scrutinized Southern rural elites. And, more recently, historians have concentrated on people at the bottom of the social scale. This research is a long overdue examination of Savannah’s prosperous, urban middle class. Historians of the New Republic often think in terms of what set the United States apart from Great Britain in the period of nation building before 1835. This dissertation adds the dimension of continuity to the scholarly conversation. By presenting new insight into the blending of cultures, this study shows how economic, religious, and cultural interdependence sustained transnational relationships and diluted the meaning of politically drawn borders. At the same time it sheds new light on the themes of religion, gender, class, race, enterprise, and urban life in Savannah.

Committee:

David Stradling, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Wayne Durrill, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Maura O'Connor, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Patrick Snadon, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History

Keywords:

class;race;slavery;material culture;religion;transnational;

Crowley, Dale AllenEldritch Horrors: The Modernist Liminality of H.P. Lovecraft's Weird Fiction
Master of Arts in English, Cleveland State University, 2017, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
In the early part of the twentieth century, the Modernist literary movement was moving into what was arguably its peak, and authors we would now unquestioningly consider part of the Western literary canon were creating some of their greatest works. Coinciding with the more mainstream Modernist movement, there emerged a unique sub- genre of fiction on the pages of magazines with titles like Weird Tales and Astounding Stories. While modernist writers; including Marcel Proust, Virginia Woolf, Ernest Hemingway, D.H. Lawrence, James Joyce, Ezra Pound, William Faulkner, and T.S. Elliot – among others – were achieving acclaim for their works; in the small corner of unique weird fiction there was one eccentric, bookish writer who rose above his own peers: Howard Phillips Lovecraft. I would argue that within the works of Lovecraft there are glimpses of modernism. Lovecraft was aware of and wrote with an understanding of the concerns of the more mainstream literature of the Modernists, and he situated his narratives and stories within a modernist framework that reflected this. Most importantly, it is the way in which Lovecraft used science and religion, and blended myth with material culture, that Lovecraft most reflects modernist leanings. It’s important to make the distinction that he is not part and parcel a Modernist, but he was influenced by, interacted with, and showed modernist tendencies. There is a subtlety to the argument being made here in that Lovecraft was not Joyce, he was not Elliot, he was most definitely not Hemingway, and his fiction was by no means what we would consider traditionally modernist. In 2005 he received inclusion in the Library of America series and, although this isn’t an indicator or guarantee of inclusion in a large canon, the argument that he in no way had a discourse, awareness, or did not contribute to what would be more properly termed `Modernist’ warrants consideration when properly situating Lovecraft within early-twentieth century literature. In the ways in which he subverted and changed what previously constituted horror fiction, Lovecraft holds a liminal place in the Modernist perspective.

Committee:

James Marino, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Adam Sonstegard, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Julie Burrell, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Literature; Literature; Modern Literature

Keywords:

Lovecraft; Weird Fiction; Weird; Modernism; Modernists; Science Fiction; Horror; Cthulhu; Innsmouth; Pulp; Pulps; Pulp Fiction; Folklore; Myth; Material culture

CARDASSILARIS, NICOLE RUTHBringing Cultures Together: Elma Pratt, Her International School of Art, and Her Collection of International Folk Art at the Miami University Art Museum
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2008, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Art History
Cora Elma Pratt (1888-1977) educator, collector, artist, and philanthropist spent much of her life building her innovative International School of Art (ISA) in Europe, Mexico, South America, and the United States. Pratt first established her ISA in 1928 in Zakopane, Poland and later organized locations throughout Europe and Mexico. From her travels with the ISA, she acquired a notable 2,500-piece collection of international folk art, which she gave to the Miami University Art Museum in Oxford, Ohio in 1970. This study includes a mini-biography, recounting incidents and experiences that molded Pratt into a devoted art educator and promoter of international folk art in the United States and abroad. As a promoter of folk art, she aligned herself with the Brooklyn Museum, a premier institution that was setting the pace for folk art and children's art exhibitions, acquiring artwork to sell in their gift shop and organizing folk art exhibitions from the 1930s through the 1960s. During Pratt's years of involvement with the Brooklyn Museums, she and the ISA organized the first exhibition of Polish folk art in the United States, Polish Exhibition, 1933-34. This study analyzes Pratt's ISA and looks at a couple of the most prominent artists who taught with her and the workshops they conducted. This thesis also examines some of the popular pedagogical theories promoted by Franz Cizek (1865-1947) and John Dewey (1859-1952) that heavily influenced Pratt's ISA, her educational mission, and eventually, how she believed the collection needed to be interpreted in a traditional art museum environment. While today Pratt's collection remains in storage at the Miami University Art Museum, the implication of this study could allow for Pratt's collection to be interpreted as material culture instead of folk art.

Committee:

Theresa Leininger-Miller, PhD (Committee Chair); Mikiko Hirayama, PhD (Committee Member); Anne Timpano, MA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Art Education; Art History; Fine Arts; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Elma Pratt; International School of Art; Zakopane, Poland; Miami University Art Museum; folk art; material culture; art education; museum collections; Polish folk art; women in art education; Brooklyn Museum; Franz Cizek

Wamboldt, Carly RStudy of a Cleveland, Ohio, Tailoring Business, 1854-1923: Elias Rheinheimer and Son
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2015, Clothing, Textiles and Interiors
This thesis examines the evolution of ladies’ tailoring between 1890 and 1915. A case study of Cleveland area tailor Elias Rheinheimer and his business provide valuable insight on the garment industry in Northeastern Ohio. Extant Rheinheimer garments show the changes that took place in women’s wear, and the international and national trends and designers that influenced Cleveland area fashion. Information about the life of Elias Rheinheimer and his business provide an in-depth study on the rise and decline of tailoring firms.

Committee:

Virginia Gunn, Dr. (Advisor); Sandra Buckland, Dr. (Committee Member); Teena Jennings-Rentenaar, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; History; Textile Research

Keywords:

Ohio history; ladies tailoring; tailoring; Cleveland; material culture; historic costume

Shaeffer, Megan K.A Social History of Hoarding Behavior
MA, Kent State University, 2012, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology

A more complete understanding of hoarding behavior is developed here by showing the historical social construction of the behaviors that comprise the disorder: acquisition, clutter, and retention of objects. This approach adds to existing hoarding research and opens up new directions for further study by bringing the sociological perspective into the discussion of this disorder. Despite its possible inclusion in the upcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (the DSM-V), there are still many aspects of hoarding disorder which are poorly understood or remain unexplored. This thesis adds a previously overlooked element to hoarding research by showing how behaviors associated with hoarding developed within a social framework.

After discussing the history of hoarding as a disorder and the human-object relationship, I construct a social history in which the behaviors associated with hoarding from the later 1800s through the present day are examined at macro, meso, and micro levels of analysis. At the macro-level of analysis, the transformation of shopping into a leisurely pastime and the use of advertising to influence consumer purchasing has created a social and economic context in which the acquisition of objects is normal, expected behavior. At the meso-level of analysis, the social practice of creating a sense of class membership through the use of objects in the home is explored, as is collecting as a hobby and a lifestyle. At the micro-level of analysis, I show the relationship of the individual to their objects and the part that social influences play in the discard or retention of those objects. I conclude that to fully understand hoarding, researchers must consider that both hoarders and non-hoarders in the United States live in a social world in which the behaviors associated with hoarding have developed into existing norms.

Committee:

Susan Roxburgh, PhD (Committee Chair); Clare Stacey, PhD (Committee Member); Kiersten Latham, PhD (Committee Member); Cheryl Elman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Sociology

Keywords:

hoarding; clutter; collecting; consumption; shopping; discarding; mental health; medicalization; objects; retention; DSM-V; social history; material culture

Wagner, CarolynMaterial Memories: The Parachute Wedding Gowns of American Brides, 1945-1949
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Art History
After the Second World War there are several accounts of brides and grooms repurposing parachute silk to make a wedding dress. This study collects, records, and examines nine case studies of this sporadic practice, focusing primarily on parachute wedding gowns designed and worn in the United States between the post-war years of 1945 and 1949. By exploring the materiality of the fabric and the physical transformation involved in fashioning a dress from a parachute, these wedding dresses are seen as the result of creative resourcefulness. This practice also embodies the synthesis of the post-war transitions occurring within the personal and social spheres. In contrast to today’s disposable culture, the parachute dresses of the Second World War emphasize singularity and historicity. Drawing from current scholarship on material culture and the complex relationships between people and their possessions, this study examines how parachute gowns bridge world-historical events and the lives of ordinary people. The dresses are vibrant material creations with lives and histories that are worth recording and remarking.

Committee:

Morgan Thomas, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Martin Francis, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kimberly Paice, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

parachute wedding dress;material culture;World War II;United States

Reilly-Sanders, Erin F.Drawing Outside the Bounds: Tradition and Innovation in Depictions of the House in Children's Picturebooks
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Teaching and Learning
Although the illustrations in picturebooks have been a subject of scholarly inquiry for years, often with an interest in attempting to understand how they work or create meaning, few have attempted to look at particular visual motifs as cultural products and drivers. In taking a material culture approach in combination with semiotic theories, this study explored how images of houses in picturebooks reflect themes of innovation and tradition in comparison with children's depictions of houses in their artwork. These images reveal how American culture considers the house through its representations of it while suggesting new ideas of how pictures work to convey meaning. This study took a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative analysis of the images to triangulate observations about: a) how houses are depicted in picturebooks; b) how the patterns of house depiction in picturebooks correlated to children's drawings; and c) how illustrators and children innovated in their depictions of houses. The data collected included a random sample of 110 picturebooks that depicted houses and 84 drawings created by 39 children ages 4 to 8. Each child was asked to first "draw a house" and then "design a house" in an uninhibited manner in order to assess how they innovated. The data was analyzed using a combination of a priori categories as the result of a pilot study and categories developed using grounded theory. Basic inference tests helped describe the features of both sets of data. The findings identified nine patterns, each with their own conventions of house depiction (iconic, tall, simple, square, urban, neighborhood, haunted, castle, and tree), as well as other characteristics of house depiction: text/picture differences, location within the book, number, variety, criterial aspects, role of the house, and reflections of the American Dream. The patterns found in children's drawings diverged from those of illustrators along the lines of pattern featured and other characteristics but only to a moderate extent. The children's creative processes suggested that drawing is a social process influenced through both verbal and visual interactions. Nontraditional shapes and decorative elements were the most common techniques for innovation. However, production practices also appeared to play a role in innovation. This study concluded that ways of depicting houses are conventional, most commonly following patterns that depict houses as small and simple, and include conservative ideas of dwellings. Although both children and illustrators depict houses as icons, illustrations reflect greater variety fostered by experience and skill. Illustrators occasionally include elements of realism but often choose a symbolic representation that correlates with children's drawings. However, both groups are limited by the need to communicate, discouraging innovation. Thus innovation is generally superficial, timid, or merely a substitution of a different building type. This could be improved through exposure to nontraditional houses, additional instruction in observational drawing, and using means of indicating "houseness" other than criterial aspects. Increasing innovation in both depictions and conceptions of houses would better prepare future generations to meet the challenges of providing housing creatively.

Committee:

Barbara Kiefer (Advisor); Barbara Lehman (Committee Member); Linda Parson (Committee Member); Deborah Smith-Shank (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; American Literature; American Studies; Architecture; Art Education; Communication; Design; Early Childhood Education; Education; Elementary Education; Literacy; Literature; Multimedia Communications; Teacher Education

Keywords:

houses;architecture;childrens literature;picturebooks;picture books;material culture;drawing;semiotics;American culture;American Dream;illustration;design;icons;signs;conventional representation;art;tradition;innovation; visual literacy;children;symbols

Brown, Abigail R.Reframing the Everyday: Negotiating the Multiple Lives of the Ordinary
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Architecture (Master of)

Andy Warhol once predicted that in the future “all department stores will become museums, and all museums will become department stores.” While these building types are not yet synonymous, many new cultural projects accept the addition of commerce without reservation. Critics have denounced these increasingly close ties between cultural institutions and consumption in recent years; however, the critical discourse gives little thought to the inherent meaning and multiple narratives that reside in everyday objects. Rather than repress the ties between cultural institutions and consumer culture, this thesis explores their common histories. In addition, it reveals the challenges inherent in interpreting and displaying artifacts of everyday life.

Similar to everyday objects, buildings have multiple lives that enact over time as uses, occupants, context, and interpretations change. The role of the museum curator resembles the architect, as both typically interpret and privilege one of these lives over others. This thesis explores the methods by which the architect interprets the ordinary. It uses an existing urban condition to question the approach to a building that is neither precious enough to preserve nor decrepit enough to destroy. How does the architect negotiate between the multiple histories of the building and the current needs of the community? At what point does the architect stop designing and allow new occupants to reappropriate the building and enact their own narratives within the existing frame?

Committee:

Rebecca Williamson (Committee Chair); John Hancock (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Architecture; Museums

Keywords:

museums; curators; historic preservation; Washington, D.C.; adaptive reuse; commerce; museum display; exhibition design; material culture

Ion, Sabina AIdentity and Material Culture in Seleucid Jebel Khalid
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Arts and Sciences: Classics
This thesis examines the archaeological evidence for the formation of identity within new colonial foundations in Seleucid Syria from the early third century to the first century B.C. Although this topic has been addressed relating to other Hellenistic Kingdoms, within the Seleucid Kingdom the dearth of undisturbed occupational levels has limited the scope of discussion. Owing to its remarkable levels of preservation and subsequent publication, this thesis uses the site of Jebel Khalid, located on the Euphrates River in modern Syria, as a case study to address this gap. Where available, I draw on other settlements to establish a broader perspective of how cultural preferences manifested themselves throughout the breadth of the Seleucid Kingdom. To examine how the Greco-Macedonian settlers constructed their identities in Jebel Khalid, I examine the available architectural and material evidence from the site. During the initial phase of occupation (Phase A, early third century B.C. to 150 B.C.) the settlement’s nature as a Seleucid foundation heavily influenced the architectural choices in both the public and domestic spheres. Simultaneously, the presence of a new fortified town in the area made a declarative statement of Seleucid strength to the local people. In the second phase (Phase B, 150 B.C.- ca. 70/60 B.C.) local Syrian and Eastern trade networks gained prominence as invading Parthians drew Seleucid interest towards borders and away from sites such as Jebel Khalid. Local production of international pottery forms, based on Greco-Macedonian predecessors, demonstrate another way in which market demand was being met at Jebel Khalid. A hyper-local presence is seen in the cook wares and the appearance of Semitic names in local production. Finally, I examine the temple; this is the edifice that the excavators of Jebel Khalid believe shows the most evidence of cultural hybridization; a building employing elements from the architecture of both ethnic groups but united in a new expression, one that would be both familiar and foreign to all. The presence of different cultural elements within this Seleucid outpost combined to create an identity that was predominantly Greco-Macedonian; this same identity, seen through the architecture and ceramics of Jebel Khalid also demonstrates the gradual process of incorporating local people into the cultural and economic fabric of a Seleucid foundation.

Committee:

Barbara Burrell, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Antonios Kotsonas, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Archaeology

Keywords:

Seleucid;Jebel Khalid;Material Culture;Identity;Hellenistic;Syria

Lezotte, Christine L.Have You Heard the One About the Woman Driver? Chicks, Muscle, Pickups, and the Reimagining of the Woman Behind the Wheel
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2015, American Culture Studies
Popular perceptions of the woman driver have long relied upon two persistent stereotypes. The original woman driver stereotype – which depicted the feminine driver as passive, inept, and overly cautious – was developed during the post World War I era in an effort to limit women’s mobility. In the decades following World War II, as a means to distinguish women’s driving experience from that of men, the woman driver was reconfigured into an individual who called upon the automobile to reaffirm her culturally approved gender identity as caretaker and consumer. Despite women’s growing influence as auto owners and drivers in the twenty-first century, the ubiquity of these stereotypes ensures that the female motorist will continue to be regarded in a limited and often negative way. This project examines three alternative constructions of the woman driver to expose the fallacy of current representations as well as to suggest infinite new possibilities for women behind the wheel. Looking at women who drive chick cars, classic muscle cars, and pickup trucks through the lenses of material culture theory and gender performativity, this investigation considers how three groups of women challenge historical and societal directives in order to create a legitimate and empowering place for themselves as drivers in the hegemonic masculine climate of American car culture. Moving away from historical analysis and representation, it focuses on the automotive experiences of real women through participant observation at automotive events, online observation of various car groups, as well as in-depth interviews with over 100 female motorists. This method of inquiry not only reveals the speciousness of existing stereotypes, but also demonstrates how three populations of driving women have successfully reconfigured, reclaimed, and reimagined the “woman driver” category to make it their own.

Committee:

Susana Peña, PhD (Committee Chair); Catherine Cassara, PhD (Other); Ellen Berry, PhD (Committee Member); Vikki Krane, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Gender; Transportation; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Automobiles; Woman Driver; Gender Performativity; Gender Stereotypes; Material Culture; Ethnography

Schwenk, BarbaraThe Role of Background Knowledge in ESL Basic Reading: A Closer Look at Emergent ESL readers and their Performance within Culture-Specific Reading Material
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2009, Linguistics (Arts and Sciences)

Statistics show that English as a Second Language (ESL) children within the US education system continue to perform below their native speaking peers when it comes to local and national test scores of academic progress. Reading, as an important factor of such progress, is the main focus of this project. ESL children bring a lot to the reading table, i.e. varying experience with print, varying phonetic systems and the awareness thereof, and a variety of background knowledge.

This study investigates the impact of cultural background knowledge on reading performance as well as content comprehension for low reading level students from Somalia currently enrolled in a sheltered ESL program of a Middle School in Columbus, Ohio. For the study, the ESL children as well as a control group of native speaking first graders read two text passages. Each passage represents specific cultural elements of one of the relevant cultures. The children were asked to read both texts aloud at different times and retell the content immediately afterwards, in order to follow the procedures of Goodman and Burke's Reading Miscue Inventory. Various statistical tests were run and frequency analyses investigating comprehension, speed and accuracy were performed. The findings of the study may be consistent with previous research, suggesting an increase in comprehension when reading material corresponds with the reader's cultural background knowledge.

These results may have implications regarding the selection of reading materials for ESL assessment purposes as well as ESL students' progress in their reading development.

Committee:

Scott Jarvis, PhD (Committee Chair); Greg Kessler, PhD (Committee Member); Ludmila Marchenkova, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Linguistics

Keywords:

background knowledge; reading; schemata; ESL children; second language acquisition; second language reading; ESL; emergent ESL reader; ESL reading material; culture-specific reading material

Nieto, Nicole KRecipes of Recovery and Rebuilding: The Role of Cookbooks in Post-Katrina New Orleans
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies
In August 2005, New Orleans and surrounding communities suffered catastrophic damage and loss of life when Hurricane Katrina reached landfall. When the levees surrounding the city of New Orleans broke, homes were flooded and lives were lost. Community members began to rebuild their homes as well as their culture including food, music and art. This project examines the role that the New Orleans culinary heritage played in rebuilding and recovering the city. I am primarily concerned with cookbooks published after Hurricane Katrina as well as The Times-Picayune newspaper recipe column, “Rebuilding New Orleans Recipe by Recipe”. I examine the cookbooks and recipe column using discourses of feminist analysis, material culture, continuity and tradition. I am most interested in the ways that cookbooks and recipes helped to rebuild the community and city of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. I suggest a fifth cookbook plot, the recovery plot, to Anne Bower’s narrative framework of community cookbooks. In the recovery plot, I suggest cookbooks do the important work of creating continuity and opportunities for recovery after loss. This project suggests cookbooks and recipes were an integral component of cultural recovery after Hurricane Katrina and were in fact a way to share narratives of loss and recovery about the storm and flooding.

Committee:

Linda Mizejewski (Advisor); Amy Shuman (Committee Co-Chair); Guisela LaTorre (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Folklore; Gender; Gender Studies

Keywords:

New Orleans; Hurricane Katrina; recipes; cookbooks; culinary heritage; recovery; cooking; foodways; folklore; material culture; feminist analysis; tradition; nostalgia

Norris, Rebecca M.Carpaccio’s “Hunting on the Lagoon” and “Two Venetian Ladies”: A Vignette of Fifteenth-Century Venetian Life
MA, Kent State University, 2007, College of Fine and Professional Arts / School of Music

Objects that survive the ravages of time provide valuable insight into the past and help us better understand a world and culture long since changed. Two works by the Venetian artist, Vittore Carpaccio, provide especially enlightening examples of this. They are Hunting on the Lagoon, c. 1495 from the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, and Two Venetian Ladies, c. 1495 from the Correr Museum in Venice [Figure 1 & Figure 2]. Like pieces of a puzzle, these paintings join to form a compelling look at fifteenth-century Venetian life.

When pieced together, these remnants allow us to rediscover aspects of a bygone culture. They convey information specific to a time and place. As representatives of Renaissance Venetian material culture, they reflect aspects of social, cultural, and economic relevance.

Committee:

Gustav Medicus (Advisor)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

Carpaccio; Vittore Carpaccio; Hunting on the Lagoon; Two Venetian Ladies; Social Studies, Venice; Renaissance, Venice; Material Culture, Venice; Gender Studies, Venice; Furniture, Venice; Domestic, Venice; Women's Fashion, Venice; Letter Rack

Elkin, Daniel K.Seeking Silence Through GARAP: Architecture, Image, and Connotation
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Architecture

The valuation process within architecture attaches connotative meaning to productions of architectural practice, especially imagery created by the architect. Architecture, through the written word and escalating masculinization of drawing and imagery, transforms visual aesthetic image objects of marks on a page into connoted aesthetic image objects with possible consequences and meaning in the real world. Architects understand this process as imparting meaning to their work and differentiating their practice from the aesthetic praxis of art, understood to be solely aesthetic.

However, the relationship between imagery and the consequences illustrated thereby is not so simple in the time of mass-publication of imagery and the simulation of architectural outcomes. The connoted aesthetic objects created by the architect, through repetition and publication, become re-feminized into visual aesthetic objects, carrying along the consequential information imparted by the architect and transforming that information into atrophied signs or consumer demographics. The aesthetic of the architectural image/artifact and consequences or narratives become equated, threatening the reductive degradation of both. Connotation of architectural images, therefore, can work at cross purposes to both architecture and the narratives it attempts to connote.

This effect is increasingly prominent, this research will argue, as the indicative property of architectural images- the possibility of construing virtual images as reality- increases through high verisimilitude images, images attempting to include non-visual information, and images attached to socio-cultural claims. This paper argues the possibility that images of these types can insure a connotative connection between aesthetic and narrative that equates the two, allowing the posited feminization.

This research will analyze the connection between visual culture and material culture as basis of the connotation of architecture, and propose possibilities for the interrogation of the connotative apparatus. In conjunction, this research shall include a body of design research work investigating imagery and image processes, culminating in a connotative perversion of Mies van der Rohe’s Barcelona Pavilion and the connoted imagery attached thereto. Through the foiled exercises of academic research and structured design play, this research shall seek the limits of the connotation of architectural images, and discover the tentative connection between speculative imagery and consequences thereof

Committee:

Aarati Kanekar, PhD (Committee Chair); Michael McInturf, MARCH (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

visual culture;baudrillard;barcelona pavilion;connotation;aesthetics;material culture