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Gomes, NevilExperimental and Analytical Evaluation of an Innovative Strengthening System for Long-Span Deep-Corrugated Buried Bridges
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Engineering and Applied Science: Civil Engineering
Experimental and analytical study of an innovative strengthening system for deep corrugated structural plates (15-in. pitch by 5.5-in.) is described. A typical 5/16-in.-thick deep corrugated structural plate can typically span up to 65-ft for typical bridge design loads. In order to achieve longer spans, it is necessary to increase the flexural stiffness of the plate. The new strengthening system consists of a wide flange beam connected to the corrugated structural plate using a rigid bracket. Several tests were conducted at the University of Cincinnati Large Scale Testing Facility to evaluate the behavior and stiffness of the beam-plate system. Tests were carried out using a number of reinforcing beams and different bracket spacing. Equations for determining the cross-sectional properties and capacity of the stiffened system were developed. Design case studies were conducted using a special finite element program called CANDE (Culvert Analysis and Design). Different plate gauges in combination with a number of wide flange beams were used in the finite element analyses. The efficiency of the strengthened system was evaluated. In this paper, recommendations are made for design and analysis of strengthened long-span buried bridges. This study has found that it is possible to design lighter, longer, and cost effective structures through the use of stiffened plates.

Committee:

Bahram Shahrooz, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Richard Miller, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Darrell Sanders, P.E. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

Culvert;Buried bridge;Corrugated plates;strengthened culverts;CANDE;Deep corrugated plates

White, Kevin E.Numerical Investigations of Corrugated Structural Plate Pipe
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2011, Civil Engineering (Engineering and Technology)

A novel concept in the manufacture of corrugated steel structural plate pipe is the slotted joint. This mechanism allows mating plates to slip over one another by a predetermined amount. The resultant ring shortening has several implications for the installed pipe. The primary benefit is a reduction in the soil pressure acting on the pipe.

This project investigated the response of the installed slotted joint, structural plate corrugated steel pipe by means of the finite element method. A simplified solution for the design of slotted joint corrugated steel structural plate pipe was developed and verified through comparisons with the finite element results.

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Engineering

Keywords:

culvert; pipe mechanics; slotted joint; soil structure interation, corrugated steel

Liu, XuegangExperimental and theoretical analysis of the buried corrugated plastic pipe
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1993, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

Experimental and theoretical analysis of the buried corrugated plastic pipe

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Buried Corrugated Plastic Pipe; Pipe Deflection Measurement System; Viscoelastic Behavior

Suhardjo, St. RoesyantoAnalysis of a corrugated aluminum box culvert
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1989, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

A corrugated aluminum box culvert with rib stiffeners on the outside was instrumented for strain and deflection measurements that occurred during the backfill and live load. Measured strains were converted to stress, moments and thrusts. Deflections were calculated from bench mark measurements. Soil displacement were measured using four rod extensometers placed around the culvert.

Calculated moments, thrusts and deflections are compared to results obtained from the finite element computer program CANDE. Hyperbolic models are employed for the backfill material and the construction sequence is simulated as closely as possible. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical live load are examined. Soil elements are assumed to be fully bonded to the culvert-beam elements as no interface element was utilized.

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Corrugated Aluminum Box Culvert; Soil Displacement; CANDE

Rauch, Alan F.Experimental and numerical investigation of a deep-corrugated steel, box-type culvert
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1990, Civil Engineering (Engineering)
A comprehensive investigation of the behavior of a corrugated steel, box-type culvert is described. The culvert design is unique in its use of a deep-corrugated cross section (5.5 inch depth) and a welded corner connection to form a culvert span of 15 feet with a rise of less than 5 feet. A full scale field test was undertaken to measure the response of the culvert under construction and service loads at a highway installation. Extensive instrumentation that measured deformations and forces was installed on the culvert before it was backfilled. Data was acquired at frequent stages during construction of the sand fill and under the influence of a stationary truck with three loads at five locations on the completed roadway. Construction procedures that nearly overstressed the culvert are discussed. A numerical simulation of the construction and service loads on the soil- structure system was undertaken using the finite element code CANDE. To reduce numerical error associated with soil modelling, the sand used to backfill the culvert was tested extensively utilizing a cubical multiaxial testing device. Parameters for a hyperbolic soil model were derived with special provisions to model the soil along non-triaxial compression stress paths. The numerical simulations are compared with the measured field response.

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Numerical Investigation; Deep-Corrugated Steel; Box-Type Culvert

VYAS, SAURABHEXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZING OF VORTEX STRUCTURE IN SINUSOIDAL WAVY CHANNEL AND A CASE STUDY FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Engineering : Mechanical Engineering
In the present work, an experimental study is performed on sinusoidal wavy channels and a case study for fuel cell applications. Fluid mixing is perhaps an extremely way to enhance the heat and mass transfer in channel and duct flows. A wavy flow channel is one such device that provides core flow mixing by inducing span-wise and stream-wise vortex generation, depending upon the geometry, and promotes the heat and mass transfer enhancement. These flow patterns and swirl or vortex structure are quite complex and not well understood.Fluid recirculation and its structure in low Reynolds number flows in sinusoidal wavy-plate channel are characterized by flow visualization and laser doppler velocimetry (LDV). The flow channel geometry is effectively two-dimensional (width>>plate spacing) and is described by its waviness aspect ratio γ = (2x amplitude/ pitch) and inter-plate spacing ratio ε = (spacing/2x amplitude).With increasing flow rates, wall-curvature-induced effects manifest in fluid separation downstream of the wavy-surface peak, its reattachment upstream of the subsequent peak, and the consequent encapsulation of lateral recirculating cells in the channel-wall concavities. These trough region vortices tend to grow spatially and envelop much of the core flow region as the flow rate and/or plate spacing ε increases.

Committee:

Dr. Raj Manglik (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

lateral vortices; corrugated-plate channels; flow visualization; laser doppler velocimetry (LDV); laminar flow

Metwally, Hossam Eldin Mahmoud HassanA Computational Study of Enhanced Heat Transfer in Laminar Flows of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian (Power-Law and Herschel-Bulkley) Bluids in Corrugated-Plate Channels
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Engineering : Mechanical Engineering

Single-phase periodically developed, constant property, laminar forced convection in sinusoidal corrugated-plate channels with uniform wall temperature is considered. Newtonian, power-law non-Newtonian, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids are considered in the current dissertation work. Numerical solutions are obtained using the control-volume method and the commercial code FLUENT.

For the Newtonian fluids, a wide range of channel corrugation aspect ratio (0 ≤ γ ≤ 1),different flow rates (10 ≤ Re ≤ 2000) of viscous liquids (Pr = 5, 35, and 150) are considered. The flow field is found to be strongly influenced by the corrugation aspect ratio, γ, and it displays two distinct regimes: undisturbed laminar or no swirl, and swirl flow regimes. In the no-swirl regime, the flow behavior is very similar to that in fully developed straight duct with no cross-stream disturbance. In the swirl regime, flow separation and reattachment in the corrugation troughs generates transverse vortex cells that grow with Re and γ the transition to this regime also depends on Re and γ. The mixing produced by these self-sustained transverse vortices is found to enhance the heat transfer by up to thirty four times that in a flat parallel-plate channel, depending upon γ, Re, and Pr. The corresponding friction factor, however, is only seventeen times higher.

Similarly, for the power-law non-Newtonian fluids a wide range of channel corrugation aspect ratio (0 ≤ γ ≤ 1), flow rates (10 ≤ Reg ≤ 1500), and pseudoplastic flow behavior indices (n = 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0) are considered. Typical velocity and temperature distributions, along with extended results for isothermal friction factor f and Collburn factor j are presented. The enhanced forced convection is found to be strongly influenced by the corrugation aspect ratio γ, and the flow field displays two distinct regimes: undisturbed laminar or no swirl, and swirl flow regimes. In the no-swirl regime, behavior similar to that in fully developed straight duct flows with no cross-stream disturbance is obtained. The shear-thinning nature of the fluid, however, decreases f and enhances j. In the swirl regime, flow separation and reattachment in the corrugation troughs generates transverse vortices that grow with Reg and γ. The transition to this regime is also seen to depend on Reg, γ, and n, and in shear-thinning flows, it occurs at a lower Reg. The combined effects of corrugated plate geometry and non-Newtonian fluid rheology produce a heat transfer enhancement, as measured by the factor j/f, of over 3.3 times that in a flat-plate channel depending upon γ, n, and Reg.

Two sets of Herschel-Bulkley fluids are considered; one has a constant yield stress τy = 1.59 N/m² (corresponds to 0.5 % Xanthan Gum in water) and the second has a constant Hedstrom number He of 300. That value of He is chosen since it corresponds to 0.5 % Xanthan Gum in water at Reg = 10. For the two cases, three power law indices are considered; n= 0.54 which is that of 0.5 % Xanthan Gum in water, 1.0 which represents a Bingham Plastic fluid, and 0.8 as an intermediate value. In each case, the effects of variations of generalized flow Reynolds number (10 ≤ Reg ≤ 700), non-Newtonian flow behavior index (n = 0.54, 0.8, and 1.0) on the flow and temperature fields are described. The variation of friction factor f, Collburn factor j, and heat transfer enhancement (j/γ) with Reg are shown. Results for Newtonian, power-law are also presented for comparison.

Committee:

Dr. Raj Manglik (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

Non-Newtonian; corrugated; sinusoidal; enhancement; heat transfer

Amla, Anita KrupanidhiA comparison of analytical and field data for a rib-reinforced corrugated steel box-type culvert
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1990, Civil Engineering (Engineering)
A comparison of analytical and field data for a rib-reinforced corrugated steel box-type culvert

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Rib-Reinforced Corrugated Steel; Box-Type Culvert

Fernando, Mihindukulasooriya E. R.Field performance of corrugated plastic pipes under simulated high soil cover
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1992, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

Field performance of corrugated plastic pipes under simulated high soil cover

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

field performance; corrugated plastic pipes; simulated high soil cover

Moreland, AndrewExperimental and numerical investigation of a deeply buried corrugated steel multi plate pipe
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2004, Civil Engineering (Engineering)
Experimental and numerical investigation of a deeply buried corrugated steel multi plate pipe

Committee:

Shad Sargand (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Experimental Investigation; Numerical Investigation; Deeply Buried Pipe; Corrugated Steel Pipe; Multi Plate Pipe

Oh, SaekyungAnalysis of a corrugated metal box type culvert
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1989, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

The structural behavior of circumferentially stiffened low-profile box type corrugated steel culvert, which is covered by shallow soil cover, is investigated. Culvert deflections and strains were monitored at culvert section due to live load, backfill. Values of vertical, horizontal deflection and circumferential moment, thrust are calculated at the exact center of the culvert length. These values are compared to analytical results based on the finite element method using CANDE (Culvert Analysis and Design). It applies no interface elements and compaction effects during construction simulation. The analyses are performed the actual sequence of construction of the culvert as closely as possible.

Committee:

Glenn Hazen (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Low-Profile Box; Corrugated Steel Culvert; Shallow Soil; Culvert Analysis and Design

Stalcup, Erik JamesNumerical Modeling of Upward Flame Spread and Burning of Wavy Thin Solids
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, EMC - Aerospace Engineering
Flame spread over solid fuels with simple geometries has been extensively studied in the past, but few have investigated the effects of complex fuel geometry. This study uses numerical modeling to analyze the flame spread and burning of wavy (corrugated) thin solids and the effect of varying the wave amplitude. Sensitivity to gas phase chemical kinetics is also analyzed. Fire Dynamics Simulator is utilized for modeling. The simulations are two-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulations including finite-rate combustion, first-order pyrolysis, and gray gas radiation. Changing the fuel structure configuration has a significant effect on all stages of flame spread. Corrugated samples exhibit flame shrinkage and break-up into flamelets, behavior not seen for flat samples. Increasing the corrugation amplitude increases the flame growth rate, decreases the burnout rate, and can suppress flamelet propagation after shrinkage. Faster kinetics result in slightly faster growth and more surviving flamelets. These results qualitatively agreement with experiments.

Committee:

James T'ien (Committee Chair); Joseph Prahl (Committee Member); Yasuhiro Kamotani (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Fluid Dynamics; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

modeling;simulation;numerical modeling;combustion;computational combustion;direct numerical simulation;flame spread;burning;wavy;corrugated;fire dynamics simulator;FDS;fuel structure;fuel geometry;complex geometry;cardboard;

KUNDU, JAYDEEPNUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF LAMINAR FORCED CONVECTION IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL SINUSOIDAL CORRUGATED DUCTS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Engineering : Mechanical Engineering
Single-phase, periodically developed, constant property, laminar forced convection in two-dimensional and three-dimensional sinusoidal corrugated ducts, which are maintained at uniform wall temperature or uniform heat flux, are considered. The governing differential equations for continuity, momentum, and energy transfer are solved computationally using finite-volume/finite-difference techniques, where the pressure term is handled by the SIMPLE algorithm. The computational grid is non-orthogonal and non-uniform, and it is generated algebraically. All the dependent variables are stored in a non-staggered manner. For the two-dimensional problem, numerical solutions are obtained for different corrugation aspect ratios (γ = 2 x amplitude/wavelength), plate spacing ratio (ε = plate separation/amplitude), flow rates (Re). For the three-dimensional problem, different cross-stream aspect ratios (α = plate separation/width) are also considered. In pure Poisuelle flow, the flow pattern does not change with Reynolds number in the laminar regime. The flow remains always attached to the channel walls and viscous forces balance the pressure forces. Whereas in corrugated ducts, the flow pattern changes drastically with Reynolds number and the flow gets separated at a critical Re. This is because the pressure distribution ceases to be linear and local variations of pressure cause flow to separate. The size of the separation region is seen to be a function of Re, aspect ratio and spacing ratio and it increases with increasing Re and aspect ratio. With increasing spacing ratio, however, it first increases and then starts to decrease after a critical spacing ratio is reached. This behavior is also seen in the friction factor and Nusselt Number results, which increase to peak values corresponding to the critical spacing ratio value, and then begin to decrease. The corrugations essentially lead to periodic separation of boundary layers, thereby resulting in high local heat fluxes (boundary layer thickness almost equal to 0) at regions of reattachment and high local wall shear stresses at regions opposite to the regions of separation. As such, depending upon the aspect ratio, spacing ratio and Re, the average heat transfer coefficient increases many fold compared to that in a parallel flat-plate channel. The concomitant friction factor penalty, however, also increases. While the transverse vortex structure formed due to separation of flow is perpendicular to the direction of the primary flow in a two-dimensional wavy channel, there is another component of vorticity along the direction of primary flow in addition to the transverse component that comes into play in three-dimensional flows. This longitudinal component of vorticity arises because of the introduction of viscosity by the side walls that stretch and bend the transverse vortex lines. The strength of these vortices increases with increasing Re and decreases with increasing wall separation. This cross-stream longitudinal recirculation further increases the overall heat transfer coefficient. Both friction factor and Nusselt number results are presented for different corrugation aspect ratios and spacing ratios in the two-dimensional case, as well as for different cross-stream aspect ratios in the three-dimensional case, for a wide range of flow conditions (50 < Re < 1000) that highlight the enhanced thermal-hydraulic behavior of corrugated channels.

Committee:

Dr. Raj M. Manglik (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

LAMINAR FLOWS; CORRUGATED DUCTS; THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOWS; SINUSOIDAL WAVY DUCTS