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GERWE, JENNIFER LYNNCLASS AS PROCESS: AN ANALYSIS OF EAST END AND TAIWANESE WORKING-CLASS PRACTICES
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Arts and Sciences : Anthropology
This thesis proposes to use E. P. Thompson's concept of class in a comparative analysis of two working-class groups, one in the East End of Cincinnati, Ohio examined in Rhoda Halperin's ethnography Practicing Community (1998) and the other in Taiwan examined in Hill Gates' ethnography Chinese Working-Class Lives (1987) and Gates' "Class and Society in Taiwan" (1992). Thompson (1966:9) states that class is "an active process" and is "something that happens in human relationships." Class relations are relations of power and economics. This analysis focuses on working-class economic strategies and on how these strategies function as forms of resistance. A close analysis of East End and Taiwanese working-class practices, especially those associated with the use of kinship networks in informal economies, reveals certain class patterns. These patterns are patterns of resistance that have developed in response to the exploitative nature of both wage labor and the hegemony.

Committee:

Dr. Rhoda Halperin (Advisor)

Subjects:

Anthropology, Cultural

Keywords:

class as process; EP Thompson; East End working class; Taiwan working class; class practices

Alexander, Stephanie J. H.Views from the Summit: White Working Class Appalachian Males and Their Perceptions of Academic Success
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Cultural Studies (Education)
This research study explored how White working class Appalachian males who have completed, or who were within one term of completing a program of study at one of ten community and technical colleges in West Virginia perceived academic success. It examined their definitions of academic success, the perceptions they held regarding their own past and present academic successes, as well as their views regarding factors from their lived experience that they felt contributed to their program of study completion. Using qualitative methodology, data was collected through semi-structured interviews with eight participants. It was designed to reflect the tenets of Appreciative Inquiry. While reflecting the changes within White working class identity formation in response to the deindustrialization of the economy, the findings of this study present two contradictions with the research literature. The first is that these men were found to define academic success from a working class perspective. This demonstrated their adherence to working class cultural capital while successfully completing a postsecondary program of study. This implies they did not need to abandon their working class cultural capital in lieu of new cultural capital in order to be successful at the college level. Furthermore, the factors from their lived experience that participants named as contributing to their program of study completion were factors that have previously been identified in research literature as factors that commonly present as barriers to postsecondary success for working class students. However, the participants in this study indicated these factors presented as positive influences that assisted in facilitating their academic success. Additionally, the perceptions of past and present academic success held by participants were noted as those that 1) reflect the development of/presence of positive psychological capital within these individuals and 2) demonstrate the educational experiences of these men represent the working class identity in transition.

Committee:

Jaylynne Hutchinson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Michael Hess, Ph.D (Committee Member); Jerry Johnson, Ed.D (Committee Member); Yegan Pillay, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Community College Education; Community Colleges; Education Philosophy; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Higher Education

Keywords:

working class; academic success; community colleges; West Virginia community and technical college system; rural education; academic success and working class; higher education and working class; White working class men; West Virginia higher education

Collins, Connie LFraming the Great Divide: How the Candidates and Media Framed Class and Inequality During the 2012 Presidential Debates
MA, Kent State University, 2013, College of Communication and Information / School of Journalism and Mass Communication
Many communications scholars study political communication using frame analysis. There is, however, a lack of research into how frames are used in political communication to transmit meaning about economic class and inequality in American discourse. America long has been perceived as a land where opportunity is available to all. That notion is being challenged by an increasing disparity between the resources and opportunities that are available to a large percentage of Americans and what are available to a privileged few. Some journalists and economists call this the Great Divide between the 1 percent and the 99 percent most recently popularized by the Occupy Wall Street movement and protests. The presidential debates and the media coverage that followed the public outcry provided a rich source of elite frames that communicated meaning about class in America during the presidential election of 2012. This research explores the elite frame contest that surrounded the issues of class and the responsibilities of living in a shared economy. Its findings confirm the existence of a two-class structure, an emerging class struggle between the two, and the ideologies that drive the conflict.

Committee:

Danielle Coombs, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jacqueline Marino, M.A. (Committee Member); Jeff Fruit, M.A. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

Economic class in America; the Great Divide; frame analysis; textual analysis; political communication; middle class as political tool; 2012 presidential debates; Entman, Cascade of Activation; elite communication, class struggle, shared economic space

Yavorsky, Jill EvelynInequality in Hiring: Gendered and Classed Discrimination in the Labor Market
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Sociology
Occupational segregation between men and women is a leading contributor to economic gender inequality. Although occupational segregation has declined in recent decades, most integration progress occurred in white-collar, not working-class, occupations. Yet virtually no scholarship exists on how employers’ social closure practices such as hiring discrimination may vary by occupational class and contribute to uneven integration patterns. Therefore, two important questions remain: Has gender-based discrimination in early job-access points become polarized and concentrated among working-class contexts? And how do other occupational dimensions embedded within the broader class structure also affect employers’ hiring practices? Using data derived from comparative correspondence audits of 3,156 jobs (N=6,302 resumes) and content coded analyses of over 3,000 job-postings, this dissertation analyzes variations in early hiring practices in white-collar and working-class jobs across two important dimensions: 1) sex compositions (male- or female-dominated jobs); 2) gender-typing (masculine- or feminine-typed jobs based on gendered attributes in job advertisements). I also consider how these two occupational dimensions uniquely intersect to affect discrimination across class structure. First, I investigate whether the sex compositions of occupations influence the presence of gender-based, hiring-related discrimination against male and female applicants and whether such discrimination varies across occupational class. My findings suggest a polarization of early sorting mechanisms in which discrimination against female applicants is concentrated in male-dominated working-class jobs. In contrast, employers discriminate against male applicants applying for female-dominated jobs across the occupational hierarchy. Second, based on content analysis of job ads, I investigate whether hiring-related discrimination on the basis of gender varies depending on whether a job (more specifically, a job ad) is masculine-typed or feminine-typed, and whether occupational class exacerbates or reduces discrimination by the gender-typing of jobs. Similar to findings above, I find that discrimination against female applicants is more prevalent in masculine-typed working-class jobs and that discrimination against male applicants in feminine-typed jobs occurs in both classes. Third, I consider how the combination of these two occupational dimensions, sex composition and gender-typing, affects discrimination across class structure. I find that discrimination compounds across occupational dimensions that directionally align (e.g., feminine-typed and female-dominated), holding true for male-applicants in both occupational classes and female applicants in working-class jobs. Importantly, I also find that female applicants experience disadvantages in particular white-collar occupations that emphasize masculine-typed attributes—challenging findings by other prior audit studies that assess discrimination only at the job level. These findings build on theories of discrimination by conceptualizing hiring-related discrimination as a multi-dimensional process, contingent upon gendered and classed dimensions of work. This study identifies key contexts that ameliorate or exacerbate hiring inequality and in doing so, identifies a key discrimination process that goes unobserved in most studies—hiring-related discrimination based on gender-typing of jobs. This project provides some of the first pieces of direct evidence that working-class women experience greater social closure barriers during early entry points into both male-dominated and masculine-typed job—jobs that typically pay higher and have greater benefits. Discrimination, at this early point, could contribute to stalled economic gains among working-class women and correspondingly, rising inequality between lower- and higher-educated women. In conclusion, this project develops a more complex and nuanced conceptualization of hiring-related discrimination than prior studies and offers multiple unique findings and literature contributions.

Committee:

Vincent Roscigno (Advisor); Rachel Dwyer (Advisor); Claudia Buchmann (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Class; Discrimination; Female-dominated Occupations; Field Experiment; Gender; Gender Inequality; Hiring Discrimination; Hiring practices; Male-dominated Occupations; Occupational Class; Occupational Segregation; Resume Audit; Working-class; White-collar

Gerolami, Mark T“I Love This Bar”: Working-Class Expression Through Karaoke Song Selection
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Music Ethnomusicology
This thesis probes the meaning and processes of karaoke song selection at Whiskey Dick’s, a working-class bar in Bowling Green, Ohio. Through research, observations, and interviews conducted from 2005 to 2006, it examines how working-class identity manifests itself in karaoke song selection. An analysis of a single night at Whiskey Dick’s creates a framework for specific observations and gives the reader greater context, while the lengthy enthnography provides for more generalized observations. In interviews and discussions with the singers I attempt to uncover the meaning behind each song selected, discovering how conscious singers are of their choices. For some participants my research eventually impacted how they pick songs thus raising issues of intrusion by the ethnomusicologist. I examine several of the most popular songs at Whiskey Dick’s and analyze the lyrics of each, focusing on class representation within the lyrics. In addition, the difficulties of speaking about music and our musical preferences are explored and discussed in reference to the singers at Whiskey Dick’s.

Committee:

David Harnish (Advisor)

Keywords:

Karaoke; karaoke singing; working-class; class culture; bar; working-class bar; Bowling Green bar; karaoke performance

Connelly, ChloeClassless America?: Intergenerational Mobility and Determinants of Class Identification in the United States
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Arts and Sciences: Sociology
This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational mobility and subjective class status, with a specific focus on downward mobility. I propose that downward mobility will be associated with a higher likelihood of reporting a working/lower class status – as opposed to a middle or upper class status – even after accounting for other determinants of class status, such as income and education. Using logistic regression, I analyze the General Social Survey from 1994 – 2014 with a total sample size of just under 9,000 respondents. I find that both perceived downward mobility and objective downward mobility are independently associated with higher probabilities of identifying as lower/working class, with subjective downward mobility demonstrating a consistently stronger association. While subjective upward mobility is associated with a decrease in the log odds of identifying as lower or working class, the association between objective upward mobility and lower/working class status can be largely explained by social and economic factors such as subjective mobility and more traditional predictors of class status like income and education. This study builds on and updates existing research on intergenerational mobility. It applies social mobility research to a new context by studying its effect on subjective class status.

Committee:

David Maume, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Steven Carlton-Ford, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Intergenerational Mobility;Social Mobility;Subjective Class Status;Working Class;Middle Class;2008 Recession

SMITH, JACQUELINE R.THE INFLUENCE OF UPWARDLY MOBILE AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN'S RACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT ON ANTICIPATED SATISFACTION OF COUNSELING SERVICES
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Education : Counselor Education
Changing population trends and the diversification of the United States population have prompted mental health professionals to reevaluate the efficacy of strategies and approaches used in counseling. The heavy focus of research on Blacks of lower socioeconiomic status raises serious questions about generalizing findings to all African Americans without regard for possible intra-racial differences. This study explored whether upwardly-mobile, African American women's satisfaction of counseling methods, counselor ethnicity, and racial composition of counseling group membership was associated with their level of racial identity. One hundred and twenty three African American women completed a survey using the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8 to rate their anticipated satisfaction of a specifically described counseling service. Participants also completed the Black Racial Identity Research Scale Revised. Results revealed that racial identity did not influence satisfaction on any of the variables investigated. There was a significant difference between anticipated satisfaction with a Black counselor and a White counselor. There were no significant differences between anticipated satisfaction of individual counseling and group counseling or between racially heterogeneous and racially homogeneous counseling group memberships. Findings of this study underscore previous research stating that African Americans prefer same-race counselors. The results also suggest that the type of counseling and composition of counseling groups may not be as salient to African American women as counselor-client racial similarity. Implications of this research suggest that the visual and physical presence of African American counselors within mental health and counseling agencies could make professional counseling more attractive, accessible, and credible for African American women. In addition, counselor-client racial matching may also reverse the underutilization of mental health services among people of color seeking professional counseling.

Committee:

Dr. Robert Conyne (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Guidance and Counseling

Keywords:

racial identity development; counseling satisfaction; counseling middle-class African American women; African American women; middle-class African American women

Patterson, Kathryn AnnaHow Class Background Influences Negative Countertransference in Outreach Therapy
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2013, Antioch New England: Clinical Psychology
This dissertation examines how the class background of social workers and doctoral level psychologists influences negative countertransference towards working with the poor in an outreach setting. A literature review explores countertransference from a psychoanalytic stance and showcases the development of the two disciplines, psychology and social work, and how class has directly or implicitly been a factor. Finally, the review discusses outreach therapy, its advantages and limitations, and how doing this work can impact clinicians. Participants for the study were master's level clinicians, current and former predoctoral psychology interns, postdoctoral fellows, and other doctoral level clinicians who were currently or formerly practicing outreach therapy. Participants completed two measures that were developed by the principal investigator. The first measure asked participants to identify with one of four possible social class descriptions. The second measure was a series of 10 vignettes portraying potential countertransference scenarios. Participants were to select from three possible "emotional blends" of negative countertransference and then rank the intensity (1-5) of that particular emotional blend. The study had 27 participants varying in age, gender and ethnicity. Chi-square analyses between education level and social class, education level and countertransference, and social class and countertransference, all were not significant. Descriptive statistics outlined the frequencies of emotional blend responses for each vignette, as well as levels of intensity for each emotional blend and respective vignette. Means and standard deviations indicated differences between social classes and the average level of intensity that was experienced. T-tests indicated that there were significant differences between master's and doctoral level clinicians regarding emotional blends. The research implies that there are relationships between education level and social class and its influence on negative countertransference in outreach therapy. Possible explanations include that people from lower class backgrounds are better able to work with people from lower class backgrounds. Further, those who go into social work versus psychology are better able to work in an outreach setting as they receive focused training in working with an underprivileged population.

Committee:

Roger Peterson, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); Kathy McMahon, Psy.D. (Committee Member); Barbara Belcher-Timme, Psy.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology

Keywords:

countertransference; social class; lower class; outreach therapy; social workers; psychologists; clinicians; poverty

DeGenaro, WilliamThe nature of working-class literature: an ecofeminist critique
Master of Arts in English, Youngstown State University, 1998, Department of English
In recent years, literary scholars have begun to distrust, challenge, and expand the canon, which formerly limited students of literature to the study of dead, white, upper-class male writers. In addition to contemporary writers, women writers and writers of color, the academy has begun to study writers who come from and/or represent the causes of the working-class. This sub-genre has served a transformative, political function, scholars, aided by the writing of Marx, have rightly recognized the class and gender issues that are often explicit in the texts. Another oppressed “other” is also present in several important texts of working-class fiction and poetry: the environment. Much working-class literature captures the abuse of the Earth, alongside the abuses of workers and of women, and scholars of working-class studies have yet to explore this literary territory. In this thesis, I propose and ecofeminist way of reading working-class literature that recognizes this additional “other.” An ecofeminist reading seeks to avoid setting up a hierarchy of oppressions. As ecofeminist critic Patrick Murphy has noted, ecofeminism places multiple abuses in the global context of the relationships human beings have with the natural world. So I examine the ways nature is both oppressed and empowered in working-class literature; how the authors portray the ecology alongside issues of class and gender; and to the unique, sometimes contradictory ways nature is aligned with the feminine.

Committee:

Linda Strom (Advisor)

Keywords:

ecofeminism; working class; gender; class; literature

Wilson, Caitlin Persin The Expression of Major Histocompatibility Class I and Major Histocompatibility Class II on Macrophages in the Presence of Aryl Hydrocarbon Antagonist (CH-223191)
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2016, Microbiology and Immunology
Macrophages are crucial for ridding the body of debris and foreign cells. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) also plays a critical role in immunity. This study examined the effect of the AhR on the expression of major histocompatiability complex class I (MHCI) and MHC class II (MHCII) in two murine macrophage cell lines. This study used Raw264.7 and J774A.1 murine macrophage cell lines. The Raw264.7 cells are from male BALB/c mice while the J774A.1 cells are from female BALB/cN mice. The addition of the AhR anatagonist CH-223191 (AhRa) showed that the AhR does not significantly impact MHCI expression. However, MHCII expression was decreased by the addition of AhRa in Raw264.7 cells, while MHCII expression was significantly increased in J774A.1 cells after AhRa addition. During the course of the study, trypan blue results showed increased cell survival in classically activated macrophages. Therefore, early apopotosis, late apoptosis, and necrosis were examined by annexin V and propidium iodide analysis. Cell death analysis showed increases in late apoptosis for both cell lines after the addition of AhRa, suggesting the AhR plays a role in cell survival during macrophage activation. This study shows that even basal levels of AhR expression can impact MHCII expression and apoptosis of murine macrophages.

Committee:

Nancy Bigley, Ph.D. (Advisor); Barbara Hull, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Courtney Sulentic, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Immunology

Keywords:

MHC; MHC class I; MHC class II; macrophages; J774A1; Raw2647; AhR; apoptosis; CH223191; immunity; innate immunity

Pentukar, Sai KiranOCLEP+: One-Class Intrusion Detection Using Length of Patterns
Master of Science in Cyber Security (M.S.C.S.), Wright State University, 2017, Computer Science
In an earlier paper, a method called One-class Classification using Length statistics of (jumping) Emerging Patterns (OCLEP) was introduced for masquerader detection. Jumping emerging patterns (JEPs) for a test instance are minimal patterns that match the test instance but they do not match any normal instances. OCLEP was based on the observation that one needs long JEPs to differentiate an instance of one class from instances of the same class, but needs short JEPs to differentiate an instance of one class from instances of a different class. In this thesis, we present OCLEP+, One-class Classification using Length statistics of Emerging Patterns Plus by adding several new ideas to OCELP. OCLEP+ retains the one-class training feature of OCELP, hence it only requires the normal class data for training. Moreover, OCELP+ has the advantage of being not model or signature based, making it hard to evade. OCLEP+ uses only length statistics of JEPs, making it a robust method. Experiments show that OCELP+ is more accurate than OCLEP and one-class SVM, on the NSL-KDD datasets.

Committee:

Guozhu Dong, Ph.D. (Advisor); Junjie Zhang, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Bin Wang, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Information Systems

Keywords:

Intrusion Detection; OCLEP; OCLEP plus; Border Differential algorithm; One-class; One Class; Emerging patterns; Jumping Emerging Patterns

Lucas, NanoshSoup at the Distinguished Table in Mexico City, 1830-1920
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Spanish/History (dual)
This thesis uses soup discourse as a vehicle to explore dimensions of class and hierarchies of taste in Mexican cookbooks and newspapers from 1830-1920. It contrasts soups with classic European roots, such as sopa de pan (bread soup), with New World soups, such as sopa de tortilla (tortilla soup) and chilaquiles (toasted tortillas in a soupy sauce made from chiles). I adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, combining quantitative methods in the digital humanities with qualitative techniques in history and literature. To produce this analysis, I draw from Pierre Bourdieu’s work on distinction and social capital, Max Weber’s ideas about modernization and rationalization, and Charles Tilly’s notions of categorical inequality. Results demonstrate that soup plays a part in a complex drama of inclusion and exclusion as people socially construct themselves in print and culinary practice. Elites attempted to define respectable soups by what ingredients they used, and how they prepared, served, and consumed soup. Yet, at the same time, certain soups seemed to defy hierarchical categorization, and that is where this story begins.

Committee:

AmĂ­lcar ChallĂș (Committee Co-Chair); Francisco Cabanillas (Committee Co-Chair); Amy Robinson (Committee Member); Timothy Messer-Kruse (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Latin American History

Keywords:

gente decente; sopa de pan; chilaquiles; sopa de tortilla; soup; distinction; Mexico; taste; hierarchy; class; middle class; hegemony; cookbooks; bread; broth; caldo; food; cocina; newspapers; Mexican; text mining

Cui, XianEfficient radio frequency power amplifiers for wireless communications
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Electrical Engineering

Nowadays there has been increasing demand for radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers (PAs) to have high efficiency so as to extend wireless terminal’s battery/talk time and achieve low form-factor in mobile, as well as reduce the cooling and electrical power cost in base stations.

The classical design equations of efficient switching-mode class E PAs have been challenged by non-ideal issues which can lead the analysis of class E PAs to be enormously complex and intractable. In this work, the design of class E pHEMT PA has been improved based on the ADS load-pull simulation, which permits an iterative search for the nominal impedance values that maximize efficiency and output power under various bias/load conditions of the active transistor.

An important contribution of this dissertation is the proposed multi-harmonic real-time active load-pull (RT-ALP) based on the large signal network analyzer (LSNA), for designing high efficiency non-linear PAs. It applies real-time tunings at the second and third harmonic frequencies, which enable to quickly synthesize a wide range of harmonic load reflection coefficients without stability issue due to open-loop structure. Fast acquisition of reliable large-signal data generates the RF dynamic loadlines, PAE and power contour plots for guiding the design of non-linear PAs. A GaN HEMT demonstrats a PAE of 81% (class F) at 2 GHz by tuning up to the third harmonic. Based on the predicted optimal impedances, a pHEMT PA is designed and constructed with matching networks achieving 68.5% PAE at 2 GHz, further demonstrating the efficacy and reliability of the proposed multi-harmonic RT-ALP for the interactive design of power efficient PAs.

An integrated CMOS Doherty PA for 3.5 GHz WiMAX is designed using the 0.18µm TSMC CMOS. Cascode transistors are chosen to achieve high efficiency and address the low breakdown voltage issue. Lumped components replace the λ/4 transmission line for circuitry miniature. The layout passes all the DRC/LVS checks and is implemented with the novel GSML methodology for parasitics control. Compact integrated diode linearizers are utilized to improve IMD3 up to 5.75 dBc. The Doherty PA achieves a 24.5 dBm output power of and 43% PAE at 3.5 GHz.

Committee:

Patrick Roblin (Advisor)

Keywords:

Radio Frequency (RF); Power Amplifier (PA); non-linear; Class E; Class F; Doherty; Load-pull; Large Signal Network Analyzer (LSNA); fundamental; harmonic; high efficiency; PAE; pHEMT; GaN; CMOS; Ground Shielded Microstrip Line(GSML); layout

Roig, OliviaGreen Day: Rock Music and Class
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Popular Culture
The pop punk band Green Day is a surprisingly interesting source for a discussion of class. Despite their working class background, and their massive successes with Dookie in 1994, and American Idiot in 2004, Green Day performs many middle class values in their song lyrics, stage shows, and interviews. Using Chris McDonald’s book Rush: Rock Music and the Middle Class as a template, this paper analyzes Green Day’s performance of class through theories about social class in North America. Throughout Green Day’s career, there is a noticeable tension between wanting to stick to their working class roots and acknowledging their sudden and unexpected thrust into an upper class economic standing. Yet, despite skipping a middle class standing economically, their song lyrics, stage shows, and interviews articulate many middle class values such as individualism, professionalism, and the middle class family.

Committee:

Jeremy Wallach, Dr (Advisor); Jeremy Wallach, Dr (Committee Chair); Esther Clinton, Dr (Committee Member); Jones Dalton, Dr (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Music

Keywords:

class; Green Day; Chris McDonald; Rush; middle class values; punk music

Sharif, BonitaEmpirical Assessment of UML Class Diagram Layouts Based on Architectural Importance
PHD, Kent State University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
The dissertation presents a suite of empirical studies that investigate the effectiveness of different layout techniques for Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagrams. Three different layout schemes are examined. The architectural importance of classes is used to guide each layout technique. Architectural importance in a UML class diagram is defined by stereotype information, in this case the control, boundary and entity class stereotypes. Stereotypes are an extension mechanism provided by the UML that allow users to define semantics for the notation. The premise is that layout techniques for UML class diagrams significantly impact comprehension.The experiments use traditional questionnaire-based methods as well as eye-tracking equipment to quantitatively measure the performance of subjects solving specific software maintenance tasks. Both high-level and low-level software engineering tasks are examined. The layout techniques are also applied to design pattern comprehension in class diagrams. Two of the experiments are replicated using an alternate method of data collection to support and verify the findings. In addition, the effect of identifier styles (camel case and underscore) on the readability of UML class diagrams are also examined and is viewed as complementary to layout schemes used. The main contribution is a detailed empirical validation of a set of layout techniques with respect to a variety of software maintenance tasks. Results indicate that layout plays a significant role in the comprehension of UML class diagrams. In particular, there is a significant improvement in accuracy, time, and visual effort for one particular layout scheme, namely multi-cluster. In addition, a set of quantifiable eye-tracking measures are presented that provide an objective metric to measure the visual effort for class diagram layouts. The ultimate purpose of the research is to determine effective ways to adjust the layout of existing UML class diagrams to support program comprehension. Based on the empirical evidence, a set of guidelines for layout adjustment is presented.

Committee:

Jonathan Maletic, PhD (Advisor); L. Gwenn Volkert, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Walker, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Collard, PhD (Committee Member); Jocelyn Folk, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Education; Experiments

Keywords:

UML class diagram layout; controlled experiments; eye-tracking studies; empirical studies; layout guidelines; eye-tracking metrics; quality of UML class diagram layouts

Nepal, Rajeev ManiClass II MHC function in macrophages and mice infected with mycobacterium
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Microbiology
The interaction between macrophages and CD4+ T cells is central to the adaptive immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The primary goal of this thesis was to determine if macrophages infected with pathogenic Mycobacterium spp can function in the processing and presentation of antigens via the class II MHC pathway. To this end, we first characterized the endocytic proteases available to the infected macrophage. We found that the maturation of Cat L into its' two-chain active forms is impaired in macrophages harboring either M. avium or M. tuberculosis, rendering these cells deficient in the predominant intracellular, and extracellular active forms of the enzyme. Secondly, we showed that DM, but not Cat B, -S, or -L, is absolutely required to control a primary aeorosl infection of mice with MTB. MTB specific CD4+ T cells were not elicited in the absence of DM. The data suggest that most, if not all MTB antigens require DM for presentation by class II molecules to CD4+ T cells. Thirdly, we demonstrated that macrophages of distinct lineages and activation states differ in the ability to process and present mycobacteria derived antigens via class II MHC molecules. The data showed that GM-CSF derived bone marrow macrophages were significantly more efficient than M-CSF derived bone marrow macrophages at processing M. avium and M. tuberulosis bacilli (live or dead) for presentation of the immunodominant anigen, Ag85B, to specific T cells. The varying ability of each cell type to function in antigen presentation when infected may contribute to the ability of mycobacteria to persist in the host. Finally, we showed that the phagocytosis of M. avium by macrophages result in the generation of more stable nascent class II-peptide complexes at the cell surface, that are capable of stimulating antigen specific CD4+ T cells for prolonged periods.

Committee:

Paula Bryant (Advisor)

Keywords:

Class II MHC; Mycobacteria; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Mycobacterium avium; Cathepsin; Cathepsin L; DM; Macrophage; GMCSF; M-CSF; Stability Class II MHC

Miller, Amanda JaynePlaying House? The Paid Work and Domestic Divisions of Working Class, Class Straddling, and Middle Class Cohabiting Couples
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, Sociology

Over the past few decades the proportion of those who live together without marriage has increased markedly, with the majority of all marriages now preceded by a period of cohabitation. Past research suggests that cohabitors have more egalitarian beliefs than those couples who marry without first living together. However, despite their relatively egalitarian attitudes, as a group, cohabiting women are disadvantaged in that they do much of the work expected of wives but receive few of the benefits that married women gain from their nuptials. Working class cohabiting women may be especially disadvantaged because they are more likely than middle class cohabiting women to be supporting children within their co-residential unions, to have relatively low incomes, and also to be in partnerships where the most traditionally gendered household burdens fall primarily upon their shoulders. While the middle class may be expected to behave in more egalitarian ways, it is unclear what might occur in a relationship if only one partner has completed a 4-year degree; the more educated partner in a “class straddling” relationship may be able to transfer his or her “liberalized” attitudes to the less educated partner.

Here, I use interviews with 61 cohabiting couples (26 working class, 27 middle class, and 8 “class straddling” couples) to draw conclusions about the class-based similarities and differences in gendered enactments of power through examining couples’ work orientations, financial arrangements and control, and divisions of household labor. I also explore how and why couples’ divisions of labor have changed or remained stable over time and the changes they anticipate undergoing in the future.

I find that cohabiting couples are doing gender in one of four primary ways. Some are replicating conventional divisions of labor in which the male partner pays the majority of the household bills, and, in exchange, his female partner often privileges his job or takes on a larger proportion of the domestic work. Among other couples, at least one partner (generally the female) is contesting a traditional division of labor, with middle class and class straddling women having more success than their working class counterparts at getting their partners to share fairly equally in the domestic and financial obligations. Still other couples have counter conventional arrangements in which the female partner pays the majority of the household expenses; this division particularly disadvantages working class and class straddling women who also do the majority of the household chores and who view their inequitable divisions of labor as relatively permanent. Finally, a few middle class couples are engaged in equalitarian exchanges characterized by an effortless egalitarianism. Results suggest that, despite the growing shares of cohabiting couples, few models exist for creating a division of labor that is somewhere between completely conventional and truly egalitarian. Instead, couples must often constantly negotiate their domestic and financial obligations to maintain a division that each partner feels is equitable enough to maintain their relationships

Committee:

Sharon Sassler, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Elizabeth Menaghan, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Liana Sayer, PhD (Committee Member); Kristi Williams, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

cohabitation; working class; middle class; division of labor; work orientation; housework

Watts, Sharon A“‘Heritage’ Not Hate”: The Confederate Flag as an ‘Iconic Identity Text’ Within a Narrative of Racial Healing
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2006, English
This paper investigates the Confederate flag as an iconic symbol situated within the realm of visual rhetoric as identity politics. Following a resolution by the NAACP calling for the removal of Confederate flag insignia from political sites, national attention fell upon southern states as a variety of American publics argued the meaning of the flag in order to determine its appropriate context. This paper will examine the signifying practices surrounding the Confederate flag in the North as well as the South as its signification was reduced to either hatred (for those who opposed its racial connotations) or “heritage” (for those who supported its associations with a rebellious Confederate mentality and rural southern life). Within a media constructed narrative that focused on the flag’s racial connotations, the white working-class population largely in support of the flag as southern “heritage” were reduced to redneck types, both racist and working-class.

Committee:

Cynthia Lewiecki-Wilson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Language, Rhetoric and Composition

Keywords:

Confederate flag; Visual Rhetoric; Rhetoric of Social Class; Working-Class Rhetoric; Rednecks

Curran, Michele M.Torn Identity: Workingwomen and Their Struggle Between Gender and Class, 1932-1950
MA, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
This study investigates the experience of American workingwomen struggling to balance their identity as women and workers. Gender was culturally constructed to create roles for men and women that fit societal needs, as these needs fluctuated, roles changed. This thesis examines the appropriate gender roles for women according to government policy, capitalist initiatives, and media representations, while exploring the everyday conflict workingwomen expressed in oral histories when prioritizing responsibilities to their families and society. Over the years, images of ideal women varied and sent contradictory messages about the proper place of women in society, amplifying tension for workingwomen during the Great Depression, World War II, and the Post-War Years. During the Great Depression, women were encouraged by the government and pressured by society to stay home, vacating jobs for unemployed men. Despite hostility, more and more women entered the workforce, performing a masculine objective to pay bills and feed themselves and loved ones. At the beginning of World War II, when the United States experienced a labor shortage which decreased production and hindered the nation’s ability to wage war, women were called upon to obtain industrial jobs. Empowering images of beautiful young women with their sleeves rolled up and ready to work for victory, flooded magazines and factory walls, inspiring women to obtain masculine jobs in order to bring their men home sooner. Women were conflicted, placing their new duty to society before the needs of their families, by prioritizing work over their traditional responsibilities as mothers and homemakers. Regardless of the attempt to feminize industrial jobs, female industrial workers experienced a new masculine identity which challenged their relationships with the men they worked with and other female war workers in feminine jobs. At the war’s end, female industrial workers, left or were pushed out of their jobs and returned to their former feminine employment positions while refocusing their attention on their families. During the Post-War years, the desires of ideal women in popular culture were conflicted between work and home, generating the roots of new feminism. In conclusion, under different circumstances workingwomen experienced a similar challenge to balance their identity throughout the three periods of change examined in this thesis.

Committee:

Kevin Adams, PhD (Advisor); Kenneth Bindas, PhD (Committee Member); E. Sue Wamsley, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; Gender Studies; History; Modern History; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Work; Women; Workingwomen; working women; working-class; class; middle; oral history; ideal women; perception; propaganda; feminism; The Great Depression; World War II; World War Two; Postwar; identity; conflict; struggle; femininity; gender

Das, Dilip A.Four-Year College Choice Considerations Among High-Achieving Lower-Income Community College Students in Michigan
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2013, Higher Education
The college choice considerations and decisions of high school seniors matriculating full-time to four-year colleges is well-documented. However, a growing majority of students do not fit within the high school to four-year college group, leaving gaps in the college choice research literature. This qualitative study addresses the college choice research gap though semi-structured interviews of 17 academically talented – 3.5 or higher grade point average with over 25 college credits completed – Pell Grant-eligible community college students seeking transfer to a four-year college. All participants demonstrated high levels of motivation to complete a baccalaureate. Twelve of participants applied to only one transfer college and five applied to two. Constraints on college choice included a variety of financial considerations, strategic recruiting strategies by four-year colleges, and a lack of detailed guidance and college knowledge. Utilizing a cultural capital framework for analysis, marked differences between the college experiences of traditional four-year students and high-achieving, low-income non-traditional community college students were found including differences based on class, race and cultural traditions.

Committee:

David Meabon, PhD (Committee Chair); Mary Ellen Edwards, PhD (Committee Member); Larry G. McDougle, PhD (Committee Member); Penny Poplin Gosetti, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Academic Guidance Counseling; Adult Education; African American Studies; Community College Education; Economics; Education Finance; Education Policy; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Middle Eastern Studies; Sociology

Keywords:

Transfer college choice; college choice; lower-income; Pell-eligible; high-achieving; first generation; class reproduction; undermatching; cultural capital; stratification; workforce experience; motivation; choice constraints; race and class constraints

Gulbis, Angelika RutaKeeping All the Balls in the Air: Social Class and Stress, Relationship Commitment, and Marital Expectations among Cohabiting Young Adults
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Sociology
There exists a marriage divide between moderately educated young adults with less than a four year degree and those who have a college degree or higher. Working class cohabitors desire to form romantic unions, but often lack the resources to transition to marriage. While cohabiting, they occupy social roles such as parent, worker, and student, which may produce stress; this may make it difficult for young adults to juggle multiple roles and “keep all the balls in the air” while thinking about relationship commitment and plans to marry. Using data from the fourth wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this dissertation examines how social class and social roles and stress, relationship commitment, and marital expectations are interrelated among a sample of young adult cohabitors aged 24-32. This study draws upon the life course perspective and the Stress Process Model to examine 1) social class differences in social roles and perceived stress among cohabiting young adults 2) whether and how social class and social roles are related to relationship commitment, and 3) marital expectations. Findings indicate that advantaged cohabitors score significantly lower on stress than moderately and the least educated cohabitors. Although disadvantaged and working class cohabitors experience stress similarly, stress impedes commitment and marital expectations to a greater extent for working class cohabitors. In addition, moderately educated cohabitors have more social roles than their least and most educated counterparts, working to “keep all the balls in the air”. Contrary to expectations, the juggling act does not produce stress. Rather, social roles are tied to lower stress. However, social roles also reduce commitment to one’s partner, but social roles are not related to marital expectations. Meanwhile, advantaged cohabitors have higher odds of expectations to marry compared to moderately educated cohabitors, but commitment to one’s partner is similar across social class. These findings support the notion that the working class use cohabitation as an alternative to singlehood, which suggests a retreat from marriage among the moderately educated.

Committee:

Wendy Manning, PhD (Committee Chair); Susan Brown , PhD (Committee Member); Kara Joyner, PhD (Committee Member); Gary Lee, PhD (Committee Member); Shannon Pelini, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

cohabit; social class; working class; social roles; stress; relationship commitment; marital expectations; young adult

Garoutte, LisaLynching in the U.S. south: incorporating the historical record on race, class, and gender
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Sociology
Between 1882 and 1930, nearly 3,000 people were lynched in the U.S. South. This brutal and violent phenomenon has been of long standing interest to both sociologists and historians, yet sociologists have not fully incorporated historical insights into their modeling of lynching events. This project, drawing from prior sociological and historical work, addresses issues of class, gender, and race that have been largely overlooked in empirical accounts of lynching events. Quantitative data and analyses are first used to identify broader race competition and social class processes that led to the occurrence of lynching in the aggregate, and the specific selection of cases takes into account gendered-racist justifications provided for the violence. Qualitative and quantitative content coding of archival material are then used to examine the ways in which local media drew on gender, race and class biases to legitimate lynching events. The findings suggest that previous work on lynching, while informative, is limited: the organizational base of elites with respect to racial exploitation must be considered; race and gendered beliefs had important consequences for lynching, shaping who was lynched and why; and, finally, gendered-racist framing legitimate both the brutality of lynching and prevailing stratification arrangements. While directly relevant to the sociological literature on lynching, my findings also extend to the study of contemporary stratification. In particular, the results inform and address (1) our understanding of an historically important method of subordination and social control; (2) sociological conceptions of the relationship between race, class, and gender; and (3) the symbiotic relationship between structure and culture.

Committee:

Vincent Roscigno (Advisor)

Subjects:

Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies

Keywords:

lynching; racist violence; race, class, and gender; competition theory; split labor market theory

Cosmah, Michelle L.Ohio’s Urban Eight: An Analysis of Administrative Staffing Options and their Implications on Reading Achievement
EdD, University of Cincinnati, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Urban Educational Leadership
The purpose of this study is to provide educational leaders with additional data directly associated with three potential staffing options relevant to Ohio’s new accountability standards addressed in the Third Grade Guarantee (Ohio Department of Education, 2012c). Researchers and educators continue to recognize third grade as an important milestone in a child’s education (Allington, 2006; Frances and Lance, 2011; Helf and Cooke, Hernandez, 2010, 2011; and Kern, 2011). In addition, it is common for urban school leaders to often work in environments that include limited resources, programs, staffing concerns, and high teacher turnover rates (Allison, 2011; Erwin, Winn, & Erwin, 2011). The following research questions were addressed in order to provide leaders with additional information: 1. Is there a positive relationship between a school’s third grade reading achievement scores on the Ohio Achievement Assessment (OAA) and critical staffing decisions? 2. Is there a positive relationship between a school’s third grade reading achievement scores on the Ohio Achievement Assessment (OAA) in specified levels of proficiency and critical staffing decisions? Implications for educational leaders are presented. Findings include that a Library/Media Specialist and class size ratios are significantly correlated with students scoring proficient or higher on the OAA. Furthermore, a Reading Professional and a Library/Media Specialist are not significantly correlated with students scoring in the limited category of proficiency, compared to both the limited and basic groups, on the OAA. Implications for further research are suggested.

Committee:

Carlee Escue, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Robert Harper, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Christopher Swoboda, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Tracy, Ed.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Keywords:

Reading Professional;Library Media Specialist;class size;Third Grade Reading Gurantee;leadership;staffing

Downing, Haley M.The Function of Just World Beliefs in Promoting Student Long-Term Academic Investment and Subjective Well-Being: The Moderating Effects of Social Status
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2012, Counseling Psychology
The current study sought to test the ability of just world beliefs to explain subjective well-being and long-term academic investment outcomes across social status in a college student sample. Belief in a just world has been posited as a psychological resource that allows individuals to perceive their world as controllable and predictable, which provides not only a basis for moderating emotion, even in the face of obstacles, but also creates a “social contract” of expectation that investments of effort in the short term will pay off in the long term, thus allowing for long-term goal orientation, investment, and planning. For members of ordinant groups, BJW has been found to be related to higher subjective well-being, lower distress, and increased engagement in long-term academic investments (Jost & Hunyady, 2005; Jost et al., 2003; Tomaka & Blascovich, 1994; Hafer, 2000). In contrast, more recent research with diverse groups has shown evidence that mental health and long-term goal orientation outcomes may not be identical to their majority peers. Just world beliefs among members of marginalized groups have been described as a “double-edged sword,” in which assuming responsibility for one’s social position, as conceptualized as high just world beliefs, has the effect of maintaining motivation to pursue higher education, while at the same time negatively affecting mood, self-esteem, and general well-being. This pattern of negative association between BJW and subjective well-being indicators has been observed in women (Foster & Tsarfati, 2005; Major et al, 2007), ethnic minority students (O’Brien & Major, 2005), and overweight women (Quinn & Crocker, 1999). The current study extended the literature by examining both outcomes in a single model within the context of subjective social status, using a college student sample. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling. Consistent with hypotheses, social status was significantly and positively related to subjective well-being and belief in a just world was positively related to subjective well-being and long-term academic investment. Contrary to hypotheses, social status did not moderate these relationships. Limitations of the current study are discussed, as are implications for future research and clinical practice.

Committee:

John Queener, Dr. (Advisor); James Rogers, Dr. (Committee Member); Kuldhir Bhati, Dr. (Committee Member); David Tokar, Dr. (Committee Member); Sandra Coyner, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Counseling Psychology

Keywords:

just world beliefs; social status; social class; subjective well being; academic investment

Karsono, SonyIndonesia's New Order, 1966-1998: Its Social and Intellectual Origins
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, History (Arts and Sciences)
This dissertation tackles one central problem: What were the intellectual and social origins of New Order Indonesia (1966-1998)? The analytic lens that this study employs to examine this society is the Indonesian middling classes' pursuit of modernity. The dissertation comes in two parts. Part One reconstructs the evolution of the Indonesian middling classes and their search for progress. Part Two uses three case studies to analyze the middling classes' search for Indonesian modernity under the New Order. The first explores the top-down modernization undertaken by President Soeharto's assistants at the National Development Planning Board, the Center for Strategic and International Studies, and the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology. The second case study investigates the "bottom-up" modernization performed by the Institute for Economic and Social Research, Education, and Information. The third case study deals with how several authors used popular fiction to criticize the kind of Indonesian modernity that emerged in the New Order era. This research yields several findings. First, the Indonesian middling classes championed a pragmatic, structural-functional path to modernity. Second, to modernize the country rapidly and safely, the modernizers proceeded in an eclectic and pragmatic manner. Third, between the Old and the New Order, there existed strong continuity in ideas, ideals, skills, and problems. Fourth, the middling classes' modernizing mission was fraught with contradictions, naiveties, ironies, and violence, which had roots in the nationalist movement in the first half of the twentieth century. The New Order was neither wholly new nor an aberration from the "normal" trajectory of Indonesia's contemporary history. The sort of modernity that the Indonesian middling classes ended up creating was Janus-faced.

Committee:

William H. Frederick (Committee Chair); Peter John Brobst (Committee Member); Patrick Barr-Melej (Committee Member); Elizabeth Fuller Collins (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Literature; Asian Studies; History

Keywords:

Indonesia; New Order; middle class; modernity; think tanks; non-governmental organizations; popular fiction; intellectual history; social history

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