Search Results (1 - 12 of 12 Results)

Sort By  
Sort Dir
 
Results per page  

Stalcup, Erik JamesNumerical Modeling of Upward Flame Spread and Burning of Wavy Thin Solids
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, EMC - Aerospace Engineering
Flame spread over solid fuels with simple geometries has been extensively studied in the past, but few have investigated the effects of complex fuel geometry. This study uses numerical modeling to analyze the flame spread and burning of wavy (corrugated) thin solids and the effect of varying the wave amplitude. Sensitivity to gas phase chemical kinetics is also analyzed. Fire Dynamics Simulator is utilized for modeling. The simulations are two-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulations including finite-rate combustion, first-order pyrolysis, and gray gas radiation. Changing the fuel structure configuration has a significant effect on all stages of flame spread. Corrugated samples exhibit flame shrinkage and break-up into flamelets, behavior not seen for flat samples. Increasing the corrugation amplitude increases the flame growth rate, decreases the burnout rate, and can suppress flamelet propagation after shrinkage. Faster kinetics result in slightly faster growth and more surviving flamelets. These results qualitatively agreement with experiments.

Committee:

James T'ien (Committee Chair); Joseph Prahl (Committee Member); Yasuhiro Kamotani (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Fluid Dynamics; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

modeling;simulation;numerical modeling;combustion;computational combustion;direct numerical simulation;flame spread;burning;wavy;corrugated;fire dynamics simulator;FDS;fuel structure;fuel geometry;complex geometry;cardboard;

Lombardo, Jeffrey A.SILVICULTURAL TREATMENT EFFECTS ON OAK SEED PRODUCTION AND ACORN WEEVIL DIVERSITY IN SOUTHEASTERN OHIO
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2007, Plant Biology (Arts and Sciences)

Oak regeneration failure in the hardwood forests of eastern North America has been well documented. Fire and thinning (fire surrogate) treatments are being studied as possible management tools to promote oak regeneration. We examined oak seed production and acorn weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) diversity from two forests in southeastern Ohio under different silvicultural treatments. Seeds were collected for five seasons from 2001-2005. Overall, stand level treatments only resulted in a slight increase in acorn production in the burn and thin & burn stands (as expected) relative to the control; however, this response was species specific. Masting was not attributable to the treatments. Insect data showed an increase in weevil activity in areas with the greatest acorn production. Stand level treatments did not have a significant impact on weevil abundance patterns. Our data suggest that factors influencing the masting cycle (e.g., climate) account for a much greater proportion of the variability in seed production than do stand level criteria.

Committee:

Brian McCarthy (Advisor)

Keywords:

prescribed burning; thinning; fire surrogate; silviculture; oak regeneration; masting; seed production; acorn weevils

Silvis, AlexanderThe Response of Bats to Shelterwood Harvest and Prescribed Fire
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2011, Environment and Natural Resources
Declining oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration in eastern forests of North America has become a concern to wildlife biologists and foresters as the loss of oaks as a major overstory component impacts wildlife habitat and timber resources. Consequently, specialized forest treatments utilizing a combination of mechanical thinning and prescribed fire have been developed to favor oak regeneration over that of more shade-tolerant species. Despite increasing and widespread use of these techniques, little is currently known about the effects these activities have on bats (Chiroptera), which are sensitive to changes in forest canopy coverage and clutter. This study quantified bat activity levels in response to changes in canopy clutter resulting from overstory thinning and prescribed burning. Bat activity levels were acoustically monitored using Anabat II bat detectors from May to September in 2006, 2009 and 2010 in two Ohio state forests across 12 treatment areas and 96 plots. Measures of individual tree crowns were made on all plots in 2006 and on a subsample of 30 plots during 2009 and 2010 to estimate changes in canopy volume. Bat activity was negatively correlated with structural volume, and was greater in harvested stands than control stands in all years. Total activity did not change between 2006 and 2009, despite increases in understory structural volume. In contrast, activity levels following prescribed fire were significantly lower, and were not related to decreases in clutter. Activity levels within burned stands were greater than levels within unthinned, unburned control stands. Species specific responses to fire were variable, with big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) being more fire tolerant than red bats (Lasiurus borealis) and Myotis bats. The results of this study suggest that while prescribed burning may decrease bat activity within thinned stands, activity will still be greater than in unthinned stands.

Committee:

Stanley Gehrt (Advisor); Roger Williams (Committee Member); Robert Gates (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ecology; Forestry; Natural Resource Management; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

bats; prescribed fire; prescribed burning; bat activity; shelterwood harvest

Petersen, Sheryl M.Vegetation dynamics and the efficacy of prescribed fires in restoring oak-dominated ecosystems in southern Ohio
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2012, Biology
Most pryrogenic ecosystems are endangered due to encroachment of fire-sensitive species and loss of fire-tolerant species caused by altered fire regimes, especially fire suppression. Restoration of these degraded systems typically involves the reintroduction of fire via prescribed burning. I evaluated the efficacy of prescribed fire in reducing woody plant encroachment in fire-suppressed oak-dominated ecosystems in the Bluegrass Region of southern Ohio. In the first study, I tested the effects of biennial fire and a fire surrogate (clipping) on woody and herbaceous vegetation abundance in oak barrens. I found that fire and clipping produce similar responses in vegetation, and although these treatments reduce the aerial cover of shrubs, they do not lessen shrub resprouting or promote herbaceous plants. Next, I described the characteristics of oak-dominated forests prior to the reintroduction of fire. My snapshot of seedling layer vegetation in these forests highlights the variation in vegetation and environmental factors over small and large spatial scales. Despite their distinctions in composition, the structural patterns at all the forest stands provide evidence for a general shift in composition from oak (Quercus) to maple (Acer) dominance. Oaks are failing to regenerate and are being replaced by actively recruiting maples. Fires are predicted to reverse this shift by acting as a filter for maples resulting in the promotion oaks. In my final study, I tested this prediction and evaluated the effects of fire season and topkill with and without heating on forest seedling composition and abundance. I found no clear effect of fire season, or heating, and only limited support for the prediction that fires act as a filter for maples. Overall, these results indicate that fire might maintain initial vegetation conditions, but is not effective in reversing encroachment in oak-dominated ecosystems. Despite the limited spatial and temporal scale of my studies, these results are consistent with the general findings in the literature. They underscore the need to test multiple aspects of the fire regime (frequency, intensity, and season) in concert with structural manipulations. They also suggest that we may need to modify our expectation that fire will restore these highly altered systems.

Committee:

Joseph Koonce, PhD (Advisor); Roy Ritzman, PhD (Committee Chair); Robin Snyder, PhD (Committee Member); David Burke, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Benard, PhD (Committee Member); Matthew Dickinson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Ecology; Forestry

Keywords:

fire; fire suppression; barrens; forest; oak-dominated; maple; oak; prescribed fire; prescribed burning; resprouting; herbaceous plants; shrubs; woody plants; oak-maple shift; forest structure; Quercus; Acer; seedling; Bluegrass Region; Ohio; clipping

Lattanzio, Matthew S.Ecological and Phenotypic Divergence among Ornate Tree Lizard (Urosaurus ornatus) Color Morphs in Response to Environmental Variation
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2014, Biological Sciences (Arts and Sciences)
Anthropogenic disturbance has been described as an agent of ecological divergence, yet our understanding of the processes linking these phenomena are limited. The changes in resource availability (i.e., resource limitation) following a disturbance may favor variation in physiology, behavior, or ecology (e.g., habitat use and diet) in a species in order to minimize competition and satisfy life-history demands. Consequently, populations in disturbed environments may differ in these characteristics from populations in environments where resources are abundant. In this dissertation I address these considerations for tree lizards (Urosaurus ornatus) from grassland regions varying in prescribed burn history. In the southwestern US, burning induces environmental shifts towards structural homogenization and grass-dominance, resulting in resource-limited environments. Moreover, tree lizards are polymorphic in reproductive behavior and throat color that is maintained by socially-mediated sexual selection. In the following chapters I first introduce my study system and the role of anthropogenic disturbance in generating environmental variation (Chapter 1). I then validate the use of stable isotope analysis to describe one of the major consequences of resource limitation, trophic niche divergence, among color morphs of my focal taxon (Chapter 2). I then use field-collected isotopic data to demonstrate that color morphs differing in reproductive behavior may also diverge in ecology and morphology (Chapter 3). Thus, color polymorphic species are likely maintained in part by both divergent natural and sexual selection, and consequently, not all morphs may respond equally to environmental perturbations. Using a novel approach, I link morphological and ecological traits with environmental variation, illustrating that U. ornatus color morphs differing in morphological trait combinations also differ in the degree they `fit’ their microhabitats (Chapter 4). Specifically, dominant morphs, and those lizards that exhibit divergent (non-average) morphologies, tended to `fit’ best. I use capture-mark-recapture data to explicitly demonstrate that those lizards also exhibited a survival advantage in more-disturbed sites. Finally, I demonstrate that environmental variation alters microhabitat use and spatial segregation of U. ornatus morphs, resulting in increased spatial overlap and more-intense social interactions among male lizards, favoring both ecological and phenotypic divergence in burned habitats (Chapter 5). Altogether, my findings suggest that divergence in phenotypic and ecological traits in U. ornatus may be an adaptive response to resource limitation resulting from environmental variation.

Committee:

Donald Miles, PhD (Advisor); Kelly Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); James Dyer, PhD (Committee Member); Molly Morris, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Ecology; Morphology; Physiology; Zoology

Keywords:

Alternative Mating Strategies; Color Polymorphism; Ecological Divergence; Prescribed Burning; Stable Isotope Analysis; Tree Lizard

Friedrich, Russell L.The short-term impacts of burning and mowing on prairie ant communities of the Oak Openings Region
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences
Controlled burning and mowing are among the most common forms of disturbance in prairie grasslands. Extensive studies on vegetative responses to fire, grazing, and mowing have been investigated, however, there is a lack of information on how animals and particularly insects are affected by these disturbances. Ants in particular play vital ecological roles in nutrient cycling, soil structure and turnover, predation, and seed dispersal, but few studies have assessed ant response to land management practices in prairie ecosystems. This research will assess the short-term impacts of controlled burning and mowing on ant communities. Ants were sampled in 17 prairie sites, divided into three treatments (burn, control, mow) within the Oak Openings Region in Ohio. All burn and mow sites were managed in November 2008 or April 2009 and sampled five times (once per month) with tuna baits between April 2009 and August 2009. Ant abundance, activity and richness were recorded and compared between months and among treatments. A total of 32 species were recorded, including two state records (Dorymyrmex insanus and Formica gynocrates). Control and burned plots had the greatest number of species (25 species each) while the mowed plots had 17 species. Ant activity levels and mean number of occurrences on baits did not differ depending on management type or within each management type by month, but did differ between the months of sampling period. Species similarity differed for all three management types, and differed in early and late summer. Thus, land management affects ant communities in terms of species similarity and richness, but not for abundance or activity of ants. This means in the short-term, burning and mowing have little impact on ant communities overall; however, differences in species composition may have important implications for prairie systems.

Committee:

Stacy Philpott, PhD (Advisor); Jonathan Bossenbroek (Committee Member); Daniel Pavuk (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ecology; Entomology; Management

Keywords:

ants; prairie; fire; management; burning; mowing

Pickens, Bradley ATHE CONSEQUENCES OF A MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR THE ENDANGERED KARNER BLUE BUTTERFLY
Master of Science (MS), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Biological Sciences
The effects of management on threatened and endangered species are difficult to discern, and yet, are vitally important for implementing adaptive management. The federally endangered Karner blue butterfly (Karner blue), Lycaeides melissa samuelis, inhabits oak savanna or pine barrens, is a specialist on its host-plant, wild blue lupine, Lupinus perennis, and has two broods per year. The Karner blue was reintroduced into the globally rare black oak/lupine savannas of Ohio, USA in 1998. Current management practices involve burning 1/3, mowing 1/3, and leaving 1/3 of the lupine stems unmanaged at each site. Prescribed burning generally kills any Karner blue eggs present, so a trade-off exists between burning to maintain the habitat and Karner blue mortality. The objective of my research was to quantify the effects of this management strategy on the Karner blue. In the first part of my study, I examined several environmental factors, which influenced the nutritional quality (nitrogen and water content) of lupine to the Karner blue. My results showed management did not affect lupine nutrition for either brood. For the second brood, I found that vegetation density best predicted lupine nutritional quality, but canopy cover and aspect had an impact as well. Relatively lower host-plant nitrogen during the second brood was accompanied by a higher adult foraging rate, which suggests a trade-off of nutritional resources during these different life stages. For the second part of my study, I used surveys and behavior observations to quantify how the Karner blue responded to management treatments. Second brood females and males were more abundant in burned management units, and behavior observations revealed Karner blues avoided ovipositing in unmanaged management units. These management units were unburned for at least four years and were often characterized by a high leaf litter depth (>3.5 cm). Recolonizations of Karner blues from source populations within 120 meters was rapid, and this suggests the rotation of management units is appropriate at this scale. Therefore, burning areas with a high leaf litter depth will cause minimal harm to the Karner blue population, and will likely benefit the many threatened and endangered species in this rare ecosystem.

Committee:

Karen Root (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biology, Ecology

Keywords:

butterfly; Karner blue butterfly; Lycaeides melissa; Lupinus perennis; management; behavior; oak savanna; nutrition; host-plant quality; foraging; prescribed burning; nitrogen

Davenport, Jeremiah RyanFrom the Love Ball to RuPaul: The Mainstreaming of Drag in the 1990s
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, Musicology
In the first half of the 1990s, Western popular culture experienced an infusion of drag. The success of Jenny Livingston’s seminal but highly problematic documentary of the Harlem Ballroom drag scene, Paris is Burning (1991), signaled an intrigue from popular and critical circles alike. The dance form “voguing,” born of the same Harlem Ballroom scene, appeared before and after the film’s release in music videos for Liz Torres, Taylor Dayne, Malcolm McLaren, and Queen Latifah. Madonna’s song “Vogue” and its accompanying video and live performances capitalized on the dance’s underground chic that had begun to bubble over into the mainstream. RuPaul’s “Supermodel (You Better Work)” and the clean and relatable image she created for herself around it soon after catapulted her from the Queen of Manhattan to legitimate stardom. In doing so, she and her team of collaborators turned her into a household name, musical performer, model, actress, and host of her own talk show. RuPaul’s rounding off of the edges of the drag queen image led drag characters to take center stage in the films Mrs. Doubtfire (Columbus 1993), The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (Elliot, 1994), To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything! Julie Newmar (Kidron, 1995), and The Birdcage (Nichols, 1996). Lady Bunny’s Wigstock festival also became a documentary focus in Wigstock (Shills, 1995) during the height of drag queen visibility in film. This dissertation traces the emergence of drag into the mainstream culture of the 1990s. I argue that three separate subcultures dramatically altered the aesthetics and aims of drag: Downtown New York new wave, Harlem House Ballroom, and London New Romantic. I explore how each of these artistic nightlife cultures incorporated drag and queer performance as well as the ways that each garnered increasing attention for drag from new audiences and media outlets. Susanne Bartsch’s role as a purveyor of drag to the worlds of fashion and art are also explored. Lastly, I examine the Hollywood films mentioned above and how drag and sexuality are treated in each, reflecting the approaches major studios, directors, and actors took in seeking a heterosexual audience for drag.

Committee:

Daniel Goldmark (Advisor); Georgia Cowart (Committee Member); Robert Spadoni (Committee Member); Francesca Brittan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History; Black History; Cultural Anthropology; Dance; Film Studies; Gender; Gender Studies; Glbt Studies; History; Latin American History; Modern History; Motion Pictures; Music; Performing Arts; Theater; Theater History; Theater Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

drag; drag queens; queer performance; Downtown New York; lgbtq; queer history; drag queen history; The Birdcage; Priscilla, Queen of the Desert; RuPaul; Madonna; Susanne Bartsch; Leigh Bowery; The Birdcage; Paris is Burning; performance art; Klaus Nomi;

Tenney, Gwendolyn HQuantifying the Effects of Prescribed Burning on Soil Carbon Efflux in an Ohio Oak Woodland
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2007, College of Arts and Sciences

Prescribed burning is a major management technique used to restore oak woodlands to previous oak savanna conditions. Burning alters biotic and biophysical variables by combusting the litter layer and heating the soil; however, the net effects of these cool fires on ecosystem processes like soil respiration (SR) are not well understood. This study examined immediate and seasonal responses of biotic variables, biophysical variables, and SR to prescribed burning in Northwest Ohio successional oak woodlands. A chronosequence of treatments (0, 1, 3, and 5 years after burning) was compared with unburned woodland to estimate the duration of fire effects. A paired design limiting landscape variability was incorporated by maintaining a burn exclusion area within the freshly burned treatment (0yr). The relationship between SR and its biotic and biophysical predictors, and the temperature sensitivity of SR (Q10) were also examined across treatments. Measurements were taken weekly between March 2005 and January 2006. Data were primarily analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance.

This study suggested that repeated fires had persistent impacts on forest structure and species composition, and transitory impacts on litter biomass, soil temperature, soil moisture, soil nutrients, SR, and Q10. Generally, changes caused by fire were not significantly different across the chronology; instead, fire effects were only visible within the first year after burning, and were most evident by comparing the paired sites. Fire effects changed by season so that spring SR at the freshly burned site was 18% higher than the paired site, summer SR was 36% lower, and fall SR recovered to unburned rates. Relationships between SR and its predictors changed slightly after burning, but soil temperature remained the dominant predictor across all treatments and seasons. Therefore, the effects of a single fire on successional woodland SR were seen to be weak and short-lived.

Committee:

Jiquan Chen (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biology, Ecology

Keywords:

Oak Openings; soil respiration; carbon cycling; fire; prescribed burning; chronosequence; Ohio; oak woodland; oak savanna; restoration

Akhtar, ShamimStudy of the 12C(α,γ)16O Reaction via the α-Transfer Reactions: 12C(6Li,d)16O and 12C(7Li,t)16O
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2016, Physics and Astronomy (Arts and Sciences)

The alpha capture reaction 12C(α,γ)16O plays an important role in helium burning in massive stars and their evolution. The reaction rate at Gamow energy (E ~ 300 keV) corresponding to helium burning temperature T~ 0.2 GK determines - together with the triple alpha reaction - the relative amounts of carbon and oxygen at the end of helium burning. Subsequent advanced burning stages in stars rely on the carbon and oxygen fuel. Consequently, the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction rate further influences the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements and even the evolution of massive stars that explode as supernovae. Therefore, a more precise rate for this reaction is highly desirable. Although there have been numerous experimental efforts to measure the radiative capture cross section at low energies (~ 300 keV) in the last 50 years, the desired accuracy of better than 10% has not been obtained. This is because the cross section is very small and it is impossible to measure it directly. The only way to measure this reaction cross section is to first measure it at the lowest energy possible and then extrapolate it down to the low energy. Even the extrapolations are complicated due to the contribution from ground state as well as cascade transitions.

To address this problem, we have studied the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction indirectly through the α-transfer reactions 12C(6Li,d)16O and 12C(7Li,t)16O at the Edwards Accelerator Laboratory facility at the Ohio University, Athens, Ohio by using the 4.5-MV tandem accelerator. Two independent measurements have been performed to check the consistency of the results. The 12C(6Li,d)16O measurements have been performed by using a 6Li beam of various beam energies (5, 4, 3.5, 3.25, 3, and 2.5 MeV) to bombard 12C targets of different thicknesses (15.0, 15.3, and 20 µg/cm2). The 12C(7Li,t)16O measurements have been performed by using 7Li beam at different beam energies (6, 5, 4.5, 4, and 3.5 MeV) and 12C targets of two different thicknesses (21 and 30 µg/cm2). Both the measurements have been performed at eight different laboratory angles i.e. 37.5, 52.5, 67.5, 82.5, 112.5, 127.5, 142.5, and 157.5.

The data was analyzed to determine the asymptotic normalization coefficients for the excited sub-threshold states: 0+ (6.05 MeV), 3- (6.13 MeV), 2+ (6.92 MeV), and 1- (7.12 MeV) in 16O. The asymptotic normalization coefficients for the 2+ (6.92 MeV), and 1- (7.12 MeV) states have been previously measured and well confirmed. However, the asymptotic normalization coefficients for the 0+ (6.05 MeV) and 3- (6.13 MeV) have not been measured in the past except for a very recent measurement by another group. My measurement provides a crosscheck to that measurement, which is important since the measurements are being made for the first time. The asymptotic normalization coefficients determined from the 12C(6Li,d)16O measurements are: C20+ (6.05 MeV) = (3.39 ± 0.33) x 106, C23- (6.13 MeV) = (2.26 ± 0.23) x 104, C22+ (6.92 MeV) = (1.71 ± 0.16) x 1010, and C21- (7.12 MeV) = (5.32 ± 0.59) x 1028, respectively in the units of fm-1. The asymptotic normalization coefficients determined from the 12C(7Li,t)16O measurements are:C20+ (6.05 MeV) = (3.69 ± 0.56) x 106, C23- (6.13 MeV) = (1.80 ± 0.29) x 104, C22+ (6.92 MeV) = (1.40±0.67) x 1010, and C21- (7.12MeV) = (2.57±1.23) x 1028, respectively in the units of fm-1

.

Committee:

Carl Brune (Advisor); Jixin Chen (Committee Member); David Tees (Committee Member); Justin Frantz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Nuclear Physics

Keywords:

helium burning reaction; stars; triple alpha reaction; asymptotic normalization coefficients; distorted born wave approximation calculations; optical model; astrophysical s factor, nuclear astrophysics;optical model potential parameters

Chiang, Jyh-MinAboveground Carbon Storage and Net Primary Production in Human Impacted Forests Under Current and Future Climate Scenarios
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2007, Plant Biology (Arts and Sciences)

Forested ecosystems contain the largest terrestrial carbon pools and fluxes on earth. Thus, forest ecosystem disturbances can result in large perturbations in global carbon cycling and subsequently climate. The objective of my dissertation was to investigate the role of forest burning and thinning, changing climate, and changing species compositions on carbon cycling in a subset of forests in the eastern United States. I examined processes that influenced net primary production (NPP) of forested ecosystems at different scales: First, I examined the sensitivity of budburst phenology on simulations of NPP and, based on the Harvard Forest phenology database, I optimized a subroutine, which included a chilling factor, for the prediction of budburst dates. Budburst phenology was a sensitive variable in PnET model simulations but leaf-off date was not. The phenology subroutine, when applied to southern Ohio forests, exhibited geographic specificity, highlighting the importance of local phenological data. Second, I examined the effects of mechanical thinning, prescribed burning, and multiple environmental factors on specific leaf weight (SLW) and leaf nitrogen content (Nmass) of seven common tree species. Increases in both leaf traits were positively associated with increases in potential NPP. Thinning increased SLW at the lower canopy by 22% and resulted in an 8% increase of modeled NPP. The effects of burning were not significant. Variations of both leaf traits were primarily explained by species differences. Third, I assessed the impacts of thinning and burning on aboveground carbon stocks and NPP using both field measurements and PnET model simulations in southern Ohio. Only thinning affected NPP (> -30%); however, the thinning effect on NPP was transient (1-2 years) according to both field and model results. Lastly, at a larger spatio-temporal scale, I used the PnET-II model to simulate the NPP consequences of potential tree species redistribution and future climate in four selected focal areas (40,000 km2 each). The effects of potential species redistribution predicted in 2100 had moderate effects (-12% to 8%) on NPP compared to the impacts of future climatic change (-60% to 25%). As increasing temperatures negatively impact NPP, the reduction in forest carbon uptake capacity could accelerate changing climate.

Committee:

Kim Brown (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biology, Ecology

Keywords:

net primary production; leaf traits; leaf nitrogen; specific leaf weight; SLW; SLM; LMA; budburst; phenology; thinning; burning; climate change; community change

Dennis, TeresaResponses of Avian Communities to Shelterwood Cuts and Prescribed Burns in Eastern Deciduous Forests
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2002, Biological Sciences (Arts and Sciences)

Avian community structure is determined by many abiotic and biotic factors such as bird-habitat associations, resource partitioning, and species interactions. Disturbance, such as shelterwood harvesting and prescribed burning, alter these patterns of co-existence. I studied avian forest communities at three sites in Southeast Ohio. Each site consists of four treatment plots: control, burn, thin, and thin + burn. I determined differences in species composition, richness, mean abundance, and nest success at each site.

Avian species composition and abundance appear most impacted within the burn plots in 2001. Species richness is highest in the thin only and thin and burn plots. Daily nest survival rates are similar across treatments and years. My results are comparable to other studies that found these management practices provide habitat for both gap associated birds and mature forest birds. Further research is needed to determine the impact of other factors that may mask treatment effects.

Committee:

Donald Miles (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biology, General

Keywords:

Avian Community Structure; Shelterwood Harvesting; Prescribed Burning; Avian Community Composition; Avian Abundance