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Park, Sang HeeThe Antecedents and Consequences of Brand Image: Based on Keller’s Customer-Based Brand Equity
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, Hospitality Management
Due to the fact that brand equity has received significant research attention, brand image in the customer-based brand equity framework, has been recognized as an important concept in marketing and consumer behavior research. While an increasing number of studies have focused on conceptualizing brand image, empirical research on brand image in the restaurant industry has been consistently criticized for deficiencies of theoretical grounding and conceptual rigor. Therefore, there is an urgent need to investigate ways in which brand image can be empirically measured so that researchers can effectively analyze the key variables related to it. The current study attempted to bridge this existing gap by developing an effective brand image measurement and model. Grounded in the foundation of marketing and hospitality literature as well Keller’s customer-based brand equity framework, this study developed a conceptual model that explains the relationships between the antecedents and consequences of brand image. The objectives of this research are: 1) to develop reliable and valid scales to measure brand image in a restaurant context; 2) to propose an integrated model of the causal relationship between the antecedents and consequences of brand image, by relying on Keller’s customer-based brand equity framework. Based on the proposed model, nine hypotheses were developed with six latent variables. Through focus group interviews and a pretest, the measurements were refined and the questionnaire used for the main study was developed. Data was analyzed using the 417 surveys. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in AMOS 17.0 were employed to evaluate the measurement model, to measure the model fitness of data and to test the research hypotheses and relationships among the latent constructs. The results from the main study revealed a significant relationship between mostly all constructs in the model except the relationship between brand image and attitudinal brand loyalty. The findings clearly showed the primary effect of brand awareness and brand familiarity as the antecedents to brand image. It was concluded that brand awareness drivers brand image, customer satisfaction, brand trust and attitudinal brand loyalty. Moreover, the results indicated the critical mediating effect of brand image between its antecedents and consequences. The study also highlighted the importance of customer satisfaction and trust in order to establishing a customer’s attitudinal brand loyalty. From a theoretical perspective, this study developed a brand image scale and proposed an integrated model of brand image in customer-based brand equity framework in a casual dining restaurant context. The study also provides several managerial implications for chain restaurant managers and marketers by stressing the importance of brand image in the hospitality industry with a view to enhancing the marketers’ understanding of the factors that may dilute or enhance brand image and thereby provide insights into brand equity management.

Committee:

Jay Kandampully, PhD (Advisor); Wayne Johnson, PhD (Committee Member); Jae-Eun Chung, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

Brand image; brand awareness; brand familiarity; customer satisfaction; brand trust; attitudinal brand loyalty

Xie, QuanYouthful Users' Participation in Facebook Brand Communities: Motivations, Activities, and Outcomes
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2015, Mass Communication (Communication)
The current study examines Facebook users’ motivations, activities, and outcomes for their participation/engagement on Facebook brand community pages with a mixed methods research design of in-depth interviews and a paper-based survey. As a result, this study found that users were not very much connected to the Facebook brand communities of which they were a part. Users tended not to consider themselves as dedicated members and generally showed a passive interest in these brand pages. They also participated inactively and did not commit heavily to these pages. In contrast, most users recognized Facebook as a suitable (or enjoyable) space for communication and social interaction with friends, but did not perceive a brand as a real “friend” on Facebook. Thus, Facebook is not a hospitable place for maintaining online brand communities because Facebook brand pages manifest a weaker form of community compared to what traditional online brand communities embody. Nevertheless, some user engagement (or participation) still happens on Facebook brand pages. Users were found to perform four types of activities when participating: contributing to brand communities, endorsing brand communities, consuming brand posts, and consuming user posts. Additionally, users were effectively driven to participate by Socially-oriented Motivation, Brand-oriented Motivation, Self-oriented Motivation, Hedonic Motivation, Utilitarian Motivation, and Friends’ Recommendation Motivation. Moreover, some significant linear relationships have been observed among users’ participation motivations, activities, and outcomes, which provided a foundation for understanding their passive participation in Facebook brand communities and for optimizing Facebook marketing strategy in the future.

Committee:

Drew McDaniel (Committee Chair); Greg Newton (Committee Member); Hong Cheng (Committee Member); Catherine Axinn (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Marketing; Mass Communications; Mass Media

Keywords:

Facebook brand page; Facebook brand community; brand community; online brand community; social media marketing; Facebook marketing; Facebook usage; consumer engagement; motivation; youthful users; college students

Bruggemann, Ben GHow We Decide When We Can't Decide: A Study OF Brand Dependency and Brand Sensitivity
Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Ohio University, 2017, Business Administration
This thesis focuses on the degree of influence that brand plays in consumer purchase decisions. The study proposes that consumers fall into two categories when making purchase decisions involving branded items: brand sensitive and brand dependent. Consumers who are brand dependent will mainly rely on brand to guide purchase decisions while consumers who are brand sensitive will ultimately consider attributes related to the brand. It is theorized that brand dependency is based on four factors, which are the hedonic or utilitarian value of the brand, consumers’ need for cognition, consumers’ level of risk avoidance and the brand’s level of message integration. The study uses ANOVA testing to determine the correlation between the factors and brand dependency and brand sensitivity.

Committee:

Yong Wang (Advisor)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

marketing; brand; brand dependency; brand sensitivity

King, Larrie LeonPrivate Labels and Personal Care: A Focus on Store Brand Package Design, Branding Design and Consumer Attitudes Towards Private Label Personal Care Products
MFA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Communication and Information / School of Visual Communication Design
National manufacturer brands generally outsell private label brands in most product areas. For instance, Hoyer and Brown found that when inexperienced buyers were asked to decide between two brands, they were more likely to choose the brand name with which they were most familiar. However, during periods of economic distress, consumers tend to purchase store brand products, as they are generally less expensive than those branded nationally. Private label brands (also referred to as store brands or in-house brands) usually refer to products branded and sold through a specific chain of stores. These brands are manufactured by a third party and are thus sold at lower prices. As a result of the recent economic downturn in the United States and abroad, private label brands have experienced a rapid increase in sales – one of over 40% in the past decade. Consumers trust national brands, but have also developed new trust in private label products. A survey conducted by DataMonitor in August of 2010 notes that 44% of Americans agree they are spending more on private label products than they were a year ago. In addition to this, the recent evolution in private label brand development has helped to increase sales of private labels in most products areas, regardless of the socio-economic condition of the consumer. There is a documented correlation between good package design and the perception of luxury or quality. Product packaging has an increasingly important role as a marketing communication vehicle for brand managers. Private label brands are beginning to utilize this data to their advantage and are winning over consumers who are otherwise loyal to national brands, greatly in part to increased appeal and product diversity. However, certain categories appear to be immune to the store-brand swap. Consumers have only slightly increased their purchases of private label personal products, such as hygiene, health, and beauty products. Secondary research suggests that consumers may have issues with trust, comfort, information availability, and other areas in regard to private label personal products. This study proposes that these issues can be addressed by introducing changes to private label product branding and package design. The goal of this thesis is to assess what differences (in quality, value perception, trust, and appeal) the consumer finds between nationally branded personal products and private label products in the same areas. Based on direct information gathered through interviews, surveys, and package demonstrations, this study intends to synthesize a branding and packaging profile that will inform private label brands of what consumers expect and need from the personal products they manufacture. This may in turn improve the total quality of the consumer experience and afford individuals the opportunity to access quality personal hygiene products regardless of their socio-economic condition.

Committee:

David Middleton (Advisor); Sanda Katila (Committee Member); AnnMarie LeBlanc (Other)

Subjects:

Communication; Design; Marketing; Packaging

Keywords:

Store Brand; National Brand; Brand; Package Design; Design; Consumer Attitude; Consumer; Visual branding; Marketing; Generic; Personal Care; Hygiene; Product; Dollar General; Target; Walgreens; Great Value; Recession; Store; Graphic Design;

Gifford, RoyFactors Contributing to Sustainable Brand Growth
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, Management
Brand leaders are responsible for leading brand building activities in very complex systems within organizations (e.g., sales, marketing, operations, finance). Firms spend an enormous amount of resources to support brand building activities in their complex systems. Ad spending worldwide reached $513 billion in 2015, 5% growth versus 2014. Global R&D spending reached $480 billion in 2015. Despite this level of spending and focus, brand deaths occur (e.g., Oldsmobile, Plymouth, and Woolworth Stores). Yet, some (e.g., John Deere) have demonstrated continued brand growth over time. The fact is that some brand leaders are successful at driving brand performance and some are not. What is the secret to staying relevant to consumers across generations of consumers (e.g., Boomers, Generation Xers, and Millennials)? Research shows that brands with the ability to emotionally connect with their consumers have innovative product offerings that create value with consumers. But, what impact do the feelings and behaviors of brand leaders and consumers have on brand engagement to drive brand performance? I began my research journey (study #1) with the goal of exploring the differences between growing brand leaders and declining brand leaders. I found that leaders who exhibit emotional intelligence, hope, and social identity build stronger emotional connections between their brands and consumers, which leads to sustainable brand growth. In study #2, I explored how organizational behavior impacts a brand leader’s market orientation. This study was the first to link the feelings and behaviors of leaders to market orientation. Based on my findings, I discovered that a brand leader’s shared values with the firm and participation in their brand community impact a firm’s level of market orientation. I believe these findings start to reveal insights into how brand leaders drive business performance by increasing brand engagement with consumers. In study #3, I answered what motivates a consumer to participate in a brand community. I believe these findings will provide key insights to brand leaders trying to build stronger emotional bonds between their brands and consumers. Previous research has shown the outcomes of consumers interacting with brands in a brand community and the results of consumers participating in a brand community. However, there is a gap in research regarding why consumers are motivated to participate in a brand community. I found evidence to suggest that a consumer’s conformity motivation, brand loyalty, and attachment style increase their brand community participation. This research shows that the feelings and behaviors of brand leaders and consumers increase brand engagement to drive brand performance. I found that the brand community is a source of the emotional connection that drives engagement between the brand leader and the brand as well as the consumer and the brand. It is truly a tale of two individuals (brand leader and consumer) engaging with the brand at a crossroads called brand community. I believe these will be important learnings for researchers and practitioners who seek to understand this phenomenon to position their brands for sustainable long-term growth.

Committee:

Casey Newmeyer (Committee Chair); William Ross (Committee Member); Rakesh Niraj (Committee Member); James Gaskin (Committee Member); Roger Saillant (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Marketing; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

emotional intelligence; market orientation; brand community; sustainable brand growth; brand leaders; consumers

Hao, Wei (Andy)Brand Alliances: An Examination of Partner Brand Selection in a Congruence Paradigm
PHD, Kent State University, 2008, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing

Past research focused on the effects of the fit between the partner brands on brand alliances and the spillover effects. This dissertation examines brand alliance evaluation from the perspective of an individual brand. An integrated congruence framework is developed to assess (a) the effects of congruence (expectancy and relevancy) on brand alliance evaluation, and (b) the differential spillover effects on each partner brand. In addition, this research extends the congruence framework into the global arena context by incorporating perceived country image and consumer ethnocentrism.

Using a sample of 774 participants from the U.S. and Canada, this dissertation empirically tests the integrated congruence model of brand alliance evaluation with two types of brand alliances: ice cream/chocolate brand alliances and airline alliances. Four experimental conditions, combinations of expectancy (high/low) and relevancy (high/low), were set up for each brand alliance. Experimental findings fully supported the hypotheses in this study.

This research fills a critical void in the brand alliance literature, by casting the problem in the context of partner selection. In doing so, practical and managerial implications are drawn. This study also provides implications for international marketers on how to choose their international partners to form a global brand alliance.

Committee:

Michael Hu (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

BRAND ALLIANCES; PARTNER BRAND; brand alliance evaluation; CONGRUENCE; Godiva

Shields, Alison B.WHAT DID YOU DO TO MY BRAND? THE MODERATING EFFECT OF BRAND NOSTALGIA ON CONSUMER RESPONSES TO CHANGED BRANDS
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing
Marketers often make changes to brands to make the brand seem current or exciting. Some updates are successful while others are spectacular failures. This dissertation establishes a connection between consumer acceptance or rejection of updated brands and the consumer’s reported brand nostalgia. In this dissertation, I refine the current marketing definitions of nostalgia to develop a more specific construct of brand nostalgia, develop a scale to measure the construct of brand nostalgia, examine the differences between schemas for nostalgic brands and non-nostalgic brands, and show that consumers’ affective and attitudinal responses to changes in a brand are moderated by brand nostalgia. Nostalgia has been defined as “a positively toned evocation of a lived past” (Davis 1979), and “a fondness for possessions and activities associated with days of yore” (Holbrook 1993). Consumers have been observed to engage in nostalgic behaviors, from re-watching favorite old movies (Holbrook, 1993) to reminiscing about favorite cars from their youth (Brown, Kozinets and Sherry 2003) to consuming specific foods as a way to reconnect with the past (Loveland, Smeesters and Mandel, 2010). Consumers have also reported nostalgic feelings for particular brands or items (Holbrook and Schindler 2003). When individuals recall nostalgic memories, they recall affect and brand information stored in their schema for the target brand (Collins and Loftus 1975). Nostalgia is “not a true recreation of the past but rather a combination of many different memories, all integrated together and in the process, all negative emotions filtered out” (Hirsch 1992). Thus, the individual’s memory trace is biased, leading the individual to recall the brand as being better than it actually was. Further, when an individual forms a relationship with a brand, the individual incorporates affective and attitudinal information into the schema, leading to a more complex, more robust schema (Fournier 1998; Smit, Bronner and Tolboom 2006). Once the individual experiences the updated brand, he compares the new experience to his biased memory and attempts to assimilate the new stimuli into his or her existing schema. The individual’s ability to assimilate the new experience into their schema built on the biased memory will depend on the degree of change to the brand as well as the individual’s level of nostalgia towards the brand. When a highly nostalgic individual processes a changed brand, his more complex and affect-based schema will lead to a smaller latitude of acceptance for the change (Hart and Diehl 1993). If the change falls outside the latitude of acceptance, the individual will reject the updated brand (Atkins, Deaux & Bieri 1967). Conversely, less nostalgic individuals are likely to have less complex, less affect-laden, less positively biased memories of the brand, making them more likely to assimilate the change (Meyers-Levy and Sternthal 1993; Martin 1986; Martin, Seta and Crelia 1990). This dissertation combines literature from marketing, psychology and sociology to identify the ways in which the cognitive structures nostalgic individuals access when exposed to a brand towards which they are nostalgic differ from the cognitive structures non-nostalgic individuals access. This dissertation further provides a framework for both practitioners and academics to better predict consumer responses to changes in brands with nostalgic cache.

Committee:

Jennifer Wiggins Johnson (Committee Chair); Robert D. Jewell (Committee Member); Katherine A. Rawson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

Brand Nostalgia; Consumer/Brand Relationships; Changed Brands;

Spring, DawnSelling Brand America: The Advertising Council and the ‘Invisible Hand’ of Free Enterprise, 1941-1961
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Arts and Sciences : History

Selling Brand America: The Advertising Council and the ‘Invisible Hand’ of Free Enterprise, 1941-1961 explores the relationship between American advertisers and the federal government. Since the 1940’s, American advertising companies have worked closely with – the United States government; major broadcasters such as ABC, CBS, and NBC; popular magazines such as Reader’s Digest, Time and Life; market research and psychological testing organizations such as the AC Nielsen, the Gallup poll, and the Psychological Corporation; and brand name corporations such as Coca-Cola, Ford, Kodak, Kraft Foods, Procter & Gamble, General Electric, General Foods, and General Motors – to persuade public opinion at home and abroad.

Since its inception as the War Advertising Council in 1941, the Advertising Council, known in the twenty-first Century as the Ad Council, has coordinated public service campaigns and brought government agencies together with the media and brand name corporations. Originally, intent on making sure advertising remained a vital part of capitalism, education, the media, politics, and religion, the Advertising Council helped these organizations pursue an economic and political strategy in which the United States led the world in a geo-political order based on the consumption of advertised brand name goods. These early evangelists of the system called the system free enterprise. To them the term meant a system in which government and business worked together to stimulate the mass consumption of brand name goods using advertising across all major media.

Committee:

Wayne Durrill, PhD (Committee Chair); Christopher Phillips, PhD (Committee Member); Geoffrey Plank, PhD (Committee Member); Allan Winkler, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History

Keywords:

advertising; brand management; brand name corporations; capitalism; cold war; consumerism; free enterprise; foreign policy; overseas broadcast programs; overseas information programs; RFE; United States policy

Miller, Felicia MaddoxWhat Do Brands Mean? A Series of Three Essays That Explore the Nature of Meaning for Well-known Brands
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Business Administration : Business Administration
Brand meaning has been theoretically linked to brand equity and long-term brand success; however, it remains underdeveloped and underutilized relative to its potential. In this dissertation, three distinct yet interrelated essays address the multifaceted nature of brand meaning and meaning transfer in the context of well-known brands and celebrities. Essay 1, “What do Brands Mean? A multi-dimensional framework for successful meaning management”, proposes a multi-dimensional definition of brand meaning. Building on existing literature, brand meaning is broadly defined as the complex collection of perceptions that are produced by the consumer from the marketplace and culture around them. Using qualitative techniques borrowed from social psychology, the dimensions of this definition are examined and what emerges is a theoretically and empirically sound framework. The second essay, “What do Celebrities Mean? A multi- dimensional framework for understanding celebrity brands”, attempts to apply the definition developed in Essay 1 to the meaning consumers ascribe to celebrities. Using the same method as in Essay 1, the results, not surprisingly, indicate that celebrity meaning differs from traditional brand meaning in some important ways. In the final essay, “How Does Meaning Move? Understanding the process of meaning transfer in the context of celebrity endorsements”, a conceptual framework is tested. This framework, which is well-established in the literature, suggests that brands obtain meaning in part from the celebrities that endorse them. Using well established conditioning procedures to manipulate implied celebrity endorsement relationships, changes in brand meaning and brand attitude are observed. These results make an important contribution to the academic literature and to those interested in the relationship between brands, consumers and culture.

Committee:

Dr. Chris Allen (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, Marketing

Keywords:

meaning; brand meaning; brands; brand management; familiar brands

Raggio, Randle DavidThree essays exploring consumers' relationships with brands and the implications for brand equity
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Business Administration
Despite the attention brand equity has received over the past 15 years, no consistent measure of brand equity has been adopted. In Chapter 2, I propose a new framework for conceptualizing brand equity that distinguishes between brand equity and brand value. In Chapter 3, I develop a measure of brand equity that is consistent with the framework introduced in Chapter 2, but is based on an empirical procedure that is applied to binary consumer response data collected by the Procter & Gamble Company for brands from four product categories and five countries. The benefit to marketing management is the implication that by using the approach described in this paper, other companies also can better understand where their consumers’ brand beliefs come from, and now can develop a measure of brand equity that does not require a large complex instrument. In Chapter 4, I seek to understand the strategic implications of the mental sources of information consumers draw from to develop their beliefs about the benefits that brands deliver, as described in Chapter 3. The general hypothesis is that the level of information that consumers currently use to develop their brand beliefs will moderate the impact of new information, such that a strategic advantage exists for brands when consumers currently use one of the sources instead of the other. Chapter 4 describes an experiment to test whether consumers’ current use of the high-level brand source or detailed attribute source is associated with less vulnerability to new (negative) information. This study finds that when subjects receive negative brand-level information second, it has a greater negative impact on overall brand evaluation if the initial information they possess about the brand is also at a brand level. On the contrary, when consumers are faced with negative brand-level information that directly contradicts existing brand-level information stored in memory, it is reasonable that this new information would be assimilated with the old, and the overall evaluation fall. The results do not support a general prophylactic effect of the brand source, but are consistent with existing brand theory and provide a strong foundation for future research.

Committee:

Robert Leone (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, Marketing

Keywords:

brand equity; brand value

Njite, DavidExamining brand associations that influence consumers' restaurant preferences
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Human Nutrition and Food Management
Extant branding literature holds that, strong brands evoke brand associations that are differentiated readily from direct competitors. Additionally, brand theory asserts that the most powerful and enduring consumer-based brand associations deal with the intangible or abstract characteristics of the product rather than its functional or tangible attributes. To be able to understand why and how consumers evaluate brands, researchers and practitioners need a deeper understanding of the brand associations consumers develop when they use or come into contact with the brands, because brand preference is greatly influenced by the associations consumers develop. The purpose of this research was to develop a better understanding of the meaning of restaurant brands to consumers. To achieve its purpose, a multi-method research was designed to: (1) explore and examine brand associations of restaurants as described by consumers, and (2) understand the extent to which the identified dimensions of restaurant brands are prioritized by consumers in the selection of restaurants. Building on exploratory qualitative research, results of 20 interviews were utilized in data analysis. Transcription and content analysis of the interviews enabled categorization of the associations from which a model to depict the relationship between the categories of brands, restaurant sector and brand preference was developed. Hypotheses were developed from the existent literature and the results of the interviews. Through a self administered survey carried out in Study II, the conjoint analysis results indicated that: in the fine dining sector, employee-related brand associations play a significant role in consumer brand preference. In the quick service sector, price is a significant determinant of brand preference. Other findings indicate that consumer brand preference in both restaurant sectors is significantly influenced by employee competence and systems organization. Besides contributing to the methodology of studying brand associations, this dissertation contributes a theoretically- and empirically-based model of restaurant brands preference to the literature; providing a framework to understand the relationship between brand association, restaurant sectors, and consumer restaurant preference. By examining these fundamental aspects of restaurant branding, the model created should also be useful in future research regarding restaurant brand preferences.

Committee:

H.G. Parsa (Advisor)

Keywords:

Brand; Brand Associations; Fine-dining restaurant; Quick-Service restaurant

Lee, HyunjungBrand Valuation Model: A Shareholder Value Approach
PHD, Kent State University, 2012, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing
Marketing activities are designed and executed to increase brand equity. The financial benefit derived from brand equity is defined as brand value. In this dissertation, a brand valuation model and a new brand value measure are proposed in the context of mergers and acquisitions. The data is collected from Thomson ONE Banker Mergers and Acquisitions database, SEC filings, COMPUSTAT database, CRSP database, and USPTO’s trademark database. To be included in the sample, a merger and acquisition deal has to have a US-based target firm in a consumer product and service related industry and a US-based acquiring firm. All deals are completed between January 1, 2001 and June 30, 2010 and the acquiring firm reported the brand value for a target firm in their SEC filings. The sample has 98 merger and acquisition deals. Bahadir, Bharadwaj, and Srivastava (2008) used the dollar amount the acquiring firm assigned to the target firm’s brand to represent brand value, and developed a brand valuation model with capability and strategic fits between acquiring and target firms. First, I extend their model with Ohlson’s valuation approach (1995). Results show that target firm characteristics explain more of the variability in brand value than acquiring firm characteristics. Second, a new measure of brand value is proposed based on shareholders’ value for the brand. An event study methodology based on Brown and Warner (1980, 1984) with Carhart’s (1997) four-parameter risk adjustment specification is used. Changes in acquiring firm stock returns due to acquisition announcements are further adjusted to the brand level. The brand valuation model with this new measure shows substantially greater explanatory power than the model with the previous measure of brand value. Validity of using shareholders’ value is largely supported by the results of this study.

Committee:

Michael Hu (Advisor); Murali Shanker (Committee Member); Tuo Wang (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

Brand value; Brand valuation, Shareholder value; Event Study; Mergers and Acquisitions

Decker, Cole RBrand personality, congruency, and net promoter score: A university case study
Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Ohio University, 2016, Business Administration
Using a university context, this research explores the relationship between student perceptions of university brand personality associations and brand personality congruence on student attitudes and behaviors. This research employs two studies to further develop an understanding of the effects of brand personality congruency on net promoter score and attitude towards the ad, as well as the influence of brand personality congruency and advertisement content on the relationship between attitude toward the ad and student promotion intentions. Data were collected from 327 undergraduate students using an online survey and 382 undergraduate students using an online, survey-based experimental design. The results of the online survey suggest select brand personality associations influence net promoter scores and that net promoter scores vary by students’ self-congruency and ideal-congruency. The results of the experiment suggest brand personality congruency is shown to play multiple roles in consumer perceptions of advertising. The research provides important managerial implications for university branding efforts.

Committee:

Katherine Hartman, Ph.D. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Marketing

Keywords:

brand; brand personality; university branding; university marketing; marketing; NPS; net promoter score; personality congruency; congruency; attitude toward the ad; advertisement; content; pictures; case study; Aad

Liu, XinThree Essays: Affect Transfer, Network Effects and Market Valuation of Brand Extensions
PHD, Kent State University, 2007, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing
Brand extension allows a firm to leverage its current brand equity in its new product introduction. This study addresses three key issues in brand extensions: consumer affect transfer process, the impact of extension products on the parent brand equity and the stock market valuation of brand extensions. Essay 1 examines how brand affect is transferred from the parent product to the extension product. The congruency framework (expectancy and relevancy) is used to explain the affect transfer process. Results of three experimental studies suggest that both factors positively influence this process and the largest amount of affect is transferred when both conditions are met. Essay 2 addresses the network effects in brand extensions. The theory of network externalities from economics is used to explain the reciprocal network effects from the extension products to the umbrella brand. The study posits that three characteristics of the extension products’ portfolio influence the parent brand equity: the portfolio size, the similarity among products in a portfolio and the presence of the attribute compatibility. Experimental findings firmly support these prescribed effects. Essay 3 assesses the stock market responses to the brand extension announcements and compares with two related strategies: line extension and brand alliances. The magnitude of the responses is the largest for brand alliances, moderate for brand extensions and the minimal for line extensions.

Committee:

Michael Hu (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, Marketing

Keywords:

brand extensions; network effect; brand management

Craft, BrandanWhy Branding Can Increase a Professional Athlete's Value: A Rationale for Designer Engagement
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2008, Industrial, Interior and Visual Communic Design

Brands allow consumers to make choices. They help them differentiate one individual, business, or product from the other by delivering a promise that leads to expectations and perceptions. The value of a brand is measured by this perception.

What the consumer perceives a business to be, not the business's perception, is that business's brand. Designers play a large part in influencing this perception by creating brand identity systems that become the tangible expression of a business's identity. There is an opportunity for designers to play a larger role in a business's success by capitalizing on the increasing reliance on branding to assist in wealth generation.

Professional athletes are small businesses. They are distinct individuals that ultimately rely on their fans to build wealth. The fan's perception of an athlete, that athlete's brand, influences the differentiation of one player from another. The decision to invest in the brand, whether it is to watch a game on television, buy tickets to the game, or purchase a player's jersey after the game, rests on this perception. Designers can help professional athletes formulate strategies to positively influence their brand.

Strong branding could go a long way in increasing an athlete's off-the-field opportunities. Since the career span of a professional athlete is relatively short, shared productivity between athletes and designers could generate increased, and more sustainable income for athletes. Designers could also benefit from these increased opportunities. If brands allow consumer's to make choices, designers influence what choices these consumers make with keen knowledge of consumer behavior and sound design principals.

Committee:

R. Brian Stone (Committee Chair); Noel Mayo (Committee Member); Peter Chan (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Marketing

Keywords:

brand; brands; athlete; professional athlete; virtual team; designer; brand value

Hassey, Roseann VStand By Your Brand: How Brand Personality and Brand Failure Type Shape Brand Forgiveness
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Business: Business Administration
Brand failures—that is, violations of implicit or explicit expectations we have for brand performance —are inevitable and can come with a hefty price tag to companies. Yet why is it that seemingly minor brand failures can have significant repercussions, whereas comparably major violations can go relatively unnoticed? Drawing from research on brand personalities, I propose that (i) brand personalities impact consumers’ expectations regarding brand performance, (ii) violating these expectations heightens the severity of the brand failure, and (iii) this difference in severity determines brand forgiveness. In particular, I propose that the brand’s dominant personality—namely, whether warm or competent—elicits different expectations regarding brand performance, such that consumers should expect their interactions with warm brands to align with communal brand dimensions and their interactions with competent brands to align with functional brand dimensions. Moreover, a brand failure that violates these expectancies (i.e., a communal brand failure committed by a warm brand, a functional brand failure committed by a competent brand) should be viewed as more severe and thus less forgivable than one that does not violate these expectations (i.e., a communal failure committed by a competent brand, a functional failure committed by a warm brand). Three experiments test these hypotheses and, in doing so, surprisingly reveal that consumers more readily forgive, rather than censure, brands failures which violate their expectations (Experiments 1 – 3). Moreover, these failures are shown to induce this unexpected result by heightening the credibility of the brand (Experiment 2). Finally, this effect is shown only for those consumers most likely to use brand failures to re-evaluate the brand (Experiment 3). These findings then, though contrary to expectations, offer novel insight into the importance of brand personality as a basis for brand forgiveness as well as the most effective means for strategists to engage in effective brand recovery.

Committee:

Joshua Clarkson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Chung-Yiu Chiu, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Frank Kardes, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

Brand Personality;Brand Failure;Forgiveness;Transgression;Consumer Behavior;Consumer Attitudes

Fonseca Leao, Iara M.Brand Brasil: A Comparative Analysis of the Brazil Country Image in the United States and Brazil
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2012, Latin American Studies (International Studies)
In the past decades, countries have been adopting the trend of creating their own Nation Brand and to manage them as commercial brands, establishing their brand identities and brand strategies, resulting in their brand image. The focus of this thesis was to analyze how Brand Brazil is perceived in the United States and Brazil, by business people. Brazil developed, officially, its Brand Brazil in early 2000’s, and by 2003 there was already an Agency, called APEX-Brasil, designated to manage and promote the image of Brazil abroad. APEX-Brasil, currently, supports 81 sectors of Brazil’s economy, supports over 10,000 Brazilian companies and has promoted Brand Brazil in over 3,000 presentations worldwide for audiences of entrepreneurs, investors and trend-setters. For this thesis, an extended focus group study, with instrument containing qualitative and quantitative written questions in English and Portuguese was conducted. With the results was possible to set patterns and make comparisons between the perception from North- Americans and Brazilians. This thesis also presents recommendations to expand the promotion of Brazil for the United States market.

Committee:

Yong Wang, PhD (Committee Chair); Catherine Axinn, PhD (Committee Member); Patrick Barr-Melej, PhD (Committee Member); Jose Delgado, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration; Business Education; Latin American Studies; Marketing

Keywords:

Brazil; Brasil; Brand Brazil; Nation Brand; Country of Origin; APEX

Kwon, Wi-SukA model of reciprocal effects of multi-channel retailers' offline and online brand images: application to multi-channel specialty apparel retailing
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Textiles and Clothing
This study proposed a model of the reciprocal effects of multi-channel retailers’ offline and online brand images based upon the summative model of attitude and a theory of cognitive dissonance. The proposed model and 11 hypotheses were examined in a multi-channel specialty apparel retailing context across four phases of the present study. In Phase 1 (qualitative study), offline and online brand image constructs were explored in a multi-channel specialty apparel retailing context. Eight and nine dimensions for offline and online brand images, respectively, were identified. Possible sources of customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction in the context of multi-channel specialty apparel retailing were also identified from Phase 1. In Phase 2 (scale development), two quantitative scales were developed to measure brand beliefs constituting multi-channel specialty apparel retailers’ offline and online brand images. The offline brand belief scale (OFBBS) consisted of 14 items addressing four dimensions (Self Relevance, Service, Merchandise, and Store Environment), while the online brand belief scale (ONBBS) consisted of 15 items addressing four dimensions (Aesthetic Appeal, Navigation Convenience, Transaction Convenience, and Website Content). Phases 3 and 4 (experiments) empirically tested the proposed model and hypotheses. Results revealed support for intra-channel effects (i.e., online performance → online brand beliefs → online brand attitude → online behavioral intentions; prior offline brand image → offline brand beliefs → offline brand attitude → offline behavioral intentions). Results also provided evidence for cross-channel effects. Specifically, ‘biased assimilation’ of online performance information due to prior offline brand image significantly affected participants’ online brand beliefs. Online performance had an ‘impact’ on offline brand beliefs through the mediation of online brand beliefs. However, this ‘impact’ appeared to be ‘minimized’ by strong prior offline brand image especially when online performance was negative. The cross-channel effects of offline and online brand beliefs on brand attitudes were affected by a negativity bias in that in the presence of negative online performance information, the weights of online beliefs tended to increase. Cross-channel effects of offline brand attitudes on online behavioral intentions were significant while those of online brand attitudes on offline behavioral intentions were negligible.

Committee:

Sharron Lennon (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, Marketing

Keywords:

multi-channel retailing; apparel retailers; offline brand image; online brand image; reciprocal effects; halo effects

Costiuc, ClaudiaUsing Implicit Learning to Explain Brand Placement Effects
PHD, Kent State University, 2009, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing

Recent trends such as ad skipping have led to the adoption of alternative promotion strategies in reaching target audiences. Brand placement (BP), the inclusion of brands into entertainment with an attempt to persuade, is an increasingly common tactic used by marketers. Academic research has had a hard time keeping up with practice and has primarily focused on cognitive effects, viewing BP as another form of advertising. A few empirical studies have considered alternative theories for explaining BP effects in light of its unique entertainment setting. These studies show complementary nonconscious effects such as implicit memory and implicit attitude and find that explicit measures do not mediate effects on implicit measures, but lead to negative attitude effects. To date, however, no study has looked at how brand associations are learned from BP.

To fill this gap, this dissertation adopted the implicit learning framework from cognitive psychology. Implicit learning suggests that even complex information can be learned 1) without awareness of what is learned, 2) without intention to learn, and 3) as a byproduct of some explicit learning. A total of 725 subjects were recruited to participate in three separate experiments conducted to investigate the effect of awareness on implicit learning and explicit learning in three different settings: across marketing communications, within BP, and across BP-advertising sequences. Measures assessed viewer learning of four of the nine brands embedded in the film I, Robot after viewing either the entire film or an edited clip. Learning was also used to explain conventional measures such as brand memory and brand attitude.

Key findings show that 1) brand associations are learned differently in the BP and advertising contexts, 2) prominence may actually deter implicit learning within BP, and 3) there are interactive effects when BP and advertising are used together. Persuasion knowledge was found to be a useful covariate when looking across marketing communications, but not within BP. Implications for both theory and practice are derived.

Committee:

Michael Y. Hu (Committee Co-Chair); Robert Jewell (Committee Co-Chair); Jennifer Wiggins Johnson (Committee Member); Murali Shanker (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

Brand Placement; Product Placement; Implicit Learning; Persuasion Knowledge

Jensen, Jonathan A.The Path to Global Sport Sponsorship Success: An Event History Analysis Modeling Approach
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Kinesiology
With more than $55 billion allocated towards the practice on an annual basis, sponsorship has become an increasingly integral part of the marketing mix for brand marketers (IEG, 2015). Further, sport organizations rely on sponsorship as an important funding mechanism to finance its continued operations. Utilizing the lens of the relationship marketing literature, it is evident that the relationship between the sponsoring firm and a sponsored property is intended to be a long-term, mutually beneficial partnership. However, despite the importance of a sponsorship’s duration to both sides of the relationship, it is not well–understood whether certain factors or conditions can jeopardize these cooperative, business-to-business partnerships. Therefore, this study intended to further understanding of the relationship between sponsorship sellers and buyers by investigating factors that may predict the dissolution of such partnerships. Event history analysis (EHA) modeling approaches were employed to investigate sets of variables representing four distinct factors, including economic conditions, agency conflicts, sponsor-related and property-related factors, utilizing a historical secondary dataset featuring a pooled sample of 68 global Olympic TOP and FIFA World Cup sponsorships. Using a hierarchical (nested) modeling approach, results indicated that the blocks of sponsor-related and property-related variables, as well as variables representing economic conditions, predicted a significant amount of incremental variance in the hazard rate for sponsorship dissolution. For example, the presence of an inflationary economy in the home country of the sponsor was found to be a statistically significant predictor, with a 1% increase in the average annual growth rate of the consumer price index during the sponsorship increasing the hazard of sponsorship dissolution by 64.4%. Sponsor-related variables that were found to be significant included whether or not the sponsoring brand was congruent with the property (which decreased the hazard of dissolution by 55.5%) and whether the brand has a high degree of brand equity (which decreased the hazard by 84.2%). Significance among the property-related variables was driven by the influence of a variable representing the amount of clutter in the property’s sponsorship program, with every one additional sponsor of these global properties increasing the hazard of the sponsorship ending by 95.4%. From a theoretical standpoint, the study represents an important extension of the relationship marketing paradigm to better understand the dynamics of the sponsorship business-to-business relationship. For example, the finding that external forces (such as economic conditions) can jeopardize the future of such relationships represents an important theoretical implication. In terms of managerial implications, furthering understanding of which types of sponsors engage in longer-running sponsorships, as well as factors that may predict the end of the partnership, can assist both buyers and sellers by ensuring these conditions are closely monitored throughout the partnership. Future research should expand the use of EHA modeling approaches to other sponsorship contexts, including league, naming rights, and local sponsorships.

Committee:

Brian Turner (Advisor); John Casterline (Committee Member); Richard Lomax (Committee Member); Donna Pastore (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing; Sports Management

Keywords:

sport marketing; sponsorship; relationship marketing; Olympic Games; World Cup; event history analysis; survival analysis; agency conflicts; congruence; brand equity; mega events

Wang, JiayiUnderstanding Cleveland as a Sports Destination: an Empirical Study of Brand Personality Theory
MS, Kent State University, 2016, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
In this globalizing world, sporting events play an important role in improving the attractiveness and competitiveness of a city. Sports tourism and sporting events are viewed as a growing niche market. This is reflected by the contribution that sports tourism brings to a destination. As a consequence of sports being attractions or activities that tourists seek to experience in the destination, it is paramount for a destination to be able to offer them. Cleveland’s continuously increasing sports offering is making the city an appealing tourist destination to wider groups of tourists. Brand personality theory provides the theoretical support for the present study. The purpose of the study is to test the brand personality framework in the context of sports tourism, explore the brand personality of Cleveland as a sports destination, and apply the theory into destination marketing. Two types of quantitative data analysis were performed in the present study to test the hypotheses and gain meaningful information from the study. The results of the present study contributed to the knowledge of promoting sports tourism in Cleveland and limitations and future research were discussed.

Committee:

Phillip Wang (Committee Chair); Theresa Walton-Fisette (Committee Member); Ju Yup Lee (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sports Management

Keywords:

Sports; Tourism; Brand personality; Destination personality

Luobusangzhu, XxxUNDERSTANDING THANGKA: AN EXPLANATION OF TOURISTS’ INTEREST AND DESIRE OF PURCHASING THANGKA
MS, Kent State University, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
Thangka is one of the most famous traditional arts in Tibet, and originally it is a religious art. Later since tourism became the main industry in Tibet, Thangka slowly became a tourism product. This study applied well-known model AIDA to explore tourists' interest and desire of purchase Thangka. In addition, it is examining the Thangka values affecting on their purchasing behaviors. Present research also used Aaker (1997) brand personality (BP) and Sirgy (1982) self-image/product-image congruity (SC) theories to explore tourists desire to purchase Thangka. The result supported the AIDA theory that there is an association between interest in purchasing Thangka and desire to purchase Thangka. In addition, the findings indicated that the tourists who had visited Tibet before, Buddhists tourists, and tourists with higher income showed interest in purchasing Thangka. The results revealed high congruity levels between desire to purchase Thangka and gender, and between desire and occupation. Implications of results will be discussed.

Committee:

Philip Wang (Advisor)

Subjects:

Cultural Resources Management

Keywords:

Thangka; cultural tourism; AIDA; Brand personality; Self-congruity; Conspicuous consumption

Bloemhard, Mark On Contemporary Leadership and Branded Organizations
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2016, Leadership and Change
This qualitative study examined a leader’s enigmatic decision-making process guiding innovative and complex organizations—organizations that are not able to rely on market research or the precedence of industry emulators for making strategic decisions. Leaders of highly creative organizations regularly make catalytic decisions that have fateful outcomes; their ability to recognize and appropriately adjudicate complex and unpredictable market forces determine the consequences. Such influential choices often require a deep level of intuition with very little research and time to decide. The purpose of this dissertation has been to develop a framework that presents Brand Leadership as a distinct and viable leadership paradigm. A claim that leadership may be best described as a way of being with comprehensive system-thinking capable of fully understanding the context in which he or she leads; the complexity of the organization and the trends of the marketplace. A Representative Case Research study, which included three brand leaders and nine ancillary interviews, was conducted and four unique contributions have been offered: First, while certainly related to marketing, brand is the higher order and requires strategic leadership. Second, the evolving role of the brand leader fulfills certain needs, including that brand leaders see the organization in the eyes of the customer; and that Brand Leadership represents an internal momentum in which customers are at the center of the organization. Third, Brand Leadership ,in fact, should be considered a unique leadership paradigm as it sees the leader’s intuition as a quintessential proponent to understanding context of the organization and leading within the context of a larger marketplace. And fourth, Brand Leadership is an untapped educational frontier. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and OhioLINK ETD Center, http://etd.ohiolink.edu

Committee:

Mitch Kusy, PhD (Committee Chair); Laura Morgan-Roberts, PhD (Committee Member); Roger Blackwell, PhD (Committee Member); Thomas Kaplan, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

Brand Leadership; Branding; Innovation; Retail; Creative Leadership; Intuition; Leadership

Sherlock, William RobertThe International Expansion of Major League Baseball: The Case of Europe
Bachelor of Arts, Miami University, 2009, College of Arts and Sciences - Economics

While the past two decades have seen Major League Baseball's market scope increase at an unprecedented rate, there is reason to believe that the best is yet to come. As the league has already become well-established in Japan, officials have set their sights on expanding the league's revenue channels by pushing into continental Asia, with China as the centerpiece of the plan. The league's future expansion, however, is not solely reliant on Asian-based revenue streams. While China does stand as the next stepping-stone in expansion, the game has an undeniable opportunity to go global. A logical next stepping stone would land Major League Baseball in Europe.

This thesis discusses the potential for Major League Baseball to expand its market to Europe, and outlines operational and marketing plans for such a movement. The justification for expansion itself is vested in past actions by Major League Baseball, while justifications for specifically targeting Europe draw largely on the economic and social conditions in modern Europe. The expansion plan itself is attributable to analyzing the successes and failures of professional football (NFL Europe), specifically focusing on the critical elements of brand extension involved in the process. The plan is centered around the development of a European baseball league, MLBeyond, and the marketing angles that will be used to launch the league

Committee:

Janice Taylor, Ms (Advisor); Deborah Fletcher, PhD (Committee Member); Dennis Sullivan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

Major League Baseball; brand extension; international expansion; expansionary plan; marketing plan

Zhang, QianOf Inter-cultural Identity and Parental Expectation: the Case of Children's Overseas Youth Programs
MS, Kent State University, 2015, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Foundations, Leadership and Administration
The purpose of the present study is to examine the value of youth program from parents’ perspective. In addition, what factors may relate with their intention and desire for the programs in a certain destination. The present research chose the United States as the overseas youth program destination. The research exams the values of the overseas youth camps from four aspects: learning of knowledge and skills, cultural experiences, social interaction, and conspicuous value. Present research was based on Aaker’s (1997) brand personality (BP) and Sirgy’s (1982) self-image/product-image congruity (SC) theories. Present research identified two dimensions of destination band personality of America (determination, excitement) and two dimensions of typical visitor image of America (excitement, superiority). The result of the research indicated that, parents’ desire and intention for the overseas youth program were significantly related with the congruity levels of their perceived image of the destination/image of typical visitor and their self-image.

Committee:

Philip Wang (Advisor); Barbara Scheule (Committee Member); Linda Robertson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Foreign Language; Recreation

Keywords:

Overseas youth Programs, Brand Personality, Self-congruity, Conspicuous consumption, Off School activities

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