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Al-Olimat, Hussein SOptimizing Cloudlet Scheduling and Wireless Sensor Localization using Computational Intelligence Techniques
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2014, Engineering (Computer Science)
Optimization algorithms are truly complex procedures that consider many elements when optimizing a specific problem. Cloud computing (CCom) and Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are full of optimization problems that need to be solved. One of the main problems of using the clouds is the underutilization of the reserved resources, which causes longer makespans and higher usage costs. Also, the optimization of sensor nodes' power consumption, in WSNs, is very critical due to the fact that sensor nodes are small in size and have constrained resources in terms of power/energy, connectivity, and computational power. This thesis formulates the concern on how CCom systems and WSNs can take advantage of the computational intelligent techniques using single- or multi-objective particle swarm optimization (SOPSO or MOPSO), with an overall aim of concurrently minimizing makespans, localization time, energy consumption during localization, and maximizing the number of nodes fully localized. The cloudlet scheduling method is implemented inside CloudSim advancing the work of the broker, which was able to maximize the resource utilization and minimize the makespan demonstrating improvements of 58\% in some cases. Additionally, the localization method optimized the power consumption during a Trilateration-based localization (TBL) procedure, through the adjustment of sensor nodes' output power levels. Finally, a parameter-study of the applied PSO variants for WSN localization is performed, leading to results that show algorithmic improvements of up to 32\% better than the baseline results in the evaluated objectives.

Committee:

Mansoor Alam (Committee Chair); Robert Green, II (Committee Co-Chair); Weiqing Sun (Committee Member); Vijay Devabhaktuni (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Artificial Intelligence; Computer Science; Engineering

Keywords:

Cloud Computing; Particle Swarm Optimization; Random Inertia Weight; Cloudlet Scheduling; Makespan; Utilization; CloudSim; Wireless Sensor Network; Trilateration; Localization; Multi-objective; ZigBee; RSSI; Genetic Algorithm; Simulated Annealing

Franzese, Anthony L.Real-time Location with ZigBee Hardware
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Engineering and Applied Science: Computer Engineering

Mechanisms for tracking assets and inventory management are widespread and well-developed. Tracking is achieved by attaching “tags” with unique identifiers to assets and deploying “readers” throughout a facility to read the identity of the tagged assets. In general the tools and solutions for asset tracking are organized into one of two categories, namely: passive (RFID or optical barcode) solutions and real-time location systems. Passive solutions provide coarse-grained location services that record a tracked item’s movement past fixed position “reader” devices. Asset movement from location to location and into and out-of a facility are recorded. Passive systems are highly effective for inventory control and management and they are pervasive in the consumer products markets. In contrast, Real-Time Location Systems (RTLS) provide pin-point location services that can identify an asset’s location at all times. RTLS systems generally require a much larger number of expensive readers distributed throughout the monitored facility to ensure continuous communication with the tags and to allow triangulation services to precisely locate the tagged assets. Thus, existing asset tracking systems provide either inexpensive coarse-grained location services (passive solutions) or high-cost pin-point accuracy services (RTLS solutions).

In many cases, the requirements for real-time asset tracking solutions do not require pin-point accuracy or continuous, second-by-second location service. For example, a solution tracking assets every 30 seconds to a coarse-grained location on the accuracy of 50-100 feet would be more than sufficient for locating wheelchairs or baggage carts in an airport, beds in a hospital, or baggage carts in a hotel. Passive solutions are ineffective because the readers can generally read only short distances (15 feet maximum) and RTLS solutions are far too expensive to be deployed throughout an airport or large scale facility such as a major hospital. This thesis examines the design of a coarse-grained asset tracking solution suitable for the needs of tracking wheelchairs in airports. The solution must be low-cost, self-organizing, and inexpensive. In this work a solution using ZigBee networking hardware is developed and analyzed. The result provides a solution where the tags are small enough to fit comfortably on wheelchairs and baggage carts and they can provide identifying broadcast signaling for at least one year using two AA batteries. The technology provides a self-organizing network where readers can be placed at reasonable distances (100-200 feet) from one another and that can provide asset tracking coverage over the largest airports in the world.

Committee:

Philip Wilsey, PhD (Committee Chair); Fred Beyette, PhD (Committee Member); Carla Purdy, C, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering

Keywords:

ZigBee; RTLS; Asset Tracking; RFID; Real-time Locating Systems; Sensor Network

Ramzi, AmmariDESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A FALL DETECTION DEVICE WITH INFRARED RECEIVING CAPABILITIES
Master of Science in Computer Engineering (MSCE), Wright State University, 2011, Computer Engineering

Fall related injuries are the leading cause of death and hospitalization among the elderly. Falls among older people become a major problem facing hospitals and nursing homes. In this study we put an effort to design a wireless device capable of detecting falls with the hope that this study will provide a path towards better healthcare monitoring and better independent living for the elderly.

In this project I showed how the fall detection device can be interfaced with different systems to achieve functionality without adding extra cost. For seniors who prefer to stay at their homes and live independently, the device can communicate with their smart phone to request help if needed. For hospitals and nursing homes, an infrared receiver and infrared signals decoding algorithms were implemented to interface with FastFind software to keep track of the location of the residents who fall or request help. There is also an option of having a live video feed from the specific room where the fall was detected.

Committee:

Jack Jean, PhD (Advisor); Yong Pei, PhD (Committee Member); Meilin Liu, PhD (Committee Member); Mateen Rizki, PhD (Other); Andrew Hsu, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Engineering

Keywords:

Fall Detection infrared receiver fastfind ramzi ammari computer engineering sensor wireless nodes bluetooth zigbee BLE

Wang, QiheScheduling and Simulation of Large Scale Wireless Personal Area Networks
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Engineering : Computer Science and Engineering

As the earliest standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN), Bluetooth has been widely used in cell phone, headset, car, GPS, etc. As a frequency hopping based system, however, constructing a large scale network using Bluetooth technology presents a real challenge. This dissertation explores this problem and presents several feasible solutions.

Firstly, bridge devices, which connect multiple piconets into a connected scatternet by participating in a time division multiplex basis in adjacent piconets, need to be carefully coordinated to enable smooth operations of the scatternet; secondly, the lengthy device discovery and link setup phases make scatternets impossible to maintain, without disruptive interruptions to normal data communications. To address the bridge coordination problem efficiently and effectively, this dissertation proposes a novel distributed dichotomized bridge scheduling algorithm, coupled with an adaptive Rendezvous Window based polling scheme. A new method for device discovery is also introduced to address the scatternet formation and maintenance problems.

The proposed algorithms have been tested on our own Bluetooth simulator (UCBT) which models the lower part of Bluetooth stack in detail and provides several example large scale scatternet configurations for executing our proposed scheduling algorithms. Extensive simulations have been conducted, and the performance results illustrate that large scale scatternets can operate efficiently.

This dissertation also looks at applying scatternets to sensor networks by constructing a 480 nodes scatternet in our simulator. The simulation results illustrate that Bluetooth scatternet can be a good choice for low duty cycle sensor networks.

The scheduling technique developed in Bluetooth scatternet can be applied to newly introduced IEEE 802.15.4 based Zigbee network as well. This is a new standard introduced to save consumed energy by defining a beacon controlled low duty cycle. Beacon collision problem presents a real challenge in any large sensor network setting. By applying scatternet technique, each adjacent cell may operate in a different channel to avoid timing critical beacon collision. Inter-cell communication can be achieved by having bridge type devices participating in multiple channels in a time division multiplex basis. Initial simulation results show our technique to be very promising.

Committee:

Dr. Dharma Agrawal (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Ad-Hoc Networks, Beacon Scheduling, Bluetooth, Low Duty; Cycle, Polling Scheme, Power Management, Rendezvous Point, Scatternet; Formation, Scheduling, Sensor Networks, Simulation, Zigbee.