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Alsubail, Rayan A.Aesthetics vs. Functionality in User Prompt Design: A Mobile Interface Usability Study on the iOS Touch ID Feature
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Computer Science (Engineering and Technology)
The usability of smartphone software presents unique challenges as compared to desktop software. Both aesthetics and functionality play an important role in mobile interface design. In this paper, we examined the usability of the iOS Touch ID feature with different user prompts. We compared three different types of user prompt designs for the touch ID feature, including a user prompt with no guidance (NG), a user prompt with aesthetic-first guidance design (AF), and a user prompt with functionality-first guidance design (FF). An experiment with 30 participants showed an improvement for 90% of them when using the FF prompt for the fingerprint inputs, as compared to when using the AF prompt. Additionally, the fingerprint inputs were improved for all participants using the FF prompt as compared to the NG prompt. We concluded that user prompt designs do have a material impact on the usability of mobile software, and that functionality rather than aesthetics should be the primary consideration in user prompt design.

Committee:

Chang Liu (Advisor); Frank Drews (Committee Member); Jundong Liu (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Computer Science; Experiments

Keywords:

Usability; Touch ID Usability; Touch ID; iPhone Usability; Interface Design; User Prompt Design; Aesthetic; Aesthetic Design; Aesthetic and Usability

Tipsword, MeghanThe Proband Usability Study: Investigating the Use of a Family Health History Application in Genetic Counseling
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Medicine: Genetic Counseling
The paper-based pedigree is the current standard for family health history (FHH) documentation in genetic counseling. Several tools for electronic capture of family health data have been developed to improve re-use and accessibility, data quality and standardization, ease of updating, and integration with electronic medical records. One such tool, the tablet-based Proband application, provides a flexible approach to data capture in dynamic and diverse clinical settings and represents a potential means to address these points. This study compared Proband FHH collection to paper-based methods and investigated the usability of Proband in a clinical setting. After one use by 23 genetic counselors or students, Proband had 91% accuracy with a FHH audio scenario, which was significantly less (p < 0.001) than paper’s 96% accuracy. These differences were attributed to incorrect or missing ages of grandparents (p < 0.001) and great-aunts/uncles (p = 0.012) and missing documentation of consanguinity (p < 0.001). Possible explanations for these differences include greater experience with paper FHH documentation and pre-populated prompts for consanguinity on the paper template used. Proband’s perceived usability increased with use, with individual System Usability Scores increasing between first and last use (p = 0.033). We conclude that tools for dynamic, provider-driven FHH documentation such as Proband show promise for improving risk assessment accuracy and quality patient care.

Committee:

Melanie Myers, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Richard Ittenbach (Committee Member); Christine Spaeth, M.S. C.G.C. (Committee Member); Peter White, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Sciences

Keywords:

Proband;family health history;pedigree;accuracy;usability;System Usability Scale

Jenkins, Lillie RuthDesigning systems that make sense: what designers say about their communication with users during the usability testing cycle
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Communication
This dissertation project focused on design practitioners’ communicative experiences as they occurred during usability testing in an attempt to isolate and lay out the contradiction that occurs between practitioners’ belief in user-centered design (UCD) and their practice of that methodology. Communication was important to study because it is a central aspect of UCD, but the notion that design practitioners perceive communication to be instructive and/or useful as indicated by their design practice has not been well documented and represents an axiom of sorts in the design field. The goals of this research were to trace the contradiction to determine how design practitioners perceive communication between themselves and the users—the UCD rationale—and by extension, to better understand communication’s impact upon their subsequent design decisions. The following research questions flowed from this idea: (a) How does the contradiction between design practitioners’ values and practices play itself out in their experiences communicating with users to implement UCD in the form of usability testing? (b) What do design practitioners say about the reasons that factor into their decisions to exclude users’ suggestions from the final product design? Sense-Making Methodology, a methodology in the tradition of Grounded Theory, was used to isolate contradictory communication behaviors related to design practitioners’ belief in UCD and their practice of UCD methodology as represented by usability testing and users’ suggestions. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted and Sense-Making’s Communication-As-Procedure analytic was used to analyze the data, examining occurrences of contradicting communication behaviors. The results of this exploratory study indicated that communicative tactics seeking connection with and direction from users to validate the product under design, led most often to a design effort that included usability testing and users’ suggestions. On the other hand, the results of tracing the communication showed that behaviors that disconnected from users, did not seek to orient toward the direction of their needs, and in the end rejected their input led most often to a design process that excluded both usability testing and users’ suggestions as means of practicing UCD.

Committee:

Brenda Dervin (Advisor)

Keywords:

Communication; Cognitive Engineering; Design Process; Design Lifecycle; Design of Information Technology; Design Practitioners; Developers; Designers; Human-Computer Interaction; Interaction; Usability Testing; Usability Evaluation; User Centered Design

Roberts, David AnthonyDiscontinuous Systems Analysis: an Interdisciplinary Analysis Tool
Master of Computer Science, Miami University, 2007, Computer Science and Systems Analysis
The field of discontinuous mechanical systems in widely unexplored and lacks the definition and tools which accompany continuous mechanical systems. Designing and compiling a successful set of tools, or engineering toolkit requires the study of a number of areas, including user interface design and human computer interactions (HCI). This thesis presents the design, implementation and usability study of an interdisciplinary tool, for the aide and benefit of analysing discontinuous systems in mechanical engineering. The structure of the underlying framework, the design decisions, the design rational, and a comparison of multi-platform frameworks are also included.

Committee:

Amit Shukla (Advisor)

Keywords:

DISCONTINUOUS SYSTEMS; DISCONTINUOUS; Matlab; Illustration; usability; user interface

Arora, AniketConcurrent consideration of product usability and functionality: Development of integrated design guidelines
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Engineering and Applied Science: Mechanical Engineering
Previous works have established separate design guidelines for consumer product usability and consumer product functionality. Since realistic product designs require simultaneous consideration of product usability and functionality, we have integrated previously developed design guidelines for product usability and functionality. The first section presents the procedural details for developing these integrated design guidelines. A comprehensive and unified approach for simultaneous optimization of usability and functionality was considered in integrating existing design guidelines. A coherent framework for a design process inclusive of several design criteria, such as performance, ease of use, safety, and environmental affinity, was established for accomplishing the design objective. An example case was used to first integrate and then generalize the comprehensive guidelines. The generic design guidelines are presented in the form of checklists. Later, generalized integrated design guidelines are validated by applying them to a consumer product that is directly used by consumers. Statistical analysis has been performed for evaluating the design guidelines developed for the studied product and to highlight the customer preferences of different design requirements, in detail. The last part of this study deals with the application of the generalized integrated design guidelines to a complex consumer product which despite of being a consumer product has very little human interface. The transmission system for cars was used for this reason.

Committee:

Anil Mital, PhD, PE (Committee Chair); David Thompson, PhD (Committee Member); Ronald Huston, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Industrial Engineering

Keywords:

consumer product;product usability;product functionality;design guidelines;design dimensions

Lu, TingtingEffects of Multimedia on Motivation, Learning and Performance: The Role of Prior Experience and Task Constraints
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Communication
This study examines the effects of instructional presentation methods and different types of tasks on learning processes and outcomes from cognitive load and learner control perspectives. Situated in software training, a between-individual, 2 (Tutorial Type: Static images with print text or animated pictures with narration) x 3 (Task Type: Rote or Explore or Explore with Tips) experimental design is used. Prior experience is examined as the key covariate in the analyses. The primary findings of this study suggest that using animated pictures with narration to present instructional content can reduce learners’ cognitive load while improving their retention test performance. The animated version of the tutorial helped enhance self-efficacy more than the text version. Moreover, the two versions of tutorial did not differ significantly on affordances and usability measures, countering the usability concerns in the conventional view of animated and audio-visual presentation. Results also indicate that giving learner more control over their learning processes may not translate into the feeling of being in control. Furthermore, this study found the Explore with Tips task with more learner control led to lower retention test scores. Flow and intrinsic motivation were examined as a potential explanatory mechanism. The overall lack of motivational variance across experiemental groups is discussed.

Committee:

Prabu David (Committee Chair); Steve Acker (Other); Zheng Wang (Other)

Subjects:

Communication; Design; Education

Keywords:

multimedia learning; animated and static media; software training; learner control; usability

Meacher, Gary EarlNote-taking and Information Retention and Recall
MFA, Kent State University, 2012, College of Communication and Information / School of Visual Communication Design

Information retention is paramount to the education process. There is not a single act in academia that does not require extensive information recall. Beginning with the middle school grades, teachers increasingly rely on the lecture method of instruction. Incidentally, the middle grades are a critical period in the instruction of study skills as the students in that age range are developmentally ready to become strategic learners.

Notable is a versatile tool that functions in varied note-taking environments. Considerations for different learning styles and activities that aid in information retention and recall are uniquely utilized throughout the application. This thesis offers a framework for the development of Notable.

Ethnographic research was conducted on middle school students to gain insight on their learning environments, including the classroom, lecture styles, notetaking tools, organizational methods and social interactions among teachers and classmates.

Quantitative research was conducted in the form of a survey. Over 70 participants submitted answers to questions revolving around achievement levels, learning styles, tools, and study habits. Data synthesized from surveys informed the construction of user personas and usage scenarios to help focus an iterative design approach toward the development of a comprehensive note-taking application.

Committee:

Ken Visocky O'Grady (Advisor); Jerry Kalback (Committee Member); Karl Fast (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Education; Educational Software; Educational Technology; Middle School Education; Teaching; Technology

Keywords:

graphic design; ipad; app; note-taking; information retention; information recall; memory; middle school students; child development; app; application; learning styles; design research; design process; touch interface; user testing; usability

Gifford, BenReviewing the critics: Examining popular video game reviews through a comparative content analysis
Master of Applied Communication Theory and Methodology, Cleveland State University, 2013, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current critical climate in popular online video game reviews (i.e., video game criticism written for a general audience). So far, most of the research published in this area focuses on how the reviews reflect the games themselves, rather than strictly examining the content of the reviews in this growing body of literature. This study uses computer-aided text analysis (CATA) supplemented with human coding to identify typological differences between film and video game reviews, as well as differences in theory usage and critical thought and style. Video game reviews are more concerned with the price of the work being reviewed, supporting the notion for a utility theory of video games. Game reviewers also tend to find redeeming qualities even in very flawed games, suggesting they are either overly passionate and/or concerned about keeping advertisers happy. Although not at the exceedingly high levels as previous studies, the author finds support for using usability heuristics (e.g., responsiveness of controls, use of in-game tutorials) to review games. Neither body of popular criticism examined delves deeply into theoretical frameworks for auteur or feminist theories, but discussion is provided as to how the reviewers could address these issues should they choose to do so.

Committee:

Kimberly Neuendorf, PhD (Committee Chair); Bob Abelman, PhD (Committee Member); Anup Kumar, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Mass Media

Keywords:

video games; criticism; film; critical theory; film theory; feminist theory; utility theory; usability heuristics; ludology; popular criticism; popular reviews; communication; digital media; auteur theory

Liu, ShijingTechnology Acceptance Model for Determining the Effects of Age, Usability, and Content on Mobile Application Usage
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2012, Industrial and Systems Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
With market competition and customer needs, the development of smart phones and mobile applications is fast and changes our daily life. Meanwhile, our world population is aging. The group of older people is the fastest growing mobile application users. This research compared the effects of age, training, different usability characteristics between younger and older users. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as a theoretical construct in this research. Seventeen older adults (over 50 years old) and twenty younger adults (18 - 30 years old) were recruited from the local community. Four mobile applications were tested on smart phones or similar devices. A training session was included in the experiment. Results of the experiment showed: (1) training has significant effect on the increase of TAM measures, (2) customers prefer to use mobile applications which have higher level of TAM measures, and (3) older and younger groups have different level of TAM measures. Recommendations for age targeted design considerations for mobile applications are given.

Committee:

Diana Schwerha, PhD (Advisor); David Koonce, PhD (Committee Member); Tao Yuan, PhD (Committee Member); Vic Matta, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aging; Industrial Engineering; Information Systems

Keywords:

Technology Acceptance Model;TAM;usability;mobile application;older adults

Shen, DaComparative Evaluation of Repurposing and Optimized Approaches in Web Application Design
MDES, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Design
Given the emergence of mobile technology, the difference of devices and their adjunct operating systems have been progressively enlarged. On devices with varying screen sizes, user interaction and user experience become different. This makes web application design a more complicated task than before in order to meet various compatibility and user experience requirements. To fix this issue, web application design approaches have evolved into two categories: repurposing approach and optimized approach. In this study, I design and develop a cross–device web application by using these two approaches respectively. Usability testing is performed to collect data and user experience comments from respondents. Then analysis of the data shows which approach is more superior in specific situations.

Committee:

Benjamin Meyer, M.F.A. (Committee Chair); Heekyoung Jung, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

web application;web design;usability testing;responsive design;optimized design;repurposing design;

Evans, Dakota C.A THEORETICAL ADAPTIVE AUTONOMY MODEL: REAL-TIME PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE WORKLOAD
Master of Science in Engineering (MSEgr), Wright State University, 2014, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering
Increases in modern-day system complexity, has led for a need to improve human performance and the interaction between the two. Three objectives: (1) to investigate physiological measures as indicators of cognitive workload, (2) to assess cognitive workload during human interaction with different autonomy levels, and (3) to develop a theoretical model for an adaptive autonomous system that changes with real-time cognitive workload measures were addressed. This effort seeks to improve human computer interaction by providing the human with the acceptable level of computer automation based on real-time cognitive state. Two experiments involved collection of measures of subject physiology, subjective survey data, and performances measures to assess cognitive workload. The first experiment involved assessment of workload during different task difficulty levels. The second experiment compared workload under different system automation levels. Fixation rate, electromyography measures, and heart rate standard deviation were found to include significant main effects for both experiments.

Committee:

Mary Fendley, Ph.D. (Advisor); Frank Ciarallo, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nasser Kashou, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Experiments; Industrial Engineering; Physiological Psychology

Keywords:

human-computer interaction, cognitive workload, automation, physiology, ophthalmology, physiology, psychophysiology, eye tracking, adaptive autonomy, NASA TLX, X-bar charts, usability, human factors, engineering, modeling, theoretical models

Wright, Corinne P.Bridging the Gap: Exploring the Need for Better System Representations in Higher Education
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2015, Human Factors and Industrial/Organizational Psychology PhD
Higher education constitutes a sociotechnical system. Some students enter with cultural experiences that support the new endeavor whereas others are woefully under-supported. Student preparedness often is tightly coupled with student background. Some ethnic minorities and students from impoverished backgrounds enter the university setting with a high risk of not persisting or completing their higher education pursuits (e.g., Kuh, Kinzie, Bridges, & Hayek, 2007). Traditional conceptualizations of risk identify immutable factors, such as SES, with little opportunity for immediate mitigation. Traditional interventions to mitigate risk include either fitting the student to the system (e.g., Tinto, 1993) or fitting the system to the student (Banning, 1980). Both approaches have their challenges (Anderson, 1981; Swartz, 1977). A third approach acknowledges the relevance of student knowledge regarding the functions and organization of the sociotechnical system. Dumais and Landauer (1984) found that even the most basic information is categorized based on group membership, contextual constraints, and the task at hand. This categorization of information is an essential facet of cultural, or system knowledge and can affect the ability for individuals to make sense of new surroundings. The interface between the student and the system may function as a boundary object (Starr, 1998) to provide an opportunity to bridge the gap between users and the system. The present study examined the university information search problem and its interaction with risk in a series of three converging studies. Ethnographic observation and structured interviews illustrated the information search problem. A performance study of information search using two different interfaces to the university system revealed an interaction between risk and interface. High risk users were better at overcoming knowledge limitations and interface deficiencies than not high risk users, generally by breaking the rules of the experimental instructions. These findings revealed the role of strategy in distinguishing between risk levels and the potential cultural mismatch between the assumptions of the high risk student and the sociotechnical system.

Committee:

Valerie Shalin, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Debra Steele-Johnson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Herb Colle, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Corey Miller, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kimberly Barrett, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Sociotechnical systems; higher education; usability; cultural knowledge; system knowledge; information search; boundary objects

Lynch, Kyle R.Weighted Heuristic Evaluation and Usability Testing of Ohio Area Agency on Aging Websites for Older Adults
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2011, Industrial and Systems Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
Older adults are the fastest growing population of internet users. As websites acquire a greater number of older visitors, it is absolutely vital that programmers design their sites with this demographic in mind. Older users typically have limitations including poor eyesight, hearing loss, and cognitive difficulties that can have a negative influence on how well they can use a website. This research documents the development of a new weighted heuristic metric for evaluating the usability of websites for older adults, and validates the metric by comparing the performance from usability tests to the scores from the new usability metric. The websites for the Ohio Area Agency on Aging were selected for this research due to the nature of their content. The results of the usability tests show that the heuristic classifications were significantly different with respect to the performance metrics. The conclusion of the work proposes a set of recommended changes for the websites.

Committee:

Diana Schwerha, Ph D. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Industrial Engineering

Keywords:

website usability; aging; heuristic; website evaluation

Jones, Aaron A.The Impact of Website Navigational Usability Characteristics On User Frustration and Performance Metrics
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2012, Industrial and Systems Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
The purpose of this study was to relate user frustration and performance to specific website usability characteristics. In this study, three mock websites were designed to test the affects of eight website navigational usability characteristics. Thirty participants were recruited and asked to navigate through the websites. Participant performance time and navigational clicks were recorded, while participants noted their overall frustration levels, task interest, and frustration level felt towards the eight navigational characteristics. Nonparametric statistics were used to establish a difference between website performance, correlation analyses were used to determine relationships between variables, and regression analyses were used to determine the predictive capabilities of the navigational characteristics. In this experiment, it was concluded that the amount of scrolling and participant’s ability to establish a relation to the homepage contributed strongly to user frustration experienced, usability characteristics were stronger predictors of performance metrics than the effects of goal commitment and task interest, and user frustration levels may predict a person leaving a website after 130 seconds.

Committee:

Diana Schwerha, PhD (Advisor); Dale Masel, PhD (Committee Member); Gary Weckman, PhD (Committee Member); Raymond Frost, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Industrial Engineering

Keywords:

usability; navigational characteristics; website; frustration; goal commitment; motivation; internet; performance metrics; pilot study

Detton, Alan JamesThe Creation of a 3D Interactive Human Neural Development Resource and Its Evaluation Through a Video Analytic Usability Study
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Anatomy

Currently limited analytical data exists in the anatomical sciences comparing alternative methods of anatomical education through the utilization of computer-based resources beyond qualitative survey results, most notably in regard to content focusing on human development. The improved evaluation of computer-based resources is becoming increasingly important in the anatomical sciences as resources continue to develop, notably in regard to 3D models focusing on anatomical concepts. The increased development of computer-based resources in anatomy may be explained by advances in computational and visualization methods, as well as an indication of efforts being made to supplement courses experiencing decreases in lab space, funding, time, as well as a method for faculty to better teach their ‘millennial’ students. Embryology was selected for the topic of this study as it may be beneficially assisted through the use of 3D models. Embryology is reliant on a strong understanding of spatial relationships as seen in gross anatomy, but also has the unique addition of temporality potentially hindering student comprehension and to date is limited in the amount of 3D model computer-based resources available.

The presented dissertation work details the creation of a novel computer-based educational resource focusing on human central nervous system development, and outlines a usability study performed to test the resources functionality and efficacy, as indicated by levels of user satisfaction and score performance. The content and interactive features of the resource were based upon feedback gathered from a survey sent to current and past embryology faculty, and were designed to meet the demand for course supplementation within the anatomical sciences. Two resources were developed in order to run a comparative study evaluating student use and perception of a resource built using 3D models of MRI scans of actual human specimens, and a comparable resource relying on 2D images of the developed models.

Using principles from the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), a Video Analytic Usability Study (VAUS) was implemented to test the functionality of the resource and to demonstrate a potential method of evaluation to gain additional insight into student impressions beyond the collected survey data. The initial design of the resource was tested with graduate students in the division of anatomy, modified, and then implemented in a comparative 3D vs. 2D study with voluntary participants from the 2014 Dental Class at the Ohio State University. The VAUS was incorporated with a Content Quiz, a Qualitative User Satisfaction Survey, and a Mental Rotation test to investigate if student perception and/or score performance was affected by the manner in which the information was presented, and/or the student’s level of spatial ability as recorded through mental rotation tasks. The results of the study are meant to assist in the creation of more user friendly and effective computer-based resources, and to increase understanding of student perceived usefulness of incorporating 3D anatomical models in regard to embryology education.

Committee:

John Bolte, PhD (Advisor); Philip Payne, PhD (Committee Chair); Albert Lai, PhD (Committee Member); Kandampully Jay, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Anatomy and Physiology

Keywords:

Human Development; Embryology; Anatomy Education; MRI 3D Reconstructions; Video Analytic Usability Study; Human Computer Interaction; Visual Spatial Ability

Alley, Krista IDefining the Industrial Designer's Role in the ISO/IEC 62366 Standard
MDES, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Design
In recent years, the medical device industry has revised its development practices by incorporating the ISO/IEC 62366 (Usability Engineering Process) standard. The standard, purposed to guide industry toward achieving reasonable usability in all medical devices and reduce use errors, heavily emphasizes risk management and has created a large need for usability research and an in-depth understanding of human factors. A common misconception exists that the complexity of identifying, mitigating, and testing for such risk is beyond the usability and human factors components of tradition industrial design. As a result, medical device design teams typically rely on human factors engineers, and in many cases where both disciplines are present, have consequently grayed the understanding of team roles concerning usability engineering. By surveying and performing case studies on design processes used in medical device design, this thesis examines the role of the industrial designer and suggests the best practices for industrial design within the ISO/IEC 62366 standard.

Committee:

Steven Doehler, M.A. (Committee Chair); Edwin Bills, M.Ed. (Committee Member); Soo-Shin Choi, M.F.A. (Committee Member); Tony Kawanari, M.A. I.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

Medical Devices;Medical Device Design;Industrial Design;Usability Engineering;Standardization;ISO IEC 62366

Crall, Brittany L. L.Usability of Just-in-Time Training for Treestand Safety Among Age Diverse Populations
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2016, Industrial and Systems Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
Treestands are the lesser known contributors to hunting related injuries. Falling from a treestand is a life-altering incident that can potentially disable hunters for life. Although the law regulates communication of safety procedures requiring individuals to be trained, several loopholes exist in the system and many hunters do not receive the proper training. The purpose of this research was to develop a useful mobile phone application that would make the information more accessible to hunters and then test this application for usability, effectiveness, and receptiveness. This research analyzed the usability and training effectiveness of the app using a brief pre-and post-testing method, usability questionnaire, and predicted use evaluation when used by two age groups of hunters and non-hunters, ages 21 – 39 and 40 plus. Results indicated that all groups of participants improved their pre and post test scores by 25% on average (p-value of 0.00, T-value of -6.69). All groups of participants indicated that the app was highly usable and hunters reported that they would be very likely to use the app in the future.

Committee:

Diana Schwerha (Advisor)

Subjects:

Educational Software; Educational Tests and Measurements; Engineering

Keywords:

Hunting; Just-in-Time Training; App Usability; Treestand Safety; Fall Safety

HART, TIMOTHY R.Who Took the “U” Out of Usability? An Analysis of Professional Web Site Use and Usability in a Midwestern Urban School District
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Education : Curriculum and Instruction
The primary goal of this study was to investigate usability issues surrounding a teacher-oriented Intranet site in a mid-size urban school district in the Midwest: the factors that have affected teachers’ use of the web site, the influences that have impacted the overall design and usability of the web site, and to what degree theories of effective web site usability have been implemented in the creation of this site. The characteristics of usability considered were communication of the site’s purpose, content writing, links, navigation, graphics and animations, and graphic design. Data were collected via direct observations, web site usability activity cards, quantitative usability questionnaires, focus group discussions with 3 groups of 8 literacy educators in the school district. Data analysis was completed through the researcher’s qualitative coding and triangulating of both the observational field notes and focus group transcripts. An Analysis of Variance was used to compare the means of the time required to complete tasks and the number of correct responses of the participants in the web usability card activity. This comparison was done by age, gender, and years of teaching experience. The usability questionnaires were used to compare the means of the extent of participants’ agreement on a series of web site usability statements. Data analysis indicated that there are factors beyond web site usability that impact teachers’ use of this web site. In addition, the restrictions of the web-based templates compound the factors that impact teachers’ use of the web site as well as the designer’s incorporation of usability theory in the design of the site. Several conclusions were drawn from this study. The most important conclusion is that we must consider the stakeholders first in all issues of usability, including external issues that prevent teachers from using these web-based resources.

Committee:

Dr. Janet Bohren (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Technology

Keywords:

web site usability; educational technology; teachers and technology; instructional design

Berberich, KatelynEvaluating Mobile Information Display System in Transfer of Care
Master of Science in Industrial and Human Factors Engineering (MSIHE) , Wright State University, 2017, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering
Transfer of care continuum is highly dynamic in nature and there are multiple complexities associated with man-man interaction and man-machine interaction. During transfer of patient care, which occurs from an emergency medical team (EMT) to an emergency department, adequate information related to the patient must be communicated very quickly and precisely. Challenges EMTs and emergency department personnel face are communicating and obtaining all the essential information to ensure the patient receives the best care. Providing the receiving emergency department with patient vitals and pre-hospital procedures that occurred en route could allow for enhanced preparation and improved communication during the transfer process thereby being beneficial to the patient’s health. This research focuses on designing and evaluating the usability of information presentation for a tablet device and the use of such device to improve efficiency during the transfer of care process. This could potentially help emergency department workers better prepare for the incoming patient, reduce the amount of information needed to be quickly communicated in a short time, and provide appropriate medical care. Results indicated that on mobile devices in a transfer of care the use of basic information displays provides faster preparation response times in one and three patient-simulated scenarios.

Committee:

Subhashini Ganapathy, Ph.D. (Advisor); Mary Fendley, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Aerial Kreiner, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Care Management; Information Systems

Keywords:

Transfer of care; Emergency medical team; emergency department; handovers; communication; patient vitals; information displays; mobile device; usability

Dolmage, Jay TMETIS: DISABILITY, RHETORIC AND AVAILABLE MEANS
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2006, English
In this dissertation I argue for a critical re-investigation of several connected rhetorical traditions, and then for the re-articulation of theories of composition pedagogy in order to more fully recognize the importance of embodied differences. Metis is the rhetorical art of cunning, the use of embodied strategies—what Certeau calls everyday arts—to transform rhetorical situations. In a world of chance and change, metis is what allows us to craft available means for persuasion. Building on the work of Detienne and Vernant, and Certeau, I argue that metis is a way to recognize that all rhetoric is embodied. I show that embodiment is a feeling for difference, and always references norms of gender, race, sexuality, class, citizenship. Developing the concept of metis I show how embodiment forms and transforms in reference to norms of ability, the constraints and enablements of our bodied knowing. I exercise my own metis as I re-tell the mythical stories of Hephaestus and Metis, and re-examine the dialogues of Plato, Aristotle, Cicero and Quintillian. I weave through the images of embodiment trafficked in phenomenological philosophy, and I apply my own models to the teaching of writing as an embodied practice, forging new tools for learning. I strategically interrogate the ways that academic spaces circumscribe roles for bodies/minds, and critique the discipline of composition’s investment in the erection of boundaries. I propose new ways to conceptualize rhetorical history, embodiment, composition’s geographies, pedagogies, and engagements.

Committee:

Cynthia Lewiecki-Wilson (Advisor)

Keywords:

composition; rhetoric; disability studies; metis; prosthesis; universal design; embodiment; retro-fit; body; pedagogy; metissage; usability; cunning

Petiya, SeanBuilding a Semantic Web of Comics: Publishing Linked Data in HTML/RDFa Using a Comic Book Ontology and Metadata Application Profiles
MLIS, Kent State University, 2014, College of Communication and Information / School of Library and Information Science
Information about the various resources, concepts, and entities in the world of comics can be found in a wide range of systems, including those of libraries, archives, and museums, as well as the records of independent research projects. Semantic Web technologies and standards represent an opportunity to connect these resources using Linked Data. In an attempt to realize this opportunity, this thesis presents a case study for the development of a domain ontology for comic books and comic book collections. In the initial phase, reference resources and example materials were collected and consulted to develop a representative domain model and core schema. A workflow was then developed to convert common CSV data to XML and RDF/XML, replacing common values with LOD URIs using XSLT. The second phase of the study then focused on publishing Linked Data using HTML/RDFa. A review of existing information systems and an analysis of their content was conducted in order to address the usability of the vocabulary, and inform the design of a series of modularized metadata application profiles using the core schema as a base. Examples were tested for their ability to produce valid, meaningful RDF data from HTML content that was consistent with the ontology. The final result is an RDFS/OWL Web vocabulary for comics, titled the Comic Book Ontology (CBO). It is an open and extensible semantic model that identifies comics using two components: (a) the form and (b) the container. This approach allows the Ontology’s conceptualization of comics to include comic books, comic strips, web comics, graphic novels, manga, or original artwork, with the potential for further describing other aspects of comics culture and scholarship, or connecting, community created data to Semantic Web applications, such as next-generation library catalogs.

Committee:

Marcia Lei Zeng, Ph.D. (Advisor); Karen F. Gracy, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David B. Robins, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Information Science; Information Systems; Library Science; Web Studies

Keywords:

comic books; graphic novels; semantic web; linked data; ontology; metadata; application profile; usability

Coffey, Kathleen MMobile Technology and Civic Engagement: Heuristics and Practices for Developing Mobile Applications for Social and Civic Change
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2014, English
Many different non-profit organizations, companies, government groups, and individual developers have built hundreds of mobile applications aimed at improving environmental issues in communities, helping people change their actions and behaviors towards the environment, or raising awareness regarding environmental concerns. Applications supporting the environment are just some in a larger category of applications built to serve social and civic change. Although these applications are developed and designed with the best of intentions, oftentimes the standard usability practices and heuristics used to develop these applications do not accommodate the complexities surrounding applications for social and civic change. Therefore, this thesis uses qualitative research practices, interviews with developers and mobile action research with users, to build new research practices and heuristics for those developing user-focused mobile applications for social and civic change.

Committee:

Michele Simmons (Committee Chair); Jason Palmeri (Committee Member); James Porter (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Rhetoric; Technical Communication

Keywords:

mobile technology; usability; civic engagement; rhetoric; composition; technical communication; professional writing; technology; mobile applications; mobile application; environmentalism

Prempeh, James AgyemanDynamic Culture-Centered Design for User Empowerment, with Applications to Techno-Culture in Ghana
Master of Technical and Scientific Communication, Miami University, 2011, English
This paper explores why and how dynamic approaches to Culture-Centered Design can help designers conceive of, and develop, technologies effective at empowering users in specific cultural contexts. In the context of developments in the objective and theories of Culture-Centered Design, I explicate dynamic approaches as those that recognize the dynamic nature of cultural context, the socio-cultural meaning of technologies, and user activity with technology. To illustrate their relevance, these approaches are then applied to the techno-culture of Ghana—as representative of technology challenges and opportunities in Africa—to generate ideas regarding how Ghanaians could be better empowered with effective information technologies.

Committee:

Huatong Sun, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); James Coyle, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Jean Lutz, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology; Design; Information Technology; Technical Communication; Technology

Keywords:

Culture-Centered Design; Cross-Cultural Design; Internationalization; Ghana; Africa; Information Technology; Usability

Arredondo, CeciliaImbued Medical Device Design
MDES, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Design
Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy associated with art and beauty (Zhang, 2009). Aesthetic design is directly correlated with imbued design. Imbued design means to evoke a users feeling or emotion through an object or service. Its process uses analogy to understand functionality and metaphor to translate into aesthetics. Historically, medical device design has been based solely on functionality. Ruled by the principle "form follows function" aesthetics are left to be applied at the end of the medical device development process. In design, the lack of aesthetics is defined as a lack of communication. Physicians require tools and information that simplify their everyday complex tasks. In order to test this theory, a simple medical device was developed for the purpose of visualizing and removing air bubbles from the arterial lines used in Interventional radiology procedures. This device minimizes time and maximizes accuracy of the task. Three functional prototypes were designed to compare the differences between the perceived conservative, moderately conservative and imbued forms as determined by the users by assessing 2-dimensional representations. For assessing the user perception of form and usability, fifteen participants from interventional radiology, were asked to take part of the study. The usability performance was assessed based on FDA Draft Human Factors Guidance. The emotional impressions were analyzed using Kansei Engineering Tools which to addressed the semantic differential. Semantic Differential measures people's reactions to stimulus words and concepts in terms of ratings on bipolar scales defined with contrasting adjectives. All sessions were recorded to compared to self-responses in order to assess agreement with participants non-verbals reactions during the interaction. The results of this study conclude that the methodology used to asses imbued design is effective, users' preferences change based on the design communication (2D vs 3D), and an ergonomic fit during usability assessment drives overall preference.

Committee:

Dale Murray, M.A. (Committee Chair); Andrew J. Ringer, M.I.D. (Committee Member); Mary Privitera, M I.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

Medical Device Design;Emotional Design;Imbued Design;Usability;

Yergeau, MelanieDisabling Composition: Toward a 21st-Century, Synaesthetic Theory of Writing
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, English

My dissertation examines the ways in which composition pedagogies have, both in theory and in practice, systematically worked to exclude individuals with disabilities. Persisting in composition studies is the ideological belief that traditional writing and intelligence are somehow inherently linked, that traditional literacy is central to defining one’s intellectual worth. This privileging of composing as print-based, I contend, masks the notion that writing is simply one among many systems of making and conveying meaning, that among our readers are those who cannot always access the messages delivered within print-based texts.

I argue that disability studies can enable us to reconceive the rhetorical triangle and what it means to compose. Disability studies allows us to perceive the ways in which traditional writing—and composition studies’ investment in traditional writing—normalizes and has been normalized by our understanding of “the” rhetorical triangle. But disability studies also allows us to regard the ways in which multimodal composing normalizes and has been normalized by our understanding of “the” rhetorical triangle. In order to create the inclusive, radically welcoming pedagogy that so many teacher-scholars strive for, I suggest that we disable composition studies—what we think we know about composers, composing, and composition(s).

Disabling Composition presents three case studies in which we can re/vision this disabling move. In the first case study, I interrogate new media conceptions of synaesthesia, which, in current scholarly literature, has become synonymous with multimodal composing and has been separated from its original, pathological position as a sensory impairment. This configuration of synaesthesia as a non-severe, non-pathological heuristic, I argue, embodies what I term the “rhetoric of shininess”—a concept that sounds wonderfully robust and inclusive in theory, but is often empty and exclusionary in practice. In the second case study, I use critical discourse analysis to explore how two recent usability-centric articles from Technical Communication Quarterly and Computers and Composition assume an able-bodied audience and segregate disabled users into “accessibility” clusters. In the final case study, I analyze literacy narratives of three autistic writer-activists. These individuals, I argue, serve as one example of disabling composition at work, and they have much to teach us about our conceptions of audience.

In my final chapter, I consider universal design and how its principles of flexibility and equitability work in service of disabling composition. Here I emphasize the importance of accessibility to composition studies, of the ways in which our choices—at conferences, in our syllabi, in our scholarly work—reflect who it is we value as audience members.

Finally, my dissertation is a born digital project. Though it is by no means fully accessible, it experiments with universal design and accessibility in its very form. I recognize that my audience likely contains individuals who work best with print-based texts, as well as individuals who work best with other modes of expression. Individuals who in other contexts might be considered able-bodied may, at many points, feel disabled as they encounter this dissertation.

Committee:

Brenda Brueggemann, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Cynthia Selfe, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); H. Lewis Ulman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Composition; Higher Education; Instructional Design; Language Arts; Literacy; Pedagogy; Rhetoric

Keywords:

disability studies; composition studies; rhetoric; autism; synaesthesia; shiny; usability; accessibility; universal design; technical communication; writing; digital media; computers; multimodality; audience

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