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Hausrath, Nathaniel L.Methods for Hospital Network and Computer Security
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Engineering and Applied Science: Computer Science
Hospital IT security presents many unique challenges that must be solved by the entire organization. Network and computer threats can cause thousands of dollars in lost time and resources, legal repercussions, and damaged repu- tation. Despite warnings from a wealth of public breach notifications, many hospitals are inadequately prepared to deal with today’s computer-based at- tacks. This thesis explores the root causes of hospital network and computer in- security, and addresses these problems with methods implemented in actual hospitals. A lack of comprehension of methods to assess and implement secu- rity measures by hospital IT security employees can hinder network visibility and prevent their ability to stop threats. In addition, these same people are unable to express security concerns in terms management can understand, harming their credibility within the business as a whole. Without this sup- port, organizational change is impossible. By addressing these concerns with a combination of people, process, and tools, we can solve complex problems, protect patient data, and ensure IT operations so hospitals can serve their community and save lives.

Committee:

John Franco, PhD (Committee Chair); Raj Bhatnagar, PhD (Committee Member); Patrick Kumpf, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Information Technology

Keywords:

hospital it Security;information security;network security;computer security;hospital information security;security

Gu, BoxuanContext-Aware Malicious Code Detection
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Computer Science and Engineering
Malicious codes are one of the biggest threats on the Internet according to the US-CERT vulnerability database. One salient example is Conficker, a malicious code targeting MS Windows that was released in 2009. Before it was discovered, millions of computers on the Internet were infected. Many approaches to malicious code detection have been proposed. However, such approaches have a key weakness: they do not leverage context information from target systems and input data in order to perform detection. Malicious codes can fully utilize context information for attack purposes, thereby evading detection. To address this issue, we propose a methodology that leverages such context information for malicious code detection. Based on this methodology, we design and implement three detection systems for malicious code detection on servers, Web browsers, and smartphones. Our first system takes ``snapshots'' of a target process's virtual memory space and leverages these snapshots to reveal malicious codes' true behaviors when consuming input data. Based on the first system, we construct the second system, which leverages Web browsers' JavaScript code execution environment to detect malicious JavaScript codes that exploit browsers' memory errors. Our third system uses an information flow tracking mechanism to detect malicious codes that steal sensitive information stored in smartphones. We comprehensively evaluate these detection systems with many real-world malicious codes. Our experimental results indicate that the context information can be used to greatly improve detection effectiveness with reasonable overhead.

Committee:

Dong Xuan (Advisor); Ten H. Lai (Committee Member); Feng Qin (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

intrusion detection; malicious code detection;web security; javascript security; smartphone security; android security; information flow tracking; information leaking; worm detection; shellcode; shellcode detection;

Shackelford, Philip ClaytonOn the Wings of the Wind: The United States Air Force Security Service and Its Impact on Signals Intelligence in the Cold War
BA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
The United States Air Force Security Service (USAFSS), created in 1948, was the first signals intelligence organization to be created post-World War II and played an integral role in Cold War intelligence gathering. Indeed, despite its relatively young age compared to its Army and Navy counterparts, the USAFSS soon became the premier agency for signals intelligence in the early Cold War and was responsible for hundreds of secret listening posts around the world. This thesis argues that the USAFSS was able to have such a large impact on the post-World War II intelligence community due to a high level of technological proficiency, dedication, and a close working relationship with the National Security Agency (NSA) after its establishment in 1952. Using oral history interviews and declassified government documents, this thesis explores how the USAFSS was established and how it grew to leave a lasting impact for both contemporary Cold War intelligence agencies and the modern incarnation of Air Force intelligence.

Committee:

Elizabeth Smith-Pryor, Ph.D (Advisor); Timothy Scarnecchia, Ph.D (Committee Member); Fred Endres, Ph.D (Committee Member); Leslie Heaphy, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Computer Science; Engineering; European History; History; Information Science; Information Technology; International Relations; Mass Communications; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History; Political Science; Russian History; Science History; Technical Communication; Technology; World History

Keywords:

Air Force; United States Air Force; Security Service; National Security; Intelligence; Signals Intelligence; Cold War; Soviet Union; United States; Armed Forces; National Security Agency; NSA; USAFSS; Cold War History; History; United States Military;

Basak, AbhishekINFRASTRUCTURE AND PRIMITIVES FOR HARDWARE SECURITY IN INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, EECS - Computer Engineering
For logical correlation and clustering similar approaches together, this thesis is divided into two parts. Part I proposes three light-weight, proactive IC integrity validation approaches as countermeasures against the two major forms of counterfeit ICs namely Recycled and Cloned chips. Hence the security threats considered here revolve around the legitimacy of the procured components from the vast, ever-expanding global supply chain, used to design electronic systems. The first approach is a low overhead, on-die protection mechanism against both types of above-mentioned counterfeit digital ICs based on one-time programmable Antifuses inserted in the I/O port logic and a key stored in secure non-volatile memory. Second is an antifuse based IC package level solution against both counterfeit types, that does not require any design modi fication, on-die resources and hence can be applied to legacy designs (i.e. production ready designs), which comprise a signi ficant portion of the semiconductor market. The last is an intrinsic pin resistance based IC authentication approach against cloned ICs, which does not require any overhead (die or package), changes in the design cycle and is applicable to legacy ICs. In addition to digital ICs, the latter two techniques also work efficiently for analog and mixed-signal designs. The protection against recycling off ered by the fi rst two methods involves active defense rather than only detection, i.e. the ICs are non-functional (hence of no value) until the antifuses are programmed. Overall, as compared to existing Design-for-Security (DfS) techniques, utilization of one or more of these proposed approaches would incur minimal to virtually zero design modifi cations and associated hardware overhead, off er easy integrability in existing chips and are potentially applicable to legacy designs and ICs of all types at comparable security. Part II of the thesis revolves around efficient protection against threats arising due to the integration characteristics and interactions between di fferent hardware and/or software/fi rmware components on a platform required to perform system level functions. It particularly focuses on a System-on-Chip (SoC), which constitute the primary IC type in mobile and embedded electronic systems today and is essentially an entire platform on a single chip. We have proposed a novel architecture framework that provides a methodical, formal approach to implement system level security policies in these SoCs. SoCs incorporate di fferent types of hardware/fi rmware/software based Intellectual Property (IP) cores including gen- eral purpose processors, graphics cores, accelerators, memory subsystems, device controllers etc. Security policies protect the access of various security assets on chip sprinkled around in these IP blocks, like device keys, passwords, con figuration register settings, programmable fuses and private user data. They typically involve subtle interactions between diff erent IP components and their specifi cation as well as implementation often get modi fied over the design cycle involving various stakeholders. As a result, these policies are typically implemented in a rather adhoc fashion in SoCs presently. This creates signi ficant issues in post-Si SoC validation, in-fi eld testing as well as patch/upgrades in response to bugs or changing security requirements in fi eld. To address this issue, the thesis proposes a light-weight infrastructure framework for systematic, methodical implementation of diverse SoC security policies. The architecture is centered around smart security wrappers, which extract security critical event information from the IPs and a centralized, firmware upgradable micro-controlled policy controller, which analyzes the SoC security state at all phases and enforces the appropriate security controls via the wrappers. Furthermore, to reduce the security wrapper overheads as well as provide greater flexibility to adapt to new security requirements in- field, an interface is provided between the security architecture and the existing on-chip debug infrastructure to permit reuse of its Design-for-Debug (DfD) components for security policy implementation. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the threat due to malicious modi fications and/or covert backdoors in untrustworthy 3rd party IPs in use today for designing SoCs. In the absence of full-proof static trust analysis methods, potent run-time solutions have been proposed in the architectural framework as a last line of defense to ensure SoC security in presence of untrustworthy IPs.

Committee:

Swarup Bhunia (Advisor); Frank Merat (Committee Member); Soumyajit Mandal (Committee Member); Ming-Chun Huang (Committee Member); Sandip Ray (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

security, anti-counterfeiting, system-on-chip, security policies, debug infrastructure, design-for-debug, design-for-security, trust-aware, antifuse, active defense, recycled IC, cloned IC

Garcia, Michael ErikThe Economics of Data Breach: Asymmetric Information and Policy Interventions
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Agricultural, Environmental and Developmental Economics
Large public and private costs result from attacks on firms’ information technology networks. Successful attacks result in data breaches with private damages from business interruption, reputation, and investigation forensics. Social losses result from exposing individuals’ personal information, leading to state, national, and international policymakers enacting legislation to manage these costs. Inadequate economic modeling exists to analyze this phenomenon, despite the large economic impact of cyberspace, e-commerce, and social networking. This research advances information security economics by deviating from a firm-level model to focus on the social welfare implications of firm and regulator decisions. I comprehensively review the economic and policy environment and develop the first rigorous economic model of regulatory approaches to data breach. I develop a one-period model of information security and analyze the efficacy of regulatory interventions in the face of asymmetric information. The model builds upon existing models of firm and firm-consumer information security investment and draws analogy between information security and managing asymmetric information in the biosecurity and livestock disease literature. I analyze firm and social planner incentives in a non-regulatory environment and three regulatory environments. Without regulation, the firm underinvests in network and data protection relative to the social optimum. In the first regime, the regulator must expend a fixed cost to observe social losses and overcome the firm’s moral hazard. The interaction between network and data protection permits the regulator to induce optimal behavior in two investment decisions with a single regulatory instrument. With sufficiently low regulatory costs, this result is socially preferred. In the second regulatory regime, the regulator must expend the same fixed cost for imperfect observation of social losses and administer a program requiring that the firm report breaches. The regulator can induce reporting with a sufficiently large fine for non-reporting, even with imperfect breach monitoring. In this regime, a disclosure investigation cost distorts the firm’s investment incentives in a manner inconsistent with social objectives, resulting in increased network protection at the expense of data protection. With a sufficiently high disclosure investigation cost, the firm will invest less in data protection than it would in lieu of regulation. The final regime introduces a data protection technology that mitigates social loss and some private damages. The regulator expends the same fixed cost for imperfect observation of social losses and requires disclosure only if the firm does not invest in the safe harbor technology. Except when very costly, this safe harbor technology allows the regulator to induce optimal investment and lower the firm’s regulatory burden. The safe harbor technology results in welfare gains except when the technology is very costly, at which point the firm may exit, or the safe harbor regime defaults to the distorted incentives of the disclosure policy. This research advances economic modeling in the relatively undeveloped field of information security economics. As policy aspects of information security become more developed, policymakers will require better tools to analyze policy impacts on both the firm’s wealth and on social welfare. This research provides a step toward those improved tools.

Committee:

Brian Roe, Ph.D. (Advisor); Sathya Gopalakrishnan, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ian Sheldon, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economics; Information Technology

Keywords:

cybersecurity; cyber security; data breach; economics; data breach notification; information security; information security economics

KASPAREK, JASON W.SECURITY WITHOUT SACRIFICE: MEDIATING SECURITY IN THE HISTORIC CITY HALL
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2004, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Architecture
The primary thesis of this project is that a successful implementation of security measures in a historic city hall must be mediated by the public function and historic nature of such a structure. Many current commonly-used measures to satisfy security requirements can easily destroy the aesthetic pleasures of a space as well as hinder the building’s function as a democratic forum. Additionally, the historic nature of these buildings provides additional aesthetic and technical challenges. It is the intention of this thesis to formulate a holistic approach to consideration and design of security measures in historic city halls. In order to accomplish this, my thesis analyzes the need for security in public buildings, the inherent tensions between security and the public building, and the special circumstances of security in historic contexts. The project design applies the holistic approach to a specific historic public building—medium-scale renovation and addition at Louisville City Hall.

Committee:

Nnamdi Elleh (Advisor)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

Security Measures; City Halls; Public Buildings and Security; Security and Historic Buildings

Watkins, Trevor U.Is Microsoft a Threat to National Security? Policy, Products, Penetrations, and Honeypots
Master of Computing and Information Systems, Youngstown State University, 2009, Department of Computer Science and Information Systems
Is Microsoft a threat to national security? This thesis evaluates Microsoft's policies, business model, and products to determine whether Microsoft is a threat to national security. The first part of this thesis investigated Microsoft's policies and products. In the second part of this thesis, two networks were investigated. The first network, which will be known as network “honey,” was designed and configured to examine the techniques of hackers. The second network, which will be known as network “X,” is a real business enterprise network that was the target for penetration testing. The investigation provided an inside look at the security threats in Microsoft Windows XP SP3, Windows Vista SP1, Microsoft Server 2000 SP4, and Microsoft Server 2003 SP2 operating systems on a network. The results of this investigation serve as a microcosm to a macro-problem. Microsoft Windows networks are too vulnerable to serve as the backbone for any institution or organization's networking infrastructure, especially entities considered to be government critical infrastructures.

Committee:

Graciela Perera, PhD (Advisor); Alina Lazar, PhD (Committee Member); John Sullins, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Information Systems; Systems Design

Keywords:

Honeypots; penetration testing; national security; network security; Microsoft threat to national security; hackers; Microsoft Windows

Schreibman, Jeffrey P.Food Security and Physical Activity in Individuals Living With HIV/AIDS in Rural Appalachia
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2013, Food and Nutrition Sciences (Health Sciences and Professions)
This study examined household food security (HFS) and physical activity (PA among individuals living with HIV/AIDS living in rural Appalachia (West Virginia, Appalachian Ohio, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania). Participants (n = 82) completed an online or paper survey that included validated measures of HFS (USDA short form) and physical activity. Data were analyzed using PASW statistical software (version 18.0,) to determine the relationship between the variables (Mann-Whitney U). The majority of participants (n = 82) were: male (n = 63) and Caucasian (n = 59). For all patients, 28 (34.1%), 10 (12.2%), 12 (14.56%), and 32 (39.0%) were living in households characterized as being high, marginal, low, and very low HFS, respectively. There was no significant difference in distribution of IPAQ scores (Mann-Whitney U, p = .161), and total MET-min per week of physical activity between the HIV and AIDS groups (t-test, p = 0.200). There was no significant difference between distribution of IPAQ scores (Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.929), and total MET-min per week (t-test, p = 0.944) between food security groups. Further exploration is warranted in other rural regions.

Committee:

David Holben, PhD, RD, LD (Advisor); Tania Basta, Ph.D., MPH, CHES (Committee Member); Deborah Murray, MS, RD, LD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health; Health Education; Nutrition

Keywords:

Food Security; Physical Activity; HIV; AIDS; Physical activity and HIV/AIDS; Physical activity and food security

Wisnu, DinnaGoverning Social Security: economic crisis and reform in Indonesia, the Philippines and Singapore
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Political Science
This study identifies that after 1997 financial crisis Indonesia, the Philippines and Singapore experienced different shifts in their structure of provision of social security benefits. The shifts vary on two important dimensions of social security provisions: the benefit level and the political control of the state over the private sector. In Indonesia there was a shift that eroded benefit level and strengthened the state’s political control over the private sector. In the Philippines there was a shift that improved benefit level and weakened state control over the private sector. Meanwhile in Singapore the shift improved benefit level yet at the expense of deeper penetration of state control over the private sector. What explains the variation in the shifts in the dimensions of social security provisions in Indonesia, the Philippines and Singapore after crisis? Such variation cannot be explained with the usual explanatory variables: fiscal constraints at the national level, the ranking of economies in the global competition, or the intervention of international financial institutions. This economic context after financial crisis only affect the degree of dramaticness of change proposed for the social security reform. Once the reform proposal is advanced, however, it was domestic politics that matter more. The output is influenced by a compromise-building among employers, workers, state leaders and bureaucrats. More specifically, the reform outputs differ by the variation of the expectations of employers and workers on the conduciveness of the overall economy and the degree of relative intensity of symbiosis between bureaucrats of social security agencies and state leaders (low or relatively less political in leadership and management and high or relatively highly political in leadership and management). This study demonstrates the critical importance of social security reform to market governance. Beyond earlier study of market governance, which identifies the presence of initiative and active intervention of the state in leading the market, this study specifies three areas of market governance that the state leaders push through social security reform: the state autonomy vis-à-vis international pressure, the state control over worker-employer relations, and the overall sense of predictability for all stakeholders.

Committee:

William Liddle (Advisor)

Subjects:

Political Science, General

Keywords:

Social Security Reform; market governance; state autonomy; bureaucracy; 1997 Asian financial crisis; social security; Indonesia; Philippines; Singapore; state; employers; workers

Alqallaf, MahaSoftware Defined Secure Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2016, Computer Science and Engineering PhD
Software defined networking (SDN), a new networking paradigm that separates the network data plane from the control plane, has been considered as a flexible, layered, modular, and efficient approach to managing and controlling networks ranging from wired, infrastructure-based wireless (e.g., cellular wireless networks, WiFi, wireless mesh net- works), to infrastructure-less wireless networks (e.g. mobile ad-hoc networks, vehicular ad-hoc networks) as well as to offering new types of services and to evolving the Internet architecture. Most work has focused on the SDN application in traditional and wired and/or infrastructure based networks. Wireless networks have become increasingly more heterogeneous. Secure and collab- orative operation of mobile wireless ad-hoc networks poses significant challenges due to the decentralized nature of mobile ad hoc wireless networks, mobility of nodes, and re- source constraints. Recent developments in software defined networking shed new light on how to control and manage an ad hoc wireless network. Given the wide deployment and availability of heterogeneous wireless technologies, the control and management of ad hoc wireless networks with the new software defined networking paradigm is offered more flexibility and opportunities to deal with trust and security issues and to enable new features and services. This dissertation focuses on the SDN MANET architecture design issues for provid- ing secure collaborative operation. Specifically, (I) We have proposed four design options for software defined secure collaborative ad hoc wireless network architecture. The de- sign options are organized into (a) centralized SDN controller architecture with controller replication and (b) distributed SDN controller architecture. While these proposed architec- ture options exhibit different characteristics, many common challenges are shared amongst these options. Challenges include fault-tolerance, scalability, efficiency, and security. The unstructured nature of ad hoc wireless networks exacerbates these challenges. We have studied the pros and cons of these different design options and their applicability in differ- ent practical scenarios via simulations. (II) Establishing the initial trust among participating devices in an SDN based wireless mobile ad hoc network will serve as a basis for enabling ensuing secure communication of the network. We proposed and studied trusted virtual certificate authorities (VCAs) based local infrastructure for supporting device mutual au- thentication to support secure communications/operations in SDN based MANETs, and therefore, relieving the MANETs of the need to rely on an external public key infrastruc- ture (PKI). We examined the ways in which this VCA based infrastructure can be integrated with the four SDN based MANET architecture design options. (III) Finally, we provided theoretically analysis of designing and incorporating an IDS/IPS system in an SDN based MANET.

Committee:

Bin Wang, Ph.D. (Advisor); Yong Pei, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Zhiqiang Wu, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Computer Science

Keywords:

MANET; Security Challenges; Trust Management Challenges; SDN; OpenFlow; SDN Security Issues and Mechanisms; Trust Management; Virtual Certificate Authority for SDNMANET; Intrusion Detection and Prevention for SDNMANET; SDNMANET Architecture

Moma, Jose A.The Frontline States Alliance and the Management of Threat in Southern Africa
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2009, Political Science (Arts and Sciences)
The Frontline States (FLS) was one of the most important security institutions in southern Africa. Formed in the 1970s against white-minority regimes in Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, after the fall of apartheid the FLS was transformed into the Organ on Politics, Defense and Security Cooperation (OPDSC) and its committee for defense and security, the Inter-State Defense and Security Committee (ISDSC), was adopted by the OPDSC. This path of transformation, rather than pure extinction, reveals the significance of the FLS legacy to southern African regional security and concomitantly requires a new approach to the FLS that captures the processes of formation, expansion and transformation in a unifying way. I propose an explanation of the FLS from the perspective of threat management, applying Weitsman's (2004) theory of alliances to examine the FLS and the dynamics of threat in the region.

Committee:

Patricia Weitsman, PhD (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

International Relations; Political Science

Keywords:

Alliances; Frontline States (FLS); Weitsman's theory of alliances; Southern Africa; Organ on Politics, Defense and Security Cooperation (OPDSC); Inter-State Defense and Security Committee (ISDSC)

Basciftci, Yuksel OPrivate and Secure Data Communication: Information Theoretic Approach
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Wireless networks flourishing worldwide enable online services, such as social networks and search engines to serve huge number of users and to collect large amount of data about their users. Sharing of this data has been key driver of innovation and improvement in the quality of these services, but also raised major security and privacy concerns. This thesis aims to address privacy concerns in data sharing as well as security concerns in wireless data communication using information theoretic framework. In the first part of the thesis, we build security establishing algorithms that bring unbreakable security to wireless data communication. The broadcast nature of wireless medium makes data communication susceptible to various security attacks. For instance, an adversary can eavesdrop on confidential data traffic without actually tapping a wire or optical fiber, or block the data traffic by transmitting meaningless but powerful radio signals. First, we study point-to-point communication in the presence of a hybrid adversary. The hybrid half-duplex adversary can choose to either eavesdrop or jam the transmitter-receiver channel in arbitrary manner. The goal of the transmitter is to communicate a message reliably to the receiver while keeping it asymptotically secret from the hybrid adversary. We show that, without any feedback from the receiver, the channel capacity is zero if the transmitter-to-adversary channel stochastically dominates the effective transmitter-to-receiver channel. However, the channel capacity is non-zero even when the receiver is allowed to feedback only one bit periodically, that describes the transmitter-to-receiver channel quality. Our novel achievable strategy improves the rates proposed in the literature for the non-hybrid adversarial model. Then, we study the security of a single-cell downlink massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication in the presence of an adversary capable of jamming and eavesdropping simultaneously. After showing massive MIMO communication is naturally resilient to no training-phase jamming attack in which the adversary jams only the data communication and eavesdrops both the data communication and the training, we evaluate the number of antennas that base station (BS) requires in order to establish information theoretic security without even a need for extra security encoding. Next, we show that things are completely different once the adversary starts jamming the training phase. Specifically, we consider an attack, called training-phase jamming in which the adversary jams and eavesdrops both the training and the data communication. We show that under such an attack, the maximum secure degrees of freedom (DoF) is equal to zero. To counter this attack, we develop a defense strategy in which we use a secret key to encrypt the pilot sequence assignments to hide them from the adversary, rather than encrypt the data. We show that, if the cardinality of the set of pilot signals are scaled appropriately, hiding the pilot signal assignments from the adversary enables the users to achieve secure DoF, identical to the maximum achievable DoF under no attack. The last part of the thesis is devoted to developing a mathematical framework for privacy-preserving data release mechanisms. The objective of privacy-preserving data release is to provide useful data with minimal distortion while simultaneously minimizing the sensitive data revealed. Dependencies between the sensitive and useful data results in a privacy-utility tradeoff that has strong connections to generalized rate-distortion problems. In this work, we study how the optimal privacy-utility tradeoff region is affected by constraints on the data that is directly available as input to the release mechanism. Such constraints are potentially motivated by applications where either the sensitive or useful data is not directly observable. For example, the useful data may be an unknown property that must be inferred from only the sensitive data. In particular, we consider the availability of only sensitive data, only useful data, and both (full data). We show that a general hierarchy holds, that is, the tradeoff region given only the sensitive data is no larger than the region given only the useful data, which in turn is clearly no larger than the region given both sensitive and useful data. In addition, we determine conditions under which the tradeoff region given only the useful data coincides with that given full data.

Committee:

Emre Koksal (Advisor)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Data privacy, data security, information theory, physical layer security, wireless communiation

Abuaitah, Giovani RimonTrusted Querying over Wireless Sensor Networks and Network Security Visualization
Master of Science in Computer Engineering (MSCE), Wright State University, 2009, Computer Engineering

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as an emerging technology faces numerous challenges. Sensor nodes are usually resource constrained. Sensor nodes are also vulnerable to physical attacks or node compromises. Answering queries over data is one of the basic functionalities of WSNs. Both resource constraints and security issues make designing mechanisms for data aggregation particularly challenging. In this thesis, we first explore the various security techniques for data aggregation in WSNs then we design and demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative reputation-based framework rooted in rigorous statistical theory and belief theory to characterize the trustworthiness of individual nodes and data queries in WSNs.

Detecting security vulnerabilities is an imperative task. Visualization techniques have been developed over decades and are powerful when employed in the field of network security. In this thesis, we present a novel security visualization tool called “SecVizer”.

Committee:

Bin Wang, PhD (Advisor); Yong Pei, PhD (Committee Member); Thomas Wischgoll, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

trusted querying; spatial and temporal correlated wireless sensor network; WSN security; node compromise; network security visualization; parallel coordinate plot; SecVizer

Panta, PurushottamWeb Design, Development and Security
Master of Science in Mathematics, Youngstown State University, 2009, Department of Mathematics and Statistics

Websites are the most convenient way to present and disseminate information to the maximum number of people in the world. The web browsers are the means to render the information on web page, the basic building blocks of a website, and web programming is the basic structure (architecture) of each web page.

The thesis on "Web Design, Development and Security" is a complete analysis of website design and development. Web sites should be able to present abundant information to a visitor in well organized manner. In addition, there must be a reliable transfer of secure information between server and client. There exist other major factors such as user friendliness, layout, simplicity, ease of rendering in the browser and so on that are closely related with the quality of website. This thesis will elaborate on a number of issues that are related with web design and development. These principles will be illustrated and demonstrated in the design of some websites that I have designed so far.

Committee:

John Sullins, PhD (Advisor); Graciela Perera, PhD (Committee Member); Jamal Tartir, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

web design; web server security; web development; security; web information system; SQL injection

Crews, Chris G.Fortress of Fear and Borders of Control: How the U.S Media Constructs Mexican Immigrants as a National Security Threat
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2007, Political Science (Arts and Sciences)
This thesis seeks to document the construction of Mexican immigrants as a national security threat in the U.S. media during the 2006 Congressional debates over immigration reform. This is done with both a qualitative newspaper content analysis and a qualitative critical discourse analysis. A random sample of 107 newspaper articles printed between 1/1/06 and 6/30/06 are analyzed from the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Houston Chronicle and USA Today. Using an analysis of two framing metaphors—Immigrant as Threat and Immigrant as Dangerous Waters—this thesis documents how Mexican immigrants, by being framed as a national security threat, have been used to forward a call to secure and defend the borders from a perceived threat to U.S. Anglo culture. This thesis shows how these calls are partially rooted in beliefs about white nationalism and the fear of Mexican immigrants seen as a foreign invasion.

Committee:

Hector Perla Jr. (Advisor)

Keywords:

Immigration; Mexicans; media framing; Homeland Security; National Security; border; H.R. 4437; immigration protests; Day Without An Immigrant; Great American Boycott; white nationalism; civilization; culture; constructivism; constructivist

FELLNER, ANGELA NLEARNING TO DISCRIMINATE TERRORISTS: THE EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND EMOTIVE CUES
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Arts and Sciences : Psychology
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the presumed ability to successfully understand and manage emotion. EI may affect the ability of security personnel to gauge the relevance of emotional cues in determining whether a suspect is a terrorist. 180 participants decided whether “virtual reality” animated characters were to be designated as terrorists, in a discrimination-learning paradigm. Three types of identifying cue (positive or negative facial emotion, and an emotion neutral cue) were manipulated, and the number of errors was recorded, over 100 trials. EI, personality, and general cognitive ability were assessed pre-task. Subjective state was assessed pre- and post-task. Results showed faster learning with emotive cues. EI and personality failed to predict performance; but EI predicted subjective state, which predicted rate of learning with emotive cues. Practical techniques for support of security personnel should focus on how subjective states may impact attention to potentially relevant cues to the status of a suspect.

Committee:

Dr. Gerald Matthews (Advisor)

Keywords:

emotional intelligence; subjective state; emotion; coping strategy; personality; national security; security; terrorist; emotion; intelligence; discrimination learning

Xu, MingzheSecurity Enhancement of Secure USB Debugging in Android System
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2014, Engineering (Computer Science)
The security of Android Debug Bridge (ADB) has attracted much attention from researchers, because it has a high privilege level and a low level of protection. Many attacks on Android systems have taken advantage of the security holes of ADB. Thus, in the updating patch of Android 4.2.2, a new security feature secure USB debugging was implemented so that only trusted hosts can use ADB. This research studies the features of internal communications of ADB. Then it analyzes its protection effects on ADB based attacks and found that the new feature cannot provide sufficient protection when the host used to connect with Android devices has been compromised. A demonstration attack following this method is given along with an improvement design of the security mechanism of USB Debugging Mode. The implementation of this design and its evaluation are also provided to demonstrate its effectiveness.

Committee:

Weiqing Sun, Dr. (Committee Chair); Mansoor Alam, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair); Henry Ledgard, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Android Security; Android Debug Bridge; Secure USB Debugging; Smart Phone Security

Lydon, AndrewCompilation For Intrusion Detection Systems
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2004, Computer Science (Engineering)
Within computer security, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are the subject of extensive and varying research. Distributed IDSs have additional research problems. This thesis contributes a way of using compilation of a multi-layered language to simultaneously solve multiple issues confronting distributed IDSs. The target of the compilation is the configuration of existing IDSs with run time support. The language for compilation has two layers: a lower layer for signature and other computationally limited matching including anomaly based matching and a higher layer for general computations. This compiler is implemented and shown to be sufficient to produce arbitrary IDSs using existing IDSs for input rather than custom system software. Graceful degradation and reasonable performance during denial of service attacks have been added on top of existing IDSs using this framework.

Committee:

Carl Bruggeman (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Security; Intrusion Detection; Computer Security; Distributed; Real-Time; Complier

Thompson, Beth A.European Security Development: From Maastricht to Bosnia
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2012, Political Science (Arts and Sciences)
This thesis examines the development and implementation of European security policy in the late twentieth century. I identify the key tenets of the major schools of thought in international relations and their theories about international security cooperation, and use them to analyze the development of the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy and its implementation in the 1990s. I argue that the same factors that affected the institutionalization of European security policy also inhibited the implementation of that policy. This argument has implications for future European security development, and for our understanding of it.

Committee:

Patricia A. Weitsman, PhD (Committee Chair); Maria Fanis, PhD (Committee Member); Steven Miner, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

International Relations

Keywords:

European security; security cooperation; CFSP

Maschino, Tyler StephenFREQUENCY-SELECTIVE DESIGN OF WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER SYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLED ACCESS APPLICATIONS
Master of Science, Miami University, 2016, Computational Science and Engineering
Wireless power transfer (WPT) has become a common way to charge or power many types of devices, ranging from cell phones to electric toothbrushes. WPT became popular through the introduction of a transmission mode known as strongly coupled magnetic resonance (SCMR). This means of transmission is non-radiative and enables mid-range WPT. Shortly after the development of WPT via SCMR, a group of researchers introduced the concept of resonant repeaters, which allows power to hop from the source to the device. These repeaters are in resonance with the WPT system, which enables them to propagate the power wirelessly with minimal losses to the environment. Resonant repeaters have rekindled the dream of ubiquitous wireless power. Inherent risks come with the realization of such a dream. One of the most prominent risks, which we set out in this thesis to address, is that of accessibility to the WPT system. We propose the incorporation of a controlled access schema within a WPT system to prevent unwarranted use of wireless power. Our thesis discusses the history of electromagnetism, examines the inception of WPT via SCMR, evaluates recent developments in WPT, and further elaborates on the controlled access schema we wish to contribute to the field.

Committee:

Dmitriy Garmatyuk, PhD (Advisor); Mark Scott, PhD (Committee Member); Herbert Jaeger, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Electrical Engineering; Electromagnetics; Electromagnetism; Engineering

Keywords:

wireless power transfer; WPT; resonance; magnetic resonance; electromagnetism; power security; power encryption; wireless power transfer security; wireless power transfer encryption; SCMR; strongly coupled magnetic resonance; power transfer;

Shackelford, Philip ClaytonFighting for Air: Cold War Reorganization and the U.S. Air Force Security Service, 1945-1952
MA, Kent State University, 2016, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
This thesis explores the early history of the U.S. Air Force Security Service (USAFSS), an early Cold War military communications intelligence (COMINT) agency established by the Air Force on October 20, 1948. Using bureaucracy theory, the study seeks to understand why the U.S. Air Force was motivated to create a separate COMINT capability at this point in time, how the capability would be organized, and what functions the organization was expected to provide. Drawing upon a number of declassified Air Force and Executive Branch documents, congressional testimony, official historical studies and oral history materials, this study argues that the Air Force developed the USAFSS to resist dependence upon other military intelligence efforts and that the organization successfully accomplished Air Force objectives for a separate, communications intelligence capability.

Committee:

Ann Heiss, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; History; Information Technology; International Relations; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History; Technical Communication; Technology

Keywords:

Air Force; Cold War; intelligence; national security; military; post-World War II; communications intelligence; COMINT; USAFSS; NSA; National Security Agency; defense; United States; intelligence community; technology; reorganization; USAF; history;

Owusu-Kesseh, DanielThe Relative Security Metric of Information Systems: Using AIMD Algorithms
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Engineering and Applied Science: Computer Science
Security metrics are required to provide a quantitative and objective basis for security operations. The quantitative and objective basis is needed to support decision making, quality assurance of Information Technology (IT) products, and the reliable maintenance of the information systems and its operations. There had been numerous ways of quantifying the security metrics of information system using Common Vulnerability Scoring System, version 2.0 (CVSS 2.0) of the products that make up the information system. Some of the approaches are the naive (average and maximum) approach, attack graph approach and Bayesian network (BN)-Based approach but this paper will introduce another way of finding the relative security metrics of information system based on the CVSS 2.0 score of the IT products that make up the system. This new approach is called Additive Increase and Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD) and this paper will also show how to use the AIMD algorithm to determine the security states and the security signature of the IT product.

Committee:

Fred Annexstein, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Kenneth Berman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Dieter Schmidt, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Security Metrics;Additive Increase and Multiplicative Decrease;AIMD algorithm;Security Ranking;Common Vulnerability Scoring System;CVSS and AIMD

Furst, Alexander J.State Regulation of Private Police and Security Agents
Master of Science in Criminal Justice (MSCJ), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Criminal Justice
This study investigated the nature and degree of state level statutory regulation for private police and security guards with a specific intent to analyze arrest powers for these agents. Previous literature has examined statutory regulation, but has ignored any discussion of arrest powers for private law enforcement and security agents. A content analysis on applicable state laws explorers the type, nature, and degree of statutory regulation. Results indicate some measure of similarity among regulation between states. Only one state, Ohio, allows private police full arrest powers.

Committee:

Dr. Michael Buerger (Committee Chair); Dr. William King (Committee Member); Dr. John Liederbach (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Criminology; Law

Keywords:

police; private security; private police; statute; law; private; security; regulation; law enforcement

Karunanidhi, KarthikeyanARROS: Distributed Adaptive Real-Time Network Intrusion Response
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2006, Computer Science (Engineering)

Research in Intrusion Response has shown that the success rate of an attack increases with time. With attacks becoming sophisticated and automated, the response to these attacks still remains a time-consuming manual process. An active response system is a mechanism that can be used in conjunction with an intrusion detection system (IDS) to provide a network administrator with the capability to respond to an attack automatically when it has been detected. Active Real-time RespOnse System (ARROS) is an active, distributed, adaptive, and real-time Intrusion Response System (IRS) that provides Intrusion Response capabilities to INBOUNDS (Integrated Network Based Ohio University Network Detective Service), a network-based, real-time, hierarchical intrusion detection and response system being developed at Ohio University. ARROS consists of distributed autonomous agents that run at various different points on the network it protects. Agents communicate with each other to share information about the network, intrusions, and co-ordinate the response. Each ARROS agent is a fully functional autonomous unit capable of responding to intrusions in a distributed fashion. Coupled with priority queuing for ARROS traffic, distributed response capabilities, and time-bound response the ARROS system is able to provide real-time active Intrusion Response while minimizing adverse effects to the host network.

Committee:

Shawn Ostermann (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

NETWORK INTRUSION RESPONSE; AUTOMATED, AUTOMATIC RESPONSE; COMPUTER SECURITY; NETWORK SECURITY; ACTIVE INTRUSION RESPONSE; ARROS, IRS, IR

Bartkowski, Lindsey MarieThe Association Between Household Food Security and Dental Caries in Young Children
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2014, Human Ecology: Human Nutrition
PURPOSE: The purpose of this project is to determine if there is an association between dental caries in children ages 2-4 and household food security status by examining the prevalence of child dental caries and household food security status among 94 children. METHODS: This IRB-approved pilot study was conducted from April-May, 2014, at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. Participants were the parents of young children (ages 2-4) who were current Dental Clinic patients or Dental Surgery Center patients (n=94). Children were examined for dental caries and parents were administered a food security questionnaire. RESULTS: Dental Clinic patients included those with dental caries (n=19) and those without dental caries (n=28). All Dental Surgery Center patients had dental caries (n=47). Dental caries were present in 69% of children. Of 94 households in the sample, 69% (n=65) were found food secure and 31% (n=29) food insecure. No significant association was found between household food security and dental caries (p=0.6110). The odds of having dental caries was higher for food secure households than food insecure households (OR=1.27). The significant predictors of having dental caries, found from the univariable logistic regressions, were distance to a grocery store (p=0.0486), age of child (p=0.0192), whether the child drinks water (p=0.0155), whether the child drinks other drinks besides water (p=0.0252), whether the child drinks juice (p=0.0378), daily drink consumption besides water (p=0.0005), does the child snack on starchy foods (p=0.0161), does the child snack on vegetables (p=0.0148), does the child snack on sugary foods (p=0.0030), and daily water consumption (p<0.0001). In the multivariable model, age was included to adjust for exposure time to dental caries and daily water consumption was included due to being a highly significant factor that affects dental caries in young children. After adding age to the model, the effect of daily water consumption remains significant (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Daily water consumption was deemed a statistically significant variable that affects dental caries prevalence in young children. A main limitation of this study was the small sample size; especially the limited number of patients without dental caries. A future study may look at a larger sample size and include more patients without dental caries in the sample population.

Committee:

Paul Casamassimo, DDS, MS (Advisor); Amanda Bird, PhD (Advisor); Irene Hatsu, PhD (Committee Member); Tanya Mathew, BDS, MS (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Dental Care; Dentistry; Nutrition

Keywords:

food security; food insecurity; household food security; dental caries; tooth decay; oral health; early childhood caries; children

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