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Beltran-Aponte, MariaTeresaHearing with the Eyes: Voice in Written and Visual Discourses and the Ghost of a Contemporary Warrior
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Spanish and Portuguese

This doctoral thesis talks about voice in the testimonial pieces entitled Loyal Soldiers in the Cocaine Kingdom: tales of drugs, mules and gunmen and La Sierra. In the context of this work of reflection, I consider voice in a broad sense, to include body gestures in their performance and prosody. These contemporary literary practices are about historical processes that have to do with the dynamics of the illegal drug trade and the armed conflict. In that sense, what is presented in the next pages is an interaction between the voice with its gestural dimension and the social contexts. In order to cope with this relation in a group of testimonials in written and in audio-visual form, I make use of the Sanskrit theory of dhvani, that allows me to listen through the eyes, the suggestive clothing that dresses the voices. In doing so, in this thesis I explore the stories told by The Mule Driver, Scuzzball, Hanged Man, Sharon, The Nun, The Puppet, Edison, Cielo and Jesús, proposing that through the epithelium of suggestion with which the voices are covered, is possible to hear and see, the emergence of a contemporary archetype of a warrior. All these reflections are bound together to establish a historical trial in which the character’s ventriloquist voices constitute precocious testimonies, in other words, they shoot ahead through the gestural dimension, some of the effects that the hegemonic orders are having over societies. In this historical trial, that takes place in the courtroom proper to the studied literary practices, the evidences, consequently, represent a challenge to the legal language. As an ultimate goal, the explorations of these thesis intent to get closer to the force and intensity of the manifested experiences expressed by the voices in the testimonies, that by means of psychoanalytic reasoning, highlight the impossibility of being symbolized, therefore, the image of the warrior is just a metaphorical vehicle that tries to sight the real.

Committee:

Ileana Rodriguez, Humanities Distinguished Professor (Advisor); Laura Podalsky, PhD (Committee Member); Ignacio Corona, PhD (Committee Member); James Moore III, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Latin American Literature; Law; Literature

Keywords:

Voice; Visual/Written Discourses; Text and Image; Sanskrit Poetics; Dhvani; Precocious Testimonies; Historical Trial; Literature and Law; Psychoanalytic Reasoning; Hearing with the eyes

Kalugampitiya, Nandaka M.Authorship, History, and Race in Three Contemporary Retellings of the Mahabharata: The Palace of Illusions, The Great Indian Novel, and The Mahabharata (Television Mini Series)
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2016, Interdisciplinary Arts (Fine Arts)
In this study, I explore the manner in which contemporary artistic reimaginings of the Sanskrit epic the Mahabharata with a characteristically Western bent intervene in the dominant discourse on the epic. Through an analysis of Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni’s The Palace of Illusions (2008), Shashi Tharoor’s The Great Indian Novel (1989), and Peter Brook’s theatrical production The Mahabharata (1989 television mini-series), I argue that these reimaginings represent a tendency to challenge the cultural authority of the Sanskrit epic in certain important ways. The study is premised on the recognition that the three works of art in question respond, some more consciously than others, to three established assumptions regarding the Mahabharata respectively: (1) the Sanskrit epic as a product of divine authorship; (2) the Sanskrit epic as history; and (3) the Sanskrit epic as the story of a particular race. In their engagement with the epic, these works foreground the concepts of the author, history, and race respectively in such a manner that the apparent stability and unity of those concepts disappear and that those concepts become sites of theoretical reflection. In this sense, the three works could ultimately be seen as theoretical statements or discourses on those concepts. Given that the concepts in question are inextricably linked to the Sanskrit epic and the dominant discourse on the epic, the success and importance of each of the contemporary works as an approach that challenges the cultural authority of the Mahabharata depends upon the extent to which it complicates the concept that it engages with and foregrounds that concept as a site of theoretical reflection.

Committee:

Vladimir Marchenkov (Committee Chair); William Condee (Committee Member); Brian Collins (Committee Member); Ghirmai Negash (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Literature; Asian Studies; Comparative Literature; Fine Arts; Literature; South Asian Studies

Keywords:

Bakhtin; dialogism; intertextuality; The Palace of Illusions; The Great Indian Novel; Peter Brook; Mahabharata; Sanskrit epic

Dawson, Hope C.Morphological variation and change in the Rigveda: The Case of -au vs. -ā:
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Linguistics
This dissertation is an investigation of a case of allomorphy between -au and in duals and i-stem locatives in the Rigveda. Traditional accounts of this alternation present a generalized, purportedly original distribution of preconsonantal -a: and prevocalic a:v. Cases that do not fit into this generalization, such as preconsonantal -au, are attributed to the date of a hymn’s composition or phonological factors. This study represents an exhaustive compilation of each form in the Rigveda (over 3000 total), and it reveals a complex interaction among several factors. The date of composition and the phonological environment do have an effect on this distribution, but they cannot account for the whole picture. Another factor in the variation is lexical idiosyncrasies in the patterning of the allomorphic endings. In both i-stem locatives and duals, different stems are shown to have different patterns of distribution. Even after controlling for chronological and phonological effects and for lexical idiosyncrasy, one additional factor must be considered: poetic effects and the influence of surrounding forms. The traditional generalizations must be called into question, and indeed no simple generalization can be proposed that is able to account for the data in this case: it is only in the interaction of various factors on certain forms in particular contexts that the explanation can be found. The variation found in the Rigveda is reflective of variation and change taking place in the living language at the time of composition. In this dissertation, I explore the synchronic and diachronic aspects of these variations and the factors affecting them, and I investigate the distribution of the -a: and -au allomorphs in the duals and i-stem locatives, as well as related categories, with particular regard to explaining how the data of the Rigveda itself can be accounted for.

Committee:

Brian Joseph (Advisor)

Keywords:

Sanskrit; Rigveda; Morphological constellations; allomorphy; duals; i-stem locatives

Papke, Julia Kay PorterClassical Sanskrit preverb ordering: a diachronic study
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Linguistics

The Indo-European language family contains many 'small words' with various adverbial meanings and functions, including preverbs. The term 'preverb' is used to label any of a variety of modifying morphemes that form a close semantic unit with a verb, including both words and prefixes (Booij and Kemenade 2003). Some Indo-European languages not only have preverbs, but also allow more than one preverb to modify the same verb root. Sanskrit, the focus of the present study, is one such language. The preverbs in Sanskrit 'stack' onto the verb root, such that all of the preverbs alter the meaning of the verb. In Vedic Sanskrit, only two preverbs are ever combined with a single verb (Macdonell 1975), but in Classical Sanskrit, there are also some, admittedly relatively unusual, cases involving three preverbs.

I show that Sanskrit preverbs exhibit consistent tendencies in their relative positioning. For example, the preverb abhi is most usually found in the position farther from the verb, where the preverb parā is categorically found next to the verb. It has long been believed that where Sanskrit showed multiple preverbs, the ordering of those elements was determined primarily by “the requirements of the meaning” (Whitney 1925: §1080), but I provide numerous counterexamples to this claim. There are many cases where the order does not influence the meaning.

There is considerable evidence showing that, rather than being explainable in purely synchronic terms, e.g. based on phonological or semantic properties, preverb ordering instead reflects properties inherited from Proto-Indo-European. I base this claim on two findings. First, my data show strong correlation between ordering properties of preverbs in Classical Sanskrit and those found in the older Vedic language, such that the classical situation is clearly a ‘crystallization’ of the older Vedic patterns. Secondly, I have determined that there is a relationship between ordering properties of Sanskrit preverbs and the ordering properties of cognate preverbs in other Indo-European languages that allow preverb stacking.

While a large number of IE languages have preverbs, a much smaller number also allow stacking. Greek, Irish, and various Slavic languages are well known for this; Irish is particularly notorious for preverb stacking. According to Thurneysen, as many as five preverbs may 'occasionally be found'. This is many more than are ever combined in Sanskrit, even in the Classical language. However, Kim McCone (1987) has presented a relative ordering hierarchy for Old Irish. By comparing my data with information presented in McCone, I show a strong correlation between the ordering trends of Sanskrit preverbs and those of the Irish verbal prefixes.

Additionally, there is a correlation in ordering between certain Greek prepositions and those of both Irish and Sanskrit. This is further evidence that Classical Sanskrit preverb ordering trends are indeed inherited rather than synchronically generated. Particularly, this similarity between the three languages shows that rather than simply being inherited from earlier Indic, as the close similarity between the Vedic and Classical data suggests, these trends are possibly inherited directly from Proto-Indo-European.

Committee:

Dr. Brian D. Joseph (Advisor); Dr. Robert Levine (Committee Member); Dr. Daniel E. Collins (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Linguistics

Keywords:

Sanskrit; Vedic; preverbs; morphology; Indo-European; ordering