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Mutharaju, RaghavaDistributed Rule-Based Ontology Reasoning
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2016, Computer Science and Engineering PhD
The vision of the Semantic Web is to provide structure and meaning to the data on the Web. Knowledge representation and reasoning play a crucial role in accomplishing this vision. OWL (Web Ontology Language), a W3C standard, is used for representing knowledge. Reasoning over the ontologies is used to derive logical consequences. A fixed set of rules are run on an ontology iteratively until no new logical consequences can be derived. All existing reasoners run on a single machine, possibly using multiple cores. Ontologies (sometimes loosely referred to as knowledge bases) that are automatically constructed can be very large. Single machine reasoners will not be able to handle these large ontologies. They are constrained by the memory and computing resources available on a single machine. In this dissertation, we use distributed computing to find scalable approaches to ontology reasoning. In particular, we explore four approaches that use a cluster of machines for ontology reasoning -- 1) A MapReduce approach named MR-EL where reasoning happens in the form of a series of map and reduce jobs. Termination is achieved by eliminating the duplicate consequences. The MapReduce approach is simple, fault tolerant and less error-prone due to the usage of a framework that handles aspects such as communication, synchronization etc. But it is very slow and does not scale well with large ontologies. 2) Our second approach named DQuEL is a distributed version of a sequential reasoning algorithm used in the CEL reasoner. Each node in the cluster applies all of the rules and generates partial results. The reasoning process terminates when each node in the cluster has no more work to do. DQuEL works well on small and medium sized ontologies but does not perform well on large ontologies. 3) The third approach, named DistEL, is a distributed fixpoint iteration approach where each node in the cluster applies only one rule to a subset of the ontology. This happens iteratively until all of the nodes cannot generate any more new logical consequences. This is the most scalable of all of the approaches. 4) Our fourth approach, named SparkEL, is based on the Apache Spark framework where each reasoning rule is translated into a form that is suitable for Apache Spark. Several algorithmic and framework related optimizations were considered. SparkEL works very well on small and medium sized ontologies, but it does not scale to large ontologies. All four distributed reasoning systems work on a subset of OWL 2 EL which is a tractable profile of OWL with a polynomial reasoning time. Along with the description of the algorithms, optimizations and evaluation results of the four distributed reasoners, we also provide recommendations for the best choice of reasoners for different scenarios.

Committee:

Pascal Hitzler, Ph.D. (Advisor); Prabhaker Mateti, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Derek Doran, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Freddy Lecue, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Frederick Maier, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

distributed reasoning;ontology reasoning;distributed OWL 2 EL reasoning;Semantic Web;scalable ontology reasoning; OWL 2 EL reasoning;MapReduce reasoning;Apache Spark reasoning

Cain Spannagel, Sarah A.THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERPERSONAL THEMES IN PLAY AND PROSOCIAL MORAL REASONING
Master of Arts, Case Western Reserve University, 2008, Psychology
Research has shown that both pretend play and prosocial moral reasoning relate to the socio-emotional constructs of emotional understanding, perspective taking, and empathy. It then makes theoretical sense that play processes should relate to prosocial moral reasoning. The present study investigated this relationship and also served to provide further validation evidence for the Interpersonal Themes in Play Scale (ITPS). It was hypothesized that the ITPS scale scores would be related to prosocial moral reasoning in that children who showed more prosocial behaviors in their play would demonstrate more advanced moral reasoning. This study also investigated the relationship among prosocial moral reasoning, empathy, and prosocial behavior. Results indicated that some prosocial themes in play did relate to prosocial moral reasoning categories and to sharing behavior. For example, Sharing/Turn-taking in play was significantly negatively related to hedonistic reasoning (r(58)= -.26) and Cooperation in play was significantly positively related to stereotyped reasoning (r(58)=.25).

Committee:

Sandra Russ (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

PROSOCIAL; MORAL REASONING; PROSOCIAL MORAL; PROSOCIAL MORAL REASONING; REASONING; MORAL; Empathy

Fabby, CarolReforming the introductory laboratory to impact scientific reasoning abilities
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Arts and Sciences: Physics
Research indicates that students enter college with wide variations in scientific reasoning abilities, and it also suggests that students with formal reasoning patterns are more proficient learners. Unfortunately, these abilities are not impacted in the typical college course. In an effort to better target the development of scientific reasoning abilities of students in our introductory physics lab courses, we have revised the structure of the lab activities while maintaining the same topics and equipment we have been using for years in a more traditional lab setting. The changes enable students to become more involved in the actual design of the experiments and place more emphasis on student use of evidence-based reasoning. The challenges in implementing these curricular adjustments have been evaluated to understand the impact the changes have had on student development of scientific reasoning abilities.

Committee:

Kathleen Koenig, PhD (Committee Chair); Robert Endorf, PhD (Committee Member); Richard Gass, PhD (Committee Member); James Sullivan, MS (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Physics

Keywords:

introductory physics labs;scientific reasoning abilities;evidence-based reasoning;college physics labs;;;

Schen, Melissa S.Scientific reasoning skills development in the introductory biology courses for undergraduates
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Educational Theory and Practice

Scientific reasoning is a critical skill for students aiming to become professional scientists. Yet, there is little research on the development of such reasoning in science majors. Scientific reasoning is often investigated as two separate entities: hypothetico-deductive reasoning and argumentation, even though these skills may be linked. With regard to argumentation, fewer investigations look at its use in analyzing scientific data. This study seeks to address these issues and establish a baseline of both hypothetico-deductive reasoning and argumentation of scientific data of biology majors through their engagement in introductory biology coursework.

This descriptive study investigated the development of undergraduates’ scientific reasoning skills by assessing them three times throughout a two-quarter introductory biology course sequence for majors. A split-half version of the revised Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) and a paper and pencil argumentation instrument developed for this study were utilized to assess student hypothetico-deductive reasoning and argumentation skills, respectively. To identify factors that may influence scientific reasoning development, demographic information and evidence for course emphasis on scientific reasoning was collected.

No trends of improvement were found in the students’ hypothetico-deductive reasoning or argumentation skills during the two-course sequence. Specific difficulties in the control of variables and direct hypothetico-deductive reasoning were identified through analysis of the LCTSR data. Students were also found to have trouble identifying and rebutting counterarguments, compared to generating initial arguments from scientific data sets. Although no overall improvement was found, a moderate, positive relationship was detected between LCTSR and argumentation scores at each administration. Lastly, no difference was determined between biology majors and other students enrolled in the courses. The results found here are similar to those classified in the literature for both hypothetico-deductive reasoning and argumentation, indicating that biology majors may be similar to other populations studied. Also, as little explicit attention was paid to scientific reasoning skills in the two courses, these findings complement those that illustrate a need for direct attention to foster the development of these skills. These results suggest the need to develop direct and explicit methods in order to improve the scientific reasoning skills of biology majors.

Committee:

Arthur White (Advisor)

Keywords:

scientific reasoning; biology majors; undergraduate; hypothetico-deductive reasoning; argumentation

Han, JingSCIENTIFIC REASONING: RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ASSESSMENT
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Physics
Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) is emphasized worldwide. Reports from large-scale international studies such as TIMSS and PISA continually rank U.S. students behind many other nations. As a result, the U.S. has increased its emphasis on the implementation of a more extensive science and mathematics curriculum in K-12 education. In STEM education, widely accepted teaching goals include not only the development of solid content knowledge but also the development of general scientific abilities that will enable students to successfully handle open-ended real-world tasks in future careers. One such ability, scientific reasoning, is closely related to a wide range of general cognitive abilities such as critical thinking and reasoning. Existing research has suggested that scientific reasoning skills can be trained and transferred. Training in scientific reasoning may also have a long-term impact on student academic achievement. In the STEM education community, it has been widely agreed that student development of transferable general abilities is at least as important as certain learned STEM knowledge. Therefore, it is important to investigate how to implement a STEM education program that can help students develop both STEM content knowledge and scientific reasoning. In order to develop such a knowledge base and to assess and evaluate the impact and effectiveness of education methods and resources, we need good assessment tools that can be easily applied in large scale and produce valid results comparable across a wide range of populations. This dissertation project establishes a first step to systematically improve the assessment instrumentation of scientific reasoning. A series of studies have been conducted, which include (1) a detailed validation study of the Lawson’s test, which has identified a number of validity issues including item/choice design issues, item context issues, item structure and wording issues (e.g. two-tier design), the limited scale of measurement range, and the ceiling effect for advanced students, (2) a study to determine the basic measurement features of the Lawson’s test with large scale data, (3) A data-mining study of Lawson’s test data, which helps identify learning progression behaviors of selected scientific reasoning skills. The results also provide evidence for researchers to evaluate and model the scoring methods of two-tiered questions used in the Lawson’s test, and (4) A study with randomized testing to investigate the learning progression of the skill of control of variables (COV), which showed a series of fine grained intermediate levels of COV skills. This project produces rich resources for sustained research and development on scientific reasoning. It establishes a valuable baseline for teachers and researchers to apply the Lawson’s test in research and teaching and a solid foundation for researchers to further develop the next generation assessment instruments on scientific reasoning.

Committee:

Lei Bao, Dr. (Advisor); Fengyuan Yang, Professor (Committee Member); Andrew Heckler, Professor (Committee Member); Evan Sugarbaker, Professor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Physics

Keywords:

Scientific reasoning; Reasoning Assessment; Physics Education; Science Method

Kurup, UnmeshDesign and use of a bimodal cognitive architecture for diagrammatic reasoning and cognitive modeling
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Computer and Information Science
In 1948, Tolman introduced the term cognitive map to refer to the representation of large-scale space in rats that allow them to remember and navigate back to food sources in a maze. Current proposals for the structure of the cognitive map are usually self-contained theories, each with its own set of representations and processes, whereas in reality, the cognitive map and associated processes are part of the larger cognitive apparatus. Thus, while spatial representations and processes may have unique aspects, it is likely that they also share underlying representations and mechanisms with those involved in general problem solving. It is important then, both for reasons of accuracy in cognitive modeling and economy in agent building, that spatial representation and reasoning systems be well integrated with general-purpose problem solvers. However, given the differences in mechanisms, assumptions and constraints among these systems, integrating them is a challenging task. An ongoing area of research in AI and cognitive science has been the unification of cognitive theories within the framework of a cognitive architecture. This work proposes the use of the cognitive architecture methodology to investigate issues in the representation of and reasoning about large-scale space. In particular, we use biSoar, a version of the cognitive architecture Soar that we have augmented with the Diagrammatic Representation System (DRS). Soar is a well known cognitive architecture for constructing general cognitive systems while DRS allows the representation of a collection of diagrammatic objects each with their complete spatiality. In biSoar, information can thus be represented both symbolically and diagrammatically, as appropriate. We exercise biSoar’s capabilities both in problem solving and in cognitive modeling. For problem solving, we use examples from the blocks world domain to show how a bimodal architecture can be advantageous. These examples also serve to demonstrate the bimodal problem solving process. For cognitive modeling, we build biSoar models of three different spatial phenomena. These modeling examples showcase biSoar’s flexibility and versatility as well as its usefulness as a tool in cognitive modeling.

Committee:

Balakrishnan Chandrasekaran (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Diagrammatic Reasoning; Cognitive Architectures; Multi-modal Architectures; Cognitive Modeling; Spatial Reasoning; Frame Problem

Yoon, TaehunObject Recognition Based on Multi-agent Spatial Reasoning
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Geodetic Science and Surveying

Object recognition is one of the key processes in Photogrammetry to generate maps from sensory information, because it is to convert 'data' to 'information.' However, as the size of input data is increased, it also has been one of the bottle neck processes in Photogrammetry. Thus many researchers have been working on developing semi-automated or automated object recognition methods to speed up the process. Some of the developed methods have been proved to be feasible in controlled environments, and others have been applicable for real world applications. However, most of the conventional object recognition methods still require human operators' interventions to correct errors or clarify ambiguous results.

The new object recognition method proposed in this dissertation is to recognize multiple types of objects in parallel so that the ambiguous results would be minimized. Since 1980's, new paradigms in Computer Science such as parallel computing and agent models have emerged with the progress of computer systems. The proposed method is built on one of the paradigms, the agent model. With built-in knowledge and predefined goals, the agent actively searches clues to reach the goals. In a multi-agent model, several agents with specific goals and tasks are deployed, and they are trying to reach the main goal together.

The proposed system consists of the coordinator agent, the recognition agents, and the data agent. The coordinator agent initiates other agents, and the data agent handles and processes input data. While the recognition agents aggressively collect regions for the target objects, sometimes conflicts arise between more than two recognition agents. With the proposed conflict resolution scheme, the conflicts can be resolved, and finally ambiguity can be removed.

Experiments on the proposed system were performed with a multi-spectral image and LIDAR data. Results of feature extraction done by the data agent, and object recognition are presented. The results show that the proposed method successfully recognized target objects(buildings and trees), and the multi-agent model enhances the accuracy of the results.

Committee:

Anton Schenk, PhD (Advisor); Alan Saalfeld, PhD (Committee Member); Alper Yilmaz, PhD (Committee Member); Bea Csatho, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Object recognition; spatial reasoning; agent model; building detection; tree detection; linear feature extraction

Ozdemir, Omer F.The coexistence of alternative and scientific conceptions in physics
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Educational Studies: Hums, Science, Tech and Voc
The purpose of this study was to inquire about the simultaneous coexistence of alternative and scientific conceptions in the domain of physics. This study was particularly motivated by several arguments put forward in opposition to the Conceptual Change Model. In the simplest form, these arguments state that people construct different domains of knowledge and different modes of perception in different situations. The following research questions were generated to inquire about this argument: (1) Do individuals keep their alternative conceptions after they have acquired scientific conceptions? (2) How are these different conceptions nested in their conceptual structure? (3) What kind of knowledge, skills, and reasoning are necessary to transfer scientific principles instead of alternative ones in the construction of a valid model? Two groups of participants were selected for this inquiry: one with minimal (non-physics group) and the other with high level of domain specific knowledge in physics (physics group). Data collection procedures were based on think-aloud and retrospective questioning. Analysis of the data collected from the non-physics group indicated that the nature of alternative conceptions is framed by two types of reasoning: reasoning by mental simulation and semiformal reasoning. Analysis of the data collected from the physics group revealed that mental images or scenes feeding reasoning by mental simulation had not disappeared after the acquisition of scientific conceptions. It was also evident that alternative principles feeding semiformal reasoning had not necessarily disappeared after the acquisition of scientific conceptions. It was explicitly noticed that although the participants compartmentalized reasoning by mental simulation and scientific (formal) reasoning, semiformal and scientific reasoning were intertwined in a way that the components of semiformal reasoning easily took their place among the components of scientific reasoning. In spite of the fact that the coexistence of multiple conceptions might obstruct the transfer of scientific conceptions in problem-solving situations, several factors stimulating the use of scientific conceptions were noticed explicitly. These factors were categorized as follows: (a) domain specific knowledge, (b) knowledge about the process of science, (c) awareness, and (d) context.

Committee:

Arthur White (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Sciences

Keywords:

alternative conception; conceptual change; reasoning; physics education; think aloud

AUCLAIR, CHRISTINENUTRITION: A MISSING LINK IN UNDERSTANDING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2000, Education : Criminal Justice
This study examines the relationship between nutrition and delinquency, through direct and indirect linkages. In the first part of this study, the direct relationship between nutrition and delinquency is evaluated. Despite several studies linking sucrose to juvenile delinquency, no study has been found to establish the temporal order. Several studies negate the existence of such relationship, while others support that reaction to sucrose ingestion might depend on youths’ level of activity. High protein consumption might lead to malnutrition, and lead absorption, leading to learning disabilities, and antisocial behavior. Orange juice facilitates iron absorption, which increases the ability to reason, analyze, and learn. The second part of the study looks at the indirect relationship between nutrition and intelligence/learning disabilities and its impact on delinquency. Studies on the vitamin and mineral supplementation show mixed results. Iron levels are related to impaired cognitive functioning, impaired learning and behavioral problems. Both success of vitamin and mineral supplementation and iron treatment is dependent upon duration and intensity of treatment. Mixed results on the relationship between intelligence/learning disabilities on delinquency show the impact to be both positive and spurious due to the influence of the school and the criminal justice system.

Committee:

Dr. Paul Mazerolle (Advisor)

Subjects:

Sociology, Criminology and Penology

Keywords:

antisocial behavior; nutrients; delinquents; learning abilities; reasoning

Nawara, Steven P.The Formation of Responsibility Attributions and their Role in Shaping Political Behavior
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Political Science

How citizens ascribe credit and blame for national conditions can have large electoral and policy effects. Yet despite this clear importance, the relationship between issue perceptions and responsibility attributions has not been fully examined. Using national economic conditions and the Iraq War as examples, I propose three distinct types of responsibility attributions based on a citizen’s comparison of current conditions to reference points in the past or expectations for the future. Previous work fails to appreciate how past events shape citizens’ attributions; including both current and former office holders in the response set corrects this oversight and allows for the study of how responsibility is assigned following a governmental transition.

I employ attribution theory and theories of motivated reasoning to individuals’ responsibility attributions based on partisanship and issue perception. I hypothesize that individuals’ desire for consistency between their party identification, issue perception, and responsibility attribution lead them to credit copartisan politicians for perceived successes and blame members of the opposite party for perceived failures.

Using existing data sources, an original survey, and two experimental designs, the results show that individuals can and do differentiate between the three proposed types of responsibility attributions. Respondents frequently engage in motivated reasoning when ascribing responsibility following a governmental transition. The research design also examines the effects of responsibility attributions on important forms of political behavior, along with confirmation of the causal effect of party identification’s impact on responsibility attributions.

Committee:

Herbert Weisberg (Advisor); Paul Allen Beck (Committee Member); Kathleen McGraw (Committee Member); Anastasia Snyder (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

responsibility; attribution; economy; blame; credit; motivated reasoning; partisanship; survey research; governmental transitions; Iraq War; economy

Stevenson, Stacy ElizabethDouble Effect: Measuring the Ethical Beliefs and Practices of Social Media Users
MA, Kent State University, 2010, College of Communication and Information / School of Journalism and Mass Communication
The speed of change in communication technology has left a gap in researching the ethical use of such technology. Social media has been a game-changer for many professions, especially journalism. As roles shift and audiences lose passive, traditional characteristics, the need for an updated ethics toolkit arises. An anonymous self-reporting survey was conducted among junior- and senior-level undergraduate students in both the College of Communication and Information and College of Business at a Midwestern university in order to gauge ethical beliefs and practices in terms of social media usage. This included several descriptive items such as frequency of usage and reasons for using social media. The resulting data showed a more homogenous group than expected, suggesting that specific study in a particular profession did not change how respondents viewed ethical beliefs and practices when using social media. Double effect reasoning is suggested as a possible set of criteria in the development of a new social media ethics toolkit across professions.

Committee:

Evonne Whitmore, PhD (Committee Chair); Jan Leach (Committee Member); Gordon Murray, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mass Media

Keywords:

social media; ethics; Double Effect Reasoning

Brook, EllenINVESTIGATING THE ADULT LEARNERS’ EXPRERIENCE WHEN SOLVING MATHEMATICAL WORD PROBLEMS
PHD, Kent State University, 2014, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
The purpose of the study was to understand and describe the experiences adult learners have while solving mathematical word problems. The focus of the study was on how these adult students used prior mathematical knowledge and how their past experiences with mathematics influenced their solving of mathematics word problems typically found in an algebra course. The research methodology was multiple case studies. The research sample was comprised of the students taking a Beginning Algebra class at a Midwest community college. Individual interviews with open-ended questions and observations of students solving mathematical word problems were employed to gather information about the individual’s constructions and experiences. The within-case and cross-case data analyses followed the data collection. The study found that the attitudes, feelings and beliefs that adult students in the study hold toward mathematics and problem solving are an integral part of their mathematics learning experience. This study also reports on the particular pattern observed within the participants’ attitude toward mathematics education during their schooling years beginning from elementary school till college. In addition, the study also found that the majority of the participants were not ready to tackle the traditional word problems because of the lack of necessary cognitive resources/previous knowledge. The adult students participated in the study lacked the necessary knowledge of such concepts as motion and concentration. Finally, the study found that even after learning the topic during the college class, the participants had difficulties with applying algebraic approaches to word problem solving. The participants mostly relied on the memorization rather than conceptual understanding. In addition, the majority of the participants displayed no transfer of learning between the classroom and everyday activities.

Committee:

Michael Mikusa (Committee Chair); Joanne Caniglia (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Community College Education; Education; Mathematics Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Math Education, Mathematical Problem Solving, Adult Education, Algebraic Reasoning, Community College

Hayes, Taylor RayMechanisms of Visual Relational Reasoning
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Psychology
Humans possess an extraordinary ability to extract relational information even in completely novel task environments. What are the underlying mechanisms that make this relational extraction process possible? The presented work investigates this question across 5 studies by studying how people solve visual analogy problems from a benchmark test of fluid intelligence, Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM). One study develops a novel method for extracting statistical regularities from complex sequences of eye movements (Successor Representation Scanpath Analysis, SRSA) to quantify the role of individual differences in attentional control during Raven performance. The results revealed that 41% of variance in RAPM score could be explained by individual differences in problem solving strategies. In a followup study SRSA was used to study RAPM practice effects commonly observed in the test-retest designs used in the cognitive enhancement literature. The findings revealed that RAPM practice effects can be explained by refinements in strategy, suggesting strategy refinement as a potentially serious confound in cognitive enhancement research that uses visual training regimens (e.g. visual N-back tasks). In two followup studies relational reasoning was studied by actively manipulating the order and amount of RAPM problem information. The findings established a causal relationship between strategy and rule insight and suggested participants deploy attention to one cell of the problem matrix at a time. Finally, a novel combination of pupillometry and verbal protocol analysis was used to understand how the mediation of the exploration-exploitation tradeoff contributes to individual differences in fluid intelligence. Converging evidence from primate electrophysiology and computational neural modeling have indicated that changes in exploratory versus exploitive control state may be mediated by the broad noradrenergic projections emanating from the locus coeruleus (LC). At the same time, pupil diameter has recently emerged as a promising non-invasive proxy measure for LC activity. The present study pioneers the use of pupillary response to understand how the exploration-exploitation tradeoff contributes to visual relational reasoning. The results showed an increase in pupil diameter during exploratory periods and decrease during exploitative periods consistent with prominent theories of LC function. In addition, 25% of the variance in RAPM score was explained by individual differences in pupillary response during exploratory periods. This is the first study showing evidence that noradreneric activity may mediate the exploration-exploitation tradeoff during relational reasoning and the only study to show an exploration-related boost in pupillary response that is modulated by individual differences in fluid intelligence.

Committee:

Alexander Petrov (Advisor); Roger Ratcliff (Committee Member); Per Sederberg (Committee Member); James Todd (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Relational reasoning, fluid intelligence, eye movements, attention, pupillometry, exploration-exploitation tradeoff

Anantharam, PramodKnowledge-empowered Probabilistic Graphical Models for Physical-Cyber-Social Systems
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2016, Computer Science and Engineering PhD
There is a rapid intertwining of sensors and mobile devices into the fabric of our lives. This has resulted in unprecedented growth in the number of observations from the physical and social worlds reported in the cyber world. Sensing and computational components embedded in the physical world constitute a Cyber-Physical System (CPS). Current science of CPS is yet to effectively integrate citizen observations in CPS analysis. We demonstrate the role of citizen observations in CPS and propose a novel approach to perform a holistic analysis of machine and citizen sensor observations. Specifically, we demonstrate the complementary, corroborative, and timely aspects of citizen sensor observations compared to machine sensor observations in Physical-Cyber-Social (PCS) Systems. Physical processes are inherently complex and embody uncertainties. They manifest as machine and citizen sensor observations in PCS Systems. We propose a generic framework to move from observations to decision-making and actions in PCS systems consisting of: (a) PCS event extraction, (b) PCS event understanding, and (c) PCS action recommendation. We demonstrate the role of Probabilistic Graphical Models (PGMs) as a unified framework to deal with uncertainty, complexity, and dynamism that help translate observations into actions. Data driven approaches alone are not guaranteed to be able to synthesize PGMs reflecting real-world dependencies accurately. To overcome this limitation, we propose to empower PGMs using the declarative domain knowledge. Specifically, we propose four techniques: (a) Automatic creation of massive training data for Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) using domain knowledge of entities used in PCS event extraction, (b) Bayesian Network structure refinement using causal knowledge from Concept Net used in PCS event understanding, (c) knowledge-driven piecewise linear approximation of nonlinear time series dynamics using Linear Dynamical Systems (LDS) used in PCS event understanding, and (d) transforming knowledge of goals and actions into a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model used in PCS action recommendation. We evaluate the benefits of the proposed techniques on real-world applications involving traffic analytics and Internet of Things (IoT).

Committee:

Amit Sheth, Ph.D. (Advisor); Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Ph.D. (Advisor); Biplav Srivastava, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Payam Barnaghi, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Cory Henson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Shaojun Wang, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Shalini Forbis, M.D., M.P.H. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

physical-cyber-social systems, probabilistic graphical models, declarative knowledge, event extraction, event interactions, action recommendation, Internet of Things, Smart City, learning with declarative knowledge, reasoning under uncertainty

Schnell, Steven V.Delinquents with mature moral reasoning : a comparison with delayed delinquents and mature nondelinquents /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1986, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Juvenile delinquents;Moral development;Cognition;Reasoning

Buss, Terry FranklinToward a theory of rational individual choice /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1976, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

Reasoning ;Choice

Hoover, Kristine F.Values and Organizational Culture Perceptions: A Study of Relationships and Antecedents to Managerial Moral Judgment
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Leadership Studies

“At this moment, America's highest economic need is higher ethical standards….” (Former U.S. President George W. Bush, 2002). That statement was made in the aftermath of the Enron and WorldCom fiascos in the early 2000s. Seven years later, newly elected U.S. President Obama (2009) said in his inauguration speech “Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age.” There is a repeated calling to increase the understanding of how to make “hard choices.” It is the leadership of an organization that is one of the most important components of an organization's ethical culture (Brown and Treviño, 2006; Treviño, 1990) and researchers have called for additional studies “to identify the factors that influence the levels of moral judgment used in the workplace” (Loviscky, Treviño, and Jacobs, 2007, p.276).

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between values, organization culture perceptions, and managerial moral reasoning. Data for this study were collected from 100 managers from a variety of industries and organizations through an online survey. Using a Likert-scale, the Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) (Schwartz, 1992) measured four meta-values and ten value types. A 12 item version of the Likert-scale Competing Values Framework (CVF) (Quinn and Rohrbaugh, 1983) was used to measure four different organization culture perceptions. Cognitive moral development was assessed by the Managerial Moral Judgment Test (MMJT) (Loviscky, Treviño, and Jacobs, 2007) which determined levels of moral reasoning using six workplace scenarios asking respondents to make a decision and then both rate and rank the decision criteria. Respondents also provided demographic data (industry, organization size, managerial level, gender, and year of birth).

This study provides a contribution to the understanding of the variables that impact the level of moral reasoning in the workplace. Statistically significant results were found, however, the magnitude of importance for the results when interpreting effect size was generally low. Significant correlations were found between cognitive moral development and two meta-values (conservation and self-transcendence), two value types (tradition and benevolence), and one organization culture perception (hierarchy). In addition, several regression models were developed that included meta -value, value type and organization culture perception variables predicting cognitive moral development. The result with the greatest practical significance for organizations was the regression model where hierarchy culture, achievement and power were combined (R2=.192). In this condition, organizations with hierarchy cultures and managers who value achievement and power, organizations are predicted to see lower levels of managerial moral reasoning at play.

Finally, distinct group differences emerged from studying gender, industry, and organization size. There were 17 group differences found in the study. Only one gender difference was found and only one group difference was found between age groups. However, eight group differences were found when industry was analyzed and seven group differences were found when organization size was considered. No group differences were found in the analysis of managerial level. This study raises additional questions about the antecedents to managerial moral reasoning in the workplace as well as group differences. Further research is needed to explore if and how additional variables beyond values and organization culture impact moral reasoning at work as we strive to better understand managerial moral judgment.

Committee:

Rachel Vannatta Reinhart (Advisor); Thomas Chibucos (Committee Member); Mitchell Neubert (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Schwartz Values Survey; Competing Values Survey; Managerial Moral Judgment Test; business ethics; moral reasoning; cognitive moral development; organizational culture; correlation; multiple regression; group differences

Andrist, Charlotte GiovanettiThe relationship between dimensional structure and individual differences in mental ability: A perceptual model of inductive reasoning
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1991, Psychology
The purpose of the current research was to systematically investigate the relationship between levels of perceptual structure and individual differences in cognitive ability. Two computerized studies were conducted. The first study tested the importance of changing dimensional relationships among novel perceptual stimuli (interstimulus structure) in the prediction of individual differences. The second study further defined two specific parameters of interstimulus structure: amount and form, and tested the relationship among parameters of interstimulus structure, individual stimulus complexity (intrastimulus structure), and individual differences in cognitive ability. The first study was conducted at Lackland Air Force Base with 220 Air Force recruits. The second study was conducted at Cleveland State University with 100 college undergraduates. Results from the first study indicated that changing dimensional structure between stimuli was an important factor in the prediction of individual differences in intelligence. Study 2 replicated and expanded results from Study 1. Parameters of interstimulus form and amount were identified as independent predictors of individual differences in mental ability in Study 2. Interstimulus form was the m ost highly related to individual differences in general cognitive ability. Mediating effects were identified for stimulus complexity and the order in which problems were presented. Basic cognitive processes of discrimination and learning predicted portions of the variance attributed to interstimulus amount and form, respectively. Interstimulus structure was an important predictor of individual differences in cognitive ability after effects of basic cognitive processes were partialed out. In sum, changing dimensional relationships between stimuli were important predictors of individual differences in general cognitive ability. Royer's (1978) structural model of individual differences was supported. Results were consistent with interpretations of Spearman's (1923) qualitative model of mental ability as a model of perceptual processing.

Committee:

Douglas Detterman (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, General

Keywords:

perceptual model inductive reasoning

Dakin, Emily KOLDER WOMEN'S PERCEPTIONS OF ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN ADULT PROTECTIVE SERVICES: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2004, Social Welfare
This study examined older women’s perceptions of the definition of elder maltreatment and of three ethical dilemmas within Adult Protective Services: mandatory reporting and involuntary protective services (both of which illustrate the larger freedom versus protection dilemma); and the criminalization of elder maltreatment. Older women’s ethical decision-making processes in responding to these dilemmas were also examined. An exploratory study was conducted utilizing a focus group design which consisted of a pilot focus group, eight focus groups, and a final member-check group. The eight focus groups were comprised of two working-class Caucasian groups, two working class-African American groups, one high socioeconomic status Caucasian group, one high socioeconomic status African American group, and two Latina groups. All of the study’s 88 participants were women age 60 or older. Participants espoused a broad definition of elder maltreatment that included physical neglect, emotional neglect, physical abuse, verbal abuse, financial abuse, societal maltreatment, maltreatment by family and strangers, and abuse within nursing homes. In responding to scenarios illustrating the study’s dilemmas, participants overwhelmingly favored protection over freedom (that is to say, favored mandatory reporting and involuntary protective service provision), and strongly favored the criminalization of elder maltreatment. Participants also emphasized the importance of prevention and early intervention in elder maltreatment cases, and the need for friends and family to take responsibility in helping to intervene in these cases. Latina participants emphasized the importance of family in responding to these dilemmas, and were particularly familiar with and tolerant of domestic violence. Caucasian participants showed a somewhat greater tolerance for verbal abuse, while African American participants held particularly favorable views towards intervening in the discussed scenarios. The high socioeconomic groups were the only groups to discuss the value of freedom in the freedom/protection dilemma. These findings indicating public support for protective interventions should eventually be replicated using statistical methods and a larger, probability sample. Continued evidence of public support for these interventions warrants consideration by APS practitioners and policy makers who struggle with their ethical dimensions.

Committee:

R. Pearlmutter (Advisor)

Keywords:

elder maltreatment; elder mistreatment; elder abuse; elder neglect; self neglect; adult protective services; APS; ethics; ethical dilemmas; culture; moral development; moral reasoning

Kaminski, Jennifer AThe effects of concreteness on learning, transfer, and representation of mathematical concepts
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Teaching and Learning
The present research investigated the effects of concrete and generic instantiations on learning and transfer of a mathematical concept. The current work distinguished two types of concreteness. Irrelevant concreteness is extraneous information that is unrelated to the to-be-learned concept and has been shown in previous research to hinder both learning and transfer. Relevant concreteness involves symbols or storyline that help communicate the to-be-learned conceptual structure. In a series of experiments, undergraduate college students learned instantiations of a mathematical group that were generic, relevantly concrete, or irrelevantly concrete. Relevant concreteness was found to promote quick learning. However, the benefit of relevant concreteness did not extend to transfer. Relevant concreteness hindered recognition and alignment of structure between the learned domain and a novel isomorph which resulted in transfer failure. With slightly protracted training, the generic instantiation was learned equally well as the relevantly concrete one. Most importantly, the generic instantiation resulted in successful structural alignment and transfer. The benefit of the generic instantiation was also demonstrated for children. In a separate experiment, after learning a relevantly concrete instantiation, participants were unable to recognize learned structure when presented with novel elements. However, participants who learned the generic or irrelevantly concrete instantiation were able to recognize structure in the context of novel elements, suggesting that relevant concreteness obfuscates the analogy between the domains. When participants were given the correspondence of elements across learning and transfer domains, relevantly concrete instantiations did result in successful transfer. Furthermore, learning a generic instantiation was shown to have an advantage for transfer over learning multiple instantiations. Finally, relational diagrams that convey global structure resulted in transfer to isomorphs as well as modification and transfer to non-isomorphic systems of the same structure category. This research argues that relevant concreteness may give a leg-up in the learning process. However, this benefit comes at the cost of transfer. Learning a generic instantiation can provide a direct route to forming an abstract internal representation that can facilitate transfer.

Committee:

Vladimir Sloutsky (Advisor)

Keywords:

Mathematical Concepts; Transfer; Analogical Reasoning; Concept Acquisition

Fadnis, Kshitij PrakashAbductive Meta Hypothesis Plausibility Estimation and Selection Policies
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2013, Computer Science and Engineering
Abduction, or `inference to the best explanation,’ is a form of logical inference which derives explanations for observations. This study addresses abduction problems which are sequential in nature, i.e., sets of observations arrive sequentially in time and abductive inferencing is used to explain those observations, after each set arrives, in terms of a changing world state, or updated world estimate. The abduction algorithm used for this study tentatively accepts its best explanation, after processing each set of observations, and uses that explanation to inform the generation and evaluation of explanatory hypotheses in subsequent reasoning steps. However, the best explanation at any stage may be partially or completely incorrect, since, typically, alternative explanations cannot be completely ruled out. A mistake might be symptomless, and never caught, or it might cause some subsequent processing difficulty, that can be detected, and used to stimulate an attempt to identify and repair the mistake. One such kind of difficulty is a reasoning state wherein no hypotheses are available to explain one or more observations. Such unexplainable observations are referred to as anomalous observations or No-Explainer anomalies. Previous research by Bharathan and others has shown that meta-reasoning, or reasoning about one’s own reasoning, can sometimes be used to detect, diagnose, and repair reasoning mistakes indicated by anomalous observations. The present study examines the possible causes of anomalous observations, and the methods for attempting to repair mistakes, in sequential abductive reasoning, as they were defined recently by Eckroth. The main contribution of this thesis is to provide computationally inexpensive means to assess the plausibility of each possible cause, and to represent it as the confidence score associated with the corresponding meta-hypothesis, for an abductive meta-reasoning algorithm. Plausibility estimation functions were designed for each type of meta-hypothesis that take into account details of the anomalous observations and information available in the reasoning state. This way of estimating plausibility contrasts with Eckroth’s approach, in which each meta-hypothesis is assessed by evaluating the results of attempted repair, which may be computationally expensive. It is shown experimentally, in two different domains, that these plausibility estimation functions are effective, with only minor losses in correctness compared with Eckroth’s method, and with gains in computational efficiency.

Committee:

John Josephson (Advisor); Balakrishnan Chandrasekaran (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Abductive meta-reasoning, meta-hypotheses, meta-operations, plausibility estimation functions

Yuan, YangyangConsiderations affecting the evaluations of the Ohio governor in the 2002 gubernatorial election: an integrated model of priming and reasoning chain
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Communication
Media priming research attempts to address how media might shift the ground on which elections are decided. Most often, empirical tests of media priming have involved presidents and national issues. Empirical tests of priming effects show that people’s evaluations of political leaders’ performance on domain-specific issues influence evaluations of their overall performance. This effect is strengthened by media use. Unfortunately, there has been no clear specification about what considerations people take into account when making these domain-specific judgments. To address this question, Sniderman et al.’s (1991) reasoning chain model about people’s policy preferences was employed. This study attempted to integrate the theoretical work on priming and the research on how citizens process and incorporate media messages into their cognition to form their evaluations of political figures. It extended traditional priming and reasoning chain models to study the evaluation of state-level political actors and issues. Data for this study come from interviews with a panel of adult Ohioans conducted before and after the 2002 Governor’s election. All survey data come from RDD telephone surveys conducted by the Center for Survey Research at the Ohio State University. Results showed that the dominance of economic issues in news made the governor’s economic performance the standards by which his overall job performance was judged. The candidate visibility, economic expectation, and party identification were significant predictors of voting choices in the Governor’s election. The finding that media enhanced the weights of the governor’s visibility and the economic expectation supported the notion that media priming had electoral consequences. Affect and economic perceptions were showed to be important factors in the reasoning of the governor’s economic evaluations and his overall evaluations. Media strengthened the role of affect and ideology in the reasoning process. The moderating role of political sophistication was also explored. Using issue discrimination as the measure, political notices were subject to media priming effect, while experts were immune to it. In addition, the reasoning of the novices was affective-driven, whereas the experts cognitive-driven. Implications and future research direction were also discussed.

Committee:

Gerald Kosicki (Advisor)

Subjects:

Mass Communications

Keywords:

media effects; priming effects; reasoning; political knowledge; evaluations of political leaders

Meniru, Maryann OThe Influence of Degree of Afroncentric Spirituality on Psychological Help Seeking Attitudes, Intentions and Stigma among Nigerian Americans
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2013, Counselor Education and Supervision
The study examined the relation between Afrocentric Spirituality and psychological help seeking attitudes, intentions, and stigma among Nigerian Americans. The researcher investigated whether stronger Afrocentric Spirituality was associated with weaker attitudes toward seeking psychological help, less intention to seek mental health services, and stronger self and other perceived stigma toward psychological help seeking. The sample included 122 adult first generation Nigerian Americans from three different states in the South and Midwest. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Spirituality Scale (Jagers & Smith, 1996), the Perception of Stigmatization by Others for Seeking Psychological Help Scale (Vogel et al., 2009), the Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (Vogel et al., 2006), the Intention to Seek Counseling Inventory (Cash, Begley, McCown, & Weise, 1975), and the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Short Form (Fischer & Turner, 1970). Results from a multiple regression analysis indicated that there was no relation between Afrocentric Spirituality and help- seeking attitudes or self stigma about seeking mental health services. There was a positive correlation between Afrocentric Spirituality and other stigma, demonstrating that as Afrocentric Spirituality increased the perception of others’ stigma (i.e., friends, relatives) about seeking mental health services also increased. Contrary to expectations, there was a positive correlation between Afrocentric Spirituality and intentions to seek psychological help, indicating that as Afrocentric Spirituality increased participants had a iv stronger intention to seek mental health services for certain concerns. Follow-up analyses were utilized to determine whether sample demographic characteristics (e.g., level of education, socioeconomic status, income, and age immigrated to the United States) were related to Afrocentric Spirituality or help-seeking intentions. However, non-significant results were obtained. Implications for counseling practice, theory, and counselor education were presented, as were recommendations for future research

Committee:

Robert Schwartz, Dr. (Advisor); Cynthia Reynolds, Dr. (Committee Member); Sharon Kruse, Dr. (Committee Member); John Queener, Dr. (Committee Member); Varunee Faii Sangganjanavanich, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Counseling Education

Keywords:

Afrocentric Spirituality, Psychological help seeking, Stigma, Mental health practices, Nigerian Americans, Culture, Diunital Reasoning, Help seeking attitudes, Intentions, Eurocentric lens, Counselor Education and Supervision, CACREP,

Miller, Wesley A.Problem Detection for Situation Assessment in Case-Based Reasoning for Diabetes Management
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2009, Computer Science (Engineering and Technology)
This thesis presents work in problem detection for situation assessment in Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) for diabetes management. Diabetes is a disease is which the body does not produce, or does not properly make use of, the hormone insulin. Management of diabetes requires insulin therapy, a controlled lifestyle and close monitoring of the disease by both patient and physician. Poor management of diabetes can result in many serious long-term health complications. CBR is an artifcial intelligence (AI) approach that makes use of past experiences and knowledge to reason about new situations. CBR has been applied successfully in the medical field, but never as the primary reasoning mode for diabetes management. Situation assessment is the process by which large amounts of patient data are analyzed and problems that may require therapy adjustments are detected. Situation assessment is a critical component of the complete CBR system for diabetes management. In addition, the situation assessment routines may be used directly by physicians to assist in the identification of problems that require changes in therapy. The contributions of this thesis are: the design and implementation of twelve situation assessment routines, the design and implementation of two data aggregation and visualization programs, and knowledge acquisition for the construction of cases for a Case-Based Reasoning decision support system for diabetes management.

Committee:

Cynthia R. Marling (Advisor); David Chelberg (Committee Member); Jundong Liu (Committee Member); Frank Schwartz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

case-based reasoning; situation assessment; diabetes management

Braman, Eileen CarolMotivated reasoning in legal decision-making
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Political Science
In this dissertation I identify a puzzle that was created, then largely ignored by behavioral scholars doing empirical work on the courts. The puzzle arises from the substantial disconnect between how judges characterize their reasoning processes and the demonstrated influence of policy preferences on the decisions they make. I discuss how the concept of motivated reasoning has been invoked to resolve the tension between legal and attitudinal accounts of decision-making and evaluate that claim in light of research on the role of motivation in other decision contexts. I question the dominant assumption in behavioral research that judges are primarily policy oriented. I offer an alternative characterization of motives based on the idea that people who are trained in the legal tradition come to internalize norms consistent with idealized models of decision-making. Consistent with psychological findings demonstrating limits on motivated decision processes, I suggest accepted norms of decision-making serve as a constraint on the ability of decision-makers to reach conclusions consistent with their policy preferences. I test two potential avenues of motivated reasoning in legal reasoning: analogical perception and the separability of preferences in cases involving multiple issues. Using an experimental approach I find that each is a potential avenue of attitudinal influence in legal decision-making. However, there is also substantial evidence of constraint in studies testing both mechanisms. I conclude in with a summary of main findings and a discussion of implications for future research.

Committee:

Gregory Caldeira (Advisor)

Subjects:

Political Science, General

Keywords:

political psychology; decision-making; judicial decision-making; motivated reasoning; analogy; threshold issues; law

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