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Kasrani, ImenDevelopment of a Performance Assessment System for Language Learning
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2017, Computer Science
Recent advances in computer-assisted, language-speaking, learning/training technology have demonstrated its promising potential to improve the outcome of language learning in early education, special education, English as a Second Language (ESL), and foreign language. The growing number of readily available mobile app-based solutions help encourage interest in learning to speak a foreign language, but their effectiveness is limited due to their lack of objective assessment and performance feedback resembling expert judgment. For example, it has been recognized that, in early education, students learn best with one-on-one instructions. Unfortunately, teachers do not have the time, and it is challenging to extend the learning to the home without the assistance of an independent learning/training tool. In this thesis research, our objective is to develop an effective and practical solution that will help people to learn and practice a new language independently at low cost. We have explored the use of real-time speech recognition, language translation, text synthesis, artificial intelligence (AI), and language intelligibility assessment technologies to develop a learning/training system that provides automatic assessment and instantaneous feedback of language-speaking performance in order to achieve an independent-learning workflow. Furthermore, we have designed and implemented a successful prototype system that demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of such a computer-assisted independent learning/training solution. This prototype can be easily used on a computer, tablet, smartphone, and other portable devices, and provides a new learning experience that is augmented and enhanced by objective assessment and significant feedback in order to improve the language-speaking proficiency of its user. Additionally, it may be used for real-time translation to support conversation across different languages. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can sufficiently analyze the intelligibility of one’s speaking, accurately identify mispronounced words, and define a feedback that localizes and highlights errors for continuous practice toward perfection.

Committee:

Yong Pei, Ph.D. (Advisor); Mateen Rizki, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paul Bender, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Anna Lyon, Ed.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Performance Assessment; Language Learning; Speech Recognition

Zhao, WenyuAn Integrated Framework of Performance Assessment and Drivetrain Prognostics for Wind Turbines
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Engineering and Applied Science: Mechanical Engineering
The growing demand for wind energy and the advancement of turbine technologies have proliferated global adoption and expansion of wind farms over the past years. Due to various causes, including logistics difficulties and lack of predictive analytics, failures and downtime occur and lead to reduced asset availability and revenue. Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) methodologies and techniques are considered as critical technologies, where the capability of diagnosis and prognosis for turbine degradation and failure can be considerably beneficial to prevent unexpected failures, optimize maintenance decision-making and enhance overall system performance. However, there are impeding challenges for the application of PHM techniques in wind turbine area: what is the foundation to incorporate with commonly used vibration data and activate component-level maintenance; how to apply state-of-the-art signal processing, diagnosis and prognosis techniques while wind turbine components are known to be working under dynamic operating regimes constantly; how to design a systematic approach and implement suitable algorithms on a reconfigurable platform. This thesis conducts a comprehensive review of existing data systems and analytical methods to monitor wind turbine health condition. The thesis presents a framework that integrates two most commonly used data systems in wind power area: a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system and a Condition Monitoring System (CMS). A system-level, overall turbine performance is assessed with purely SCADA data, whereas degradation of drivetrain components is assessed and fault detection & localization is achieved with SCADA and CMS data. The assessment of turbine performance generates a confidence value (CV) for the turbine unit, which interprets the capability to convert wind power to electrical power under varying conditions. A systematic approach is designed to pre-process data, cluster data based on a multi-regime method, Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM), and evaluate the cluster deviation over time. The drivetrain prognostics process combines SCADA variables with features extracted from CMS data, to evaluate the overall degradation of the drivetrain, which consists of rotor, main shaft, gearbox and generator, with a Self-organizing Maps (SOM) method. The minimum quantization error (MQE) metric is used for detecting drivetrain fault and locating the fault at the component-level The proposed framework is validated with two case studies, a 2MW onshore turbine for performance assessment and a 3MW offshore turbine for drivetrain prognosis.

Committee:

Jay Lee, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Raj Bhatnagar, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mark Schulz, Ph.D. (Committee Member); David Thompson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanics

Keywords:

Wind Turbine;Prognostics;Performance Assessment;Drivetrain Prognostics;SCADA;CMS

Floyd, Beatrice K.Vision-Based Techniques for Cognitive and Motor Skill Assessments
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2012, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
This thesis presents computer vision algorithms and associated applications for automating cognitive and motor skill assessments. These assessments are used to diagnose cognitive and motor impairments and behavioral problems. Due to the high prevalence of such disorders and the limitation of traditional diagnosis methods, there is an urgent need for improved approaches. Automation through computer vision enables low cost comprehensive assessments that can be more extensively implemented, further precision in measurement, provide quantitative behavioral and performance data, record results electronically, and allow professionals to concentrate on other assessment factors. The presented algorithms include wrist tracking, object recognition and tracking, and gaze detection. These algorithms are applied to create an automated version of the Wechsler’s Block Design subtest, kinematical modeling of the upper extremities, methods of path accuracy evaluation, an automated system for the Soda Pop Coordination Test, a tracking/scoring system for Cup Stacking, and a demonstration of gaze tracking.

Committee:

Kiju Lee (Committee Chair); Merat Francis (Committee Member); Newman Wyatt (Committee Member); Prahl Joseph (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Computer Science; Mechanical Engineering; Psychological Tests; Psychology

Keywords:

Computer Vision; Image Processing; Automation; Performance Assessment; Fine-motor Skill Assessment; Cognitive Assessment; Wrist Tracking; Pose Estimation; Gaze Detection; Pose Estimation from Shape

Al-Rawashdeh, Abdalla S.Performance Assessment Of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Pavements
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2008, Civil Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is a new technology that was introduced in Europe in 1995. WMA offers several advantages over conventional asphalt concrete mixtures. The benefits include: reduced energy consumption, reduced emissions, reduced binder aging, and extended construction season in temperate climates. Three WMA techniques, Aspha-min, Sasobit, and Evotherm, were used to reduce the viscosity of the asphalt binder at certain temperatures and to dry and fully coat the aggregates at a lower production temperature than conventional hot mix asphalt. The reduction in mixing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures leads to a 30 percent reduction in both fuel energy consumption and emissions that may cause health problems. This research assessed the performance of WMA mixes and conventional HMA test sections at the APLF and on an actual road. The research also evaluated the engineering properties of WMA mixes and conventional mixes.

Committee:

Shad M. Sargand, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

Performance; Assessment; Warm Mix Asphalt; WMA; Pavements

Ferguson, KatherineHIGH SCHOOL BAND SIGHT READING IN THE UNITED STATES: PROCEDURES, PREPARATION, ATTITUDES, AND EXPERIENCES
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College of the Arts / School of Music
Sight reading is the ability to read and perform music at first sight without preparatory study of the pieces. Each year, high school large group instrumental and choral adjudicated events occur throughout the United States. Evaluation in sight reading is a part of these events in some states, however, the results of the nationwide sight-reading overview by Paul (2010) show fewer than half of the state-sponsored music contests require assessment in sight reading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the state of sight reading in band performance evaluations and classrooms across the nation. This study in sight reading sought to identify baseline knowledge, which explored the traditions and procedures, attitudes of directors, and event experiences in high school large group band performance evaluations. This research specifically focused on large ensemble, band sight reading in both the rehearsal and adjudicated performance room. A mixed methods approach was used, which allowed the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative paradigms to emerge. Utilizing portions of both models aided in the discovery of answers to the research questions in this study. Initially, data regarding sight-reading procedures at large group sight-reading evaluations was gathered from each state. Next, responses to a survey were collected from band directors across the United States. Feedback in the areas of sight-reading participation, director training, student preparation, and director attitude toward adjudication in sight reading was given. Finally, participants were selected for a more in-depth interview. The line of questioning involved a more focused look at their attitudes and experiences surrounding sight-reading adjudication. Results from this study have yielded information that can potentially impact teacher training, professional development, and the organization of the sight-reading adjudication system. The Sight Reading Instruction Training Attitude Survey (SRITAS) was developed with the guidance of several surveys used as source material. Results of the survey provided a broad portrait of sight-reading instruction and adjudication throughout the United States. Participants revealed that they have a varied structure in which they teach sight reading within their schools, and a mixture of attitudes when it comes to sight reading adjudication. All participants believe that sight reading is an important aspect of the music education of a child, but the manner in which that skill is taught varies greatly. It is evident that many of the states share characteristics in sight reading education, such as placement in the adjudicated process, and desire for the students to be actively engaged in the study time. Some of the procedural aspects differ from one state to the next. Preparatory study time and directors’ communication during the performance are a few of these aspects. Discussions among band directors and state leaders, based on the importance of including sight-reading evaluation in their festival, need to serve as a platform from which to continue development of classroom learning standards that align with the national music standards, and the inclusion of sight reading in that process. Teachers are continuously searching for resources to better their instructional techniques in this area, and are passionate about cultivating meaningful, musical, and educational experiences for their students in sight reading. With so much supporting evidence on the importance of sight reading, teaching sight reading is an accepted and recommended piece of instrumental music instruction.

Committee:

Craig Resta (Advisor)

Subjects:

Music; Music Education

Keywords:

music education; teaching; music; sight reading; sight-reading; concert band; wind ensemble; adjudication; band festival; performance assessment

Eblin, Joshua J.Examination of the Validity of the Thought and Perception Assessment System: A Behavioral Measure of Psychotic Symptoms
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2015, Psychology
This research represents the second step in a planned series of studies that is expected to culminate in a behavioral measure that assesses solely for problems in thinking and perception based on the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS; Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011). The Thought and Perception Assessment System (TPAS) is designed for use in clinical practice and research using all ten of the traditional Rorschach cards. Because coding only focuses on two sets of variables, test administration procedures are substantially simplified relative to the standard R-PAS procedures. TPAS will yield time savings and dimensional behavioral assessment data for the identification of problems in thinking and perception. TPAS can be further abbreviated and simplified by using it with a smaller subset of cards. These short-form card sets yield further time savings and also provide the ability to conduct alternate forms-retest evaluations with independent stimuli. Using archival data, Eblin and colleagues (Eblin, 2012; Eblin, Meyer, Mihura, & Viglione, 2014) derived the short-form card sets using only the R-PAS Thinking and Perception variables. In addition to the standard 10-card option, one short-form series consisted of two 5-card options, another consisted of two 4-card options, and the final series consisted of three 3-card options. Eblin and colleagues’ analyses demonstrated that each of the short-form card series had merit, with the 4-card series being less optimal than the 5- and 3-card series because it offers no benefit over five cards and not as many options as the 3-card series. As such, the 4-card series is not used here. In general, part-whole correlations, reliability coefficients, and validity coefficients were acceptable for each short-form card set and slightly decreased as a function of decreasing the number of cards in each series. The primary limitation of Eblin and colleagues’ (Eblin, 2012; Eblin et al., 2014) previous research is that it made use of archival data, so it was not possible to evaluate the validity of the new TPAS administration guidelines. This study addresses this limitation by collecting validity data for TPAS using the standard 10-card series and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS; Kay, Fiszbein, & Opler, 1987) as a validity criterion measure. In general, TPAS interrater reliability coefficients and R-PAS to TPAS alternative forms retest correlations were acceptable, with the largest coefficients for the Thinking variables. The analyses demonstrated the validity of the Perception variables, as well as the incremental validity of TPAS over self-reported psychotic symptoms. Although the Thinking variables initially did not have a meaningful relationship with clinician ratings of psychotic symptoms using items from the Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale (PANSS), a series of supplemental analyses help to understand this anomalous finding. Specifically, the Weighted Sum of the 6 Cognitive Codes validly discriminated patients from nonpatients (M d = .87, M r = .40) and the validity with PANSS ratings of psychotic symptoms was partially obscured in the present analyses by lengthy and verbose protocols. Although not the focus of the present research, preliminary psychometric data are also provided for short-forms extracted from TPAS administrations. Implications and future directions for TPAS research are discussed.

Committee:

Gregory Meyer, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Joni Mihura, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Wesley Bullock, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Stephen Christman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Donald Viglione, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nicole Kletzka, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Clinical Psychology; Psychological Tests; Psychology

Keywords:

Rorschach; Performance Assessment System; Thought and Perception Assessment System; short-form; psychosis; schizophrenia; thought disorder

Lapira, Edzel R.Fault Detection in a Network of Similar Machines using Clustering Approach
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Engineering and Applied Science: Industrial Engineering

Fault detection, which involves the estimation of the condition, health or degradation of an equipment or a process and a decision logic to determine whether an event that can be considered as a fault has occurred, is an integral component in prognostics and health management because it is an essential indicator when to perform fault diagnosis and isolation, and it also precedes any performance prediction methodology. The implementation of data-driven fault detection has generally been reliant on unit-specific models which can be less effective with insufficient training data or when used in applications with non-stationary working conditions. The aforementioned scenarios can be alleviated by leveraging on data from similar units experiencing comparable operating regimes.

This dissertation investigates the formulation, development and implementation of a cluster-based fault detection to a fleet of similar machines. A two-step approach is introduced: fleet clustering and local cluster fault detection. Fleet clustering verifies, discovers and identifies the group structure of the network of machines. Afterwhich, the health of each unit in the cluster is assessed using peer-to-peer comparison. The approach developed in this dissertation is validated with two case studies: a fleet of industrial welding robots from an automotive manufacturing facility and a group of wind turbines from several wind farms.

Committee:

Jay Lee, PhD (Committee Chair); Tianyi Wang, PhD (Committee Member); Hongdao Huang, PhD (Committee Member); Manish Kumar, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanics

Keywords:

fault detection;wind turbines;performance assessment;industrial robots;fleet prognostics;;

Chettiyar, ThanigasalamExamination of Power Quality Control within a Cost-based Microgrid Architecture
Master of Science (M.S.), University of Dayton, 2013, Electrical Engineering
Microgrids (MGs) are important because of their ability to provide a "greener" solution to obtain reliable, secure and sustainable electricity from renewable sources of energy. As a MG can be islanded (i.e. disconnected from the main grid), the power quality issues observed are very different when compared to the traditional centralized grid. These issues are of significant importance because the reliability of the grid is impacted by the MG operation. Currently, the typical power quality issues such as total harmonic content and transient stability have been studied only for an ideal voltage source of constant magnitude - assumed to be the distributed generator (DG) connected to a grid. However, under practical conditions, a MG might have more than one DG (Example: solar, wind, diesel generators, and CHP, among others) connected to it and some of these DGs would be subject to varying output throughout the day based on changes in intensity of solar radiation, wind speed, and other environmental factors. The current research takes this into account and examines the efficacy of an existing power quality control strategy for a MG consisting of a stochastically modeled renewable energy source i.e. a solar PV array. A Robust Servomechanism Controller in conjunction with a Discrete Sliding Mode Controller is employed to achieve voltage and current regulation in the MG. Stochastic model of a solar PV array along with a supplemental DC voltage source model have been presented in this research. The solar PV array utilizes actual TMY3 irradiance data for Dayton, Ohio. The supplemental DC voltage source is connected in series with the solar PV output and helps to compensate for the intermittent nature of energy produced by the solar PV array. A cost-based approach to connecting and disconnecting the MG from the utility supply whilst ensuring the maximum use of incident solar energy is also presented in this research. The MG model developed in Matlab Simulink® follows the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) architecture for modeling MGs. The examination of the efficacy of an existing control strategy in a MG topology capable of making real-time cost-based decisions is expected to help the practical implementation of MGs.

Committee:

Malcolm Daniels, Ph.D. (Advisor); Raúl Ordóñez, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Kevin Hallinan, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Alternative Energy; Electrical Engineering; Energy

Keywords:

microgrid; power quality control; cost-based microgrid architecture; simulink microgrid model; solar PV; transient performance assessment;

Dyanati Badabi, MojtabaSeismic Performance Evaluation And Economic Feasibility Of Self-Centering Concentrically Braced Frames
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2016, Civil Engineering
Self-centering concentrically braced frame (SC-CBF) systems have been developed to increase the drift capacity of braced frame systems prior to damage to reduce post-earthquake damages in braced frames. However, due to special details required by the SC-CBF system, the construction cost of an SC-CBF is expected to be higher than that of a conventional CBF. While recent experimental research has shown better seismic performance of SC-CBF system subjected to design basis earthquakes, superior seismic performance of this system needs to be demonstrated for both structural and nonstructural components in all ground motion levels and more building configurations. Moreover, Stakeholders would be attracted to utilize SC-CBF if higher construction cost of this system can be paid back by lower earthquake induced losses during life time of the building. In this study, the seismic performance and economic effectiveness of SC-CBFs are assessed and compared with CBF system in three building configurations. First, probabilistic demand formulations are developed for engineering demand parameters (inter-story drift, residual drift and peak floor acceleration) using results of nonlinear time history analysis of the buildings under suites of ground motions. Then, Seismic fragility curves, engineering demand (inter-story drift, peak floor acceleration and residual drift) hazard curve and annual probabilities of exceeding damage states are used to evaluate and compare seismic performance of two systems. Finally, expected annual loss and life cycle cost of buildings are evaluated for prototype buildings considering both direct and indirect losses and prevailing uncertainties in all levels of loss analysis. These values are used evaluate economic benefit of using SC-CBF system instead of CBF system and pay-off time (time when the higher construction cost of SC-CBF system is paid back by the lower losses in earthquakes) for building configurations. Additionally, parametric study is performed to find acceptable increase in cost of SC-CBFs comparing to CBFs and impact of economic discount factor, ground motion suite and building occupancies on economic effectiveness of the SC-CBF system in three configurations. Results of this study indicates that, SC-CBF system generally shows better seismic performance due to damages to structural and non-structural drift sensitive components but worse performance due to damages to acceleration sensitive components. Therefore, loss mitigation in structural and non-structural damages are major source of economic benefit in SC-CBFs. SC-CBF system is not feasible for high rise buildings and low seismic active locations. If the cost of SC-CBFs are twice as CBF frames, the higher cost is paid back in a reasonable time during the life time of the buildings. SC-CBFs are more feasible for banks/financial institutions than general office buildings.

Committee:

Qindan Huang, Dr. (Advisor); Qindan Huang, Dr. (Committee Chair); David Roke, Dr. (Committee Member); Craig Menzemer, Dr. (Committee Member); Akhilesh Chandra, Dr. (Committee Member); Hamid Bahrami, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Economics; Engineering; Finance; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

seismic fragility; engineering demand hazard; inter-story and residual drifts prediction; performance assessment; self-centering system; Expected annual loss, Life-cycle cost, Seismic performance evaluation, Probablistic Cost-benefit analysis

Wang, Kung Fu SunnyThe development of benchmarks and the selection of appropriate methods to assess technological literacy portion of the natural science and living technology curriculum as required by The 2000 National Curriculum Guidelines of the Republic Of China (Taiwan
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Teaching and Learning
The purpose of the study is to identify the essential benchmarks of technological literacy to be required of 9th graders in Taiwan, and to determine assessment methods for these benchmarks. Its results, the clarification of the benchmarks of technological literacy as well as the appropriate assessment tasks, provide a foundation for what technological literacy means to technology teachers and students in Taiwan, and offer assistance to their teaching and learning, measuring achievement, and evaluating programs. The Delphi technique was employed in the study that consists of one initial survey and three reiterative questionnaires. Twenty-four panelists, all technology education professionals with extensive teaching and research experience in Taiwan, participated in the study. The initial survey, Delphi probe, was designed to collect a provisional list of benchmarks and assessment tasks for measuring technological literacy. A list of 105 benchmarks and five assessment tasks was compiled from the responses to the initial survey. In the first round of the study, participants responded to rate the importance of each benchmark using a four-point Likert scale. The importance and level of agreement of each of the 105 benchmarks was then examined by calculating the arithmetic mean, mode, standard deviation, range, and data distribution. The criteria for lack of consensus include: a standard deviation of .780 or higher and an agreement level of 60% or lower. These were maintained into the next questionnaire. Thirty-five benchmarks that were commonly rated as very important were accepted and nine benchmarks that were commonly rated non-important were eliminated. The remaining sixty-one benchmarks that did not reach consensus were maintained into the next questionnaire for further inquiry. In the second-round questionnaire, participants were shown the mean score of each benchmark with his or her rating from the previous round. With this information, they could reconsider their rating when filling out the second questionnaire. Based on the responses toward the 61 benchmarks, seventeen benchmarks that were commonly rated as very important were accepted, seven benchmarks that were commonly rated non-important were eliminated, the remaining thirty-seven benchmarks that did not reach consensus were maintained into the next questionnaire for further inquiry. In the third round, participants received information about both the mean scores and her/his rating of each benchmark from the previous round. The result of this round of inquiry shows that only eight out the remaining thirty-seven benchmarks were determined important with a satisfactory level of agreement and accepted the rest were eliminated. Through the three rounds of Delphi studies, 60 out of 105 benchmarks were identified as important benchmarks. Their level of importance was analyzed and thematic connections between the benchmarks were explored. Furthermore, they were presented in five categories: Understanding of Technology, Inquiry and Analytical Skills, Communication Skills, Design and Build Skills, and Application and Problem Solving Skills.

Committee:

Paul Post (Advisor)

Keywords:

Assessment tasks; Benchmarks; Living technology; Performance assessment; Technological literacy; Technology Education

Eblin, Joshua J.Development and Preliminary Validation of a Brief Behavioral Measure of Problems in Thought Organization and Perception
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2012, Psychology
The present research represents the first step in a planned series of studies that will ultimately culminate in a Rorschach-based system that assesses solely for problems in thinking and perception. The system is provisionally dubbed the Thinking and Perception Behavioral Assessment System (TP-BAS) and is designed for use in clinical practice and research. The TP-BAS will yield time savings, the ability to conduct test-retest evaluations, and dimensional behavioral assessment data for the identification of problems in thinking and perception. The most recently developed system for conducting broadband Rorschach assessments is the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS; Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011). The aim of the present research was to develop series of ¿¿¿¿¿¿¿short-forms¿¿¿¿¿¿¿ of R-PAS Thinking and Perception variables. Each short-form makes use of only the Thinking and Perception variables. One short-form consisted of one 10-card option, another short-form consisted of two 5-card options, another short-form consisted of two 4-card options, and the final short-form consisted of three 3-card options. Thus, short-forms of the R-PAS were created in two ways. First, the number of variables was reduced to just the Thinking and Perception variables. Second, alternatives to using the full Rorschach card set were developed by reducing the number of cards to be administered in all but one of the TP-BAS card sets. It was first determined which R-PAS Perception and Thinking variables meaningfully differ in the frequency with which they occur across cards. Second, on a card-by-card basis, the mean and standard deviation were computed for the variables that were found in to meaningfully differ in frequency across cards in step 1. Third, TP-BAS card sets were assembled by balancing their relative difficulty, as determined in steps 1 and 2. Fourth, card sets and series were compared to one another regarding part-whole correlations with the full-form, interrater reliability, and construct validity. Diagnostic efficiency statistics for the TP-BAS are also reported using data from a composite measure of perceptual and thinking ability (i.e., the Thought and Perception Composite) as an example. The present analyses suggest that each series has unique merits and limitations, with the 4-card series perhaps being slightly less optimal than the 5- and 3-card series. In general, part-whole correlations, reliability coefficients, validity coefficients, and overall correct classification rates (OCCs) are acceptable for each card set and slightly decrease as a function of decreasing the number of cards in each respective short-form. Implications and future uses of the TP-BAS for research and clinical assessment are discussed.

Committee:

Gregory Meyer, PhD (Committee Chair); Joni Mihura, PhD (Committee Member); Donald Viglione, PhD (Committee Member); Jeanne Brockmyer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Mental Health; Psychological Tests; Psychology

Keywords:

Rorschach; Performance Assessment System; short-form; psychosis; thought disorder; schizophrenia; reality testing

Horn, Sandra LAggregating Form Accuracy and Percept Frequency to Optimize Rorschach Perceptual Accuracy
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2015, Psychology - Clinical
Exner’s (2003) Comprehensive System and Meyer et al.’s (2011) Rorschach Performance Assessment System use Form Quality scores as a method for assessing the accuracy of perceptions on the Rorschach. However, Form Quality is a rather coarse classification method as it is based on just three options along a continuum of perceptual accuracy. There is currently not a fully dimensional Rorschach score that can thoroughly and efficiently tap into both the frequency with which particular objects are reported while taking the test and the perceptual fit of those objects to the cards. This study is focused on exploring the structure of a fit variable, Form Accuracy, in combination with a frequency variable, Percept Frequency, to make progress on a new dimensional method of scoring perceptual accuracy that will improve the ability to identify distorted perceptual processes and impaired reality testing and thus improve validity coefficients in the Rorschach-based identification of psychosis. Percept Frequency tables were developed from six internationally collected samples from Argentina, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Spain, and the U.S. that quantified how often objects were reported while completing the Rorschach task. Form Accuracy ratings were obtained from a database of 13,031 objects that had been rated an average of 9.9 times by different judges from eleven countries who were asked to rate the extent to which the object fit the contours of the inkblot at the location where it was seen. A criterion database containing 159 protocols and 3,897 scorable responses was then scored for Form Accuracy and Percept Frequency. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to complete structural analyses of Form Accuracy and Percept Frequency scores at the response level, and correlations of these variables were computed at the protocol level with a criterion measure assessing severity of disturbance based on psychiatric diagnoses. Across different levels of aggregation, there was resounding evidence that the structure of each of the ten Rorschach cards and the sequence of first, second, third, or fourth responses given to a card played a large role in determining Form Accuracy and Percept Frequency scores. As such, these scores are strongly influenced by structural features of the Rorschach task that cannot be entirely attributed to stable characteristics of the test-taker. There were consistent clustering effects in the data due to the card number and due to the response within a card. Predicted scores for Form Accuracy and Percept Frequency were highest on Cards 5, 1, and 7, and they were lowest on Cards 9 and 6; scores were also lowered with each subsequent response within a card. Surprisingly, Percept Frequency scores did not correlate with the criterion measure of diagnostic severity, though Form Accuracy did have small correlations. Understanding the structural patterns of the fit and frequency data is an important undertaking in forming the foundation for future research on a dimensional Rorschach perceptual accuracy scoring system.

Committee:

Gregory Meyer, PhD (Committee Chair); Jeanne Brockmyer, PhD (Committee Member); Joni Mihura, PhD (Committee Member); Jason Rose, PhD (Committee Member); Donald Viglione, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology

Keywords:

rorschach; comprehensive system; CS; rorschach performance assessment system; R-PAS; RPAS; form accuracy; FA; percept frequency; PF; perceptual accuracy; PA; form quality; FQ; reality testing; psychosis; psychotic; hierarchical linear model; HLM

Zamanian, SoroushProbabilistic Performance Assessment of Deteriorating Buried Concrete Sewer Pipes
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2016, Civil Engineering
Deterioration in wastewater infrastructure systems is recognized as a serious, worldwide concern. Deterioration due to sulfate attack is one of the primary reasons of functional and structural failures in concrete sewer pipes which is a significant component in wastewater infrastructure systems. Any type of failure may lead to serious health, environmental, and economical issues, lack of the wastewater services, incidents, and traffic delays. The deterioration model presented by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is used to obtain the corrosion rate. Subsequently, a time-dependent model is utilized to determine the loss of wall thickness in concrete pipes. In this study, ANSYS is used to construct a nonlinear three-dimensional Finite Element model, which is capable of simulating the behavior of buried concrete sewer pipes under gravity and truck loads. Deterioration of concrete pipe is modeled in ANSYS in such a way that a continuous degradation of the system is considered during the service life of the pipes. A Monte Carlo-based reliability assessment method that uses Latin Hypercube Sampling technique is employed to capture the uncertainties associated with concrete and soil characteristics. The crack width which is the primary reason for leakage in the concrete pipes, is defined as the limit state function, and can be obtained from the tensile stresses on the pipe wall. Hence, the descending portion of stress-strain curve of concrete on the tension side is studied through post-processing of ANSYS results. The results indicate the significant impact of moderate deterioration on the performance and probability of failure of concrete sewer pipes for the serviceability level. In addition, elastic modulus of sidefill and bedding soil are found to have considerable effect on the stress distribution along the deteriorated concrete pipe.

Committee:

Absollah Shafieezadeh (Advisor); Jieun Hur (Committee Member); Halil Sezen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Wastewater Infrastructure Systems, Probabilistic Performance Assessment, Deteriorating Buried Concrete Sewer Pipes

Chen, GuangyanDeveloping a Culture-Based Rating Criterion Model for Assessing Oral Performances in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, East Asian Languages and Literatures
The study develops a culture-based rating criterion model for assessing oral performances in teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in the United States. Two problems in the current language assessment area suggest the need for such a model. First, most current Foreign Language (FL) proficiency guidelines claim to assess the communicative competence of a FL speaker. However, dimensions of communicative competence have not been adopted unanimously. Second, proficiency tests claim to assess learners’ communicative competence by providing a global rating. Nevertheless, few proficiency guidelines provide a way of using one unitary rating to assess multi-dimensional competence. The study develops a culture-based rating criterion model to compensate for the problems outlined above. Accordingly, the study answers five research questions: 1. which scale should be used to assess oral performances: a global scale or analytic scales? 2. Which rating criteria can be used to assess oral performances? 3. What are the relationships between overall proficiency and analytic scales? 4. Upon whose standards should the rating criteria be based: Teacher(s) of Chinese (TC), Naïve Native speaker(s) of Chinese (NNC), or experts in language assessment? 5. Does proficiency level affect the rating criterion pattern? The study involves the following procedures. First, three American learners were videotaped individually. Then, each video was placed online. Second, descriptive items relevant to the videos were generated in order to evaluate the three learners’ performances. Then the subjects of the study (TC/NNC) went online and evaluated learner performances using these items. Finally, I ran two statistical procedures—factor analysis and analysis of variance—to analyze the data. The rating criterion model developed in this study consists of the following aspects. The number of rating criteria was retained as six. The six rating criteria can be determined from the ten statistically independent rating criteria identified in this study based on individual needs and specific assessment purposes. In the six-criterion structure, the criteria of communication appropriateness, Chinese cognitive patterns, and positive evaluation from the communication perspective were relatively more important than other rating criteria in determining the overall proficiency level of the speaker. The six-criterion structure accounted for 50% of the global rating of an oral performance, rather than 100% of it as usually assumed. The above rating criterion model was based on the following assumptions, which were either validated by the results of this study or defended over the course of the study. First, the language rating scale is a multidimensional structure. Therefore analytic rating scales are proposed in this study. However, TC/NNC tend to prioritize the two most important rating criteria when assessing learner oral performances. Second, proficiency level did not affect the rating criterion pattern. Third, there were no significant differences between TC’s and NNC’s rating criterion pattern. Fourth, this study argues for TC’s and NNC’s judgments as the rating standards that experts in CFL assessment should consult. 

Committee:

Galal Walker (Committee Chair); Mari Noda (Committee Member); Marjorie K.M. Chan (Committee Member); Danielle Ooyoung Pyun (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Foreign Language

Keywords:

Oral performance assessment; Exploratory factor analysis; Rating criteria