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Burgess, Brandy LUnderstanding the Desire to Learn: A Study of Academic Intrinsic Motivation in Students Attending a 4-Year Institution for Higher Learning
BBA, Kent State University, 2016, College of Business Administration / Department of Management and Information Systems
Through an investigation of the six factors of Academic Intrinsic Motivation [AIM] as outlined by Shia (1998), namely the need to know, the need to achieve, peer acceptance, authority expectations, power motivation, and the fear of failure; this study sought to determine if any or all AIM factors influenced academic performance of students attending a 4-year public higher education institution in Ohio. A literature review was conducted with a focus on student motivation, and it was determined that few studies had focused on these six factors of academic intrinsic motivation. This study sought to determine what, if any, relationship existed among the factors of AIM and between academic performance and the factors of AIM for college students attending a public 4-year public higher education institution in Ohio. An online survey, the Revised Online AIM Survey (AIMS-R), was created from the original AIM questionnaire created by Shia (1998). A population of over 4,000 students was invited to participate in the AIMS-R survey and 664 responded, representing a response rate of 16.6%. Of those who responded, 528 completed all of the questions for the subscales of the AIMS-R survey, representing 13.2%, and were selected for inclusion in the data analysis. Four hundred and sixty two of the 528 participants completed the AIMS-R demographic questions, representing 11.6%, and these 462 complete responses were used to test the hypothesis statements for this study. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the results of the AIMS-R data.

Committee:

Gregory Blundell (Advisor)

Subjects:

Educational Psychology

Keywords:

Student Motivation, Intrinsic Motivation, Academic Motivation, College Students, Academic Intrinsic Motivation, Investigative Studies in Motivation

Gibson, Bria LeighThe Impact of Physical Features On the Book Selection Process of Fourth and Eighth Graders
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Reading

Reading education is a fundamental aspect of literacy development, however, it is often times difficult to discover what truly motivates children to read. This study was created as a way of trying to further identify the motivation behind students' book preferences when given the opportunity to self-select. Several studies have been previously conducted that examine similar motivational factors, such as author, genre, and topic. This study delved deeper into the physical characteristics of books that motivate students after their reading interests have been considered. Twenty-nine fourth grade students and sixty-three eighth grade students were asked to take a brief questionnaire that discussed the physical factors that most impact their selection. Following the questionnaire, five were selected from each grade level to take part in a short interview session that was created to gain further insight into their reasons and methods for selecting books.

The results from the questionnaires were then analyzed and tallied onto a spreadsheet to look for the patterns and themes. The interview sessions were transcribed and used to support reasoning for choosing a particular factor. The majority of the fourth grade students were influenced by the front cover, while eighth grade students were found to be most influenced by the back-of-the-book summary found on books. However, the researcher concluded that the same top three factors were considered by both fourth and eighth grade students.

Committee:

Cindy Hendricks, PhD (Committee Chair); John Sorg, Ed. D. (Committee Member); Angela Thomas, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Reading Instruction

Keywords:

reading motivation; physical features; book selection process; book selection strategies; theories of motivation; history of motivation

Kea, Howard EricHow Are NASA Engineers Motivated? An Analysis of Factors that Influence NASA Goddard Engineers’ Level of Motivation
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2008, Leadership and Change
NASA is an organization known for pushing the envelope of engineering and scientific achievement. It can be argued that engineers working for NASA are intrinsically highly motivated due to the nature of the work and the mission of NASA. This study explores how supervisor behaviors, both intrinsic and extrinsic and demographic factors influence motivation of NASA Goddard engineers in their current environment. Recent Congressional and Office of Management and Budget (OMB) policies, such as full cost accounting, levy strict oversight of project spending. As a result of these policies, NASA engineers must now focus their attention on getting assigned work on funded projects in addition to pursuing technical innovation and creativity. The literature is replete with previous studies on motivation of engineers and scientists. These studies investigated Maslow (1970), Vroom (1964), Herzberg (1971), and Deci’s (1975) theories of motivation. Today, the workplace is much more diverse with regard to race, gender, and age. A web-based survey was used to collect data from a sample of engineers at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 260 out of 583 engineers responded to the survey. 238 cases provided useable data for analysis. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed the demographic categories of females and non-whites did not significantly predict the level of motivation of engineers. Age was a significant factor influencing motivation. The age group of 39 and under had less of an influence on motivation and the age group of 40 and over had more of an influence. The over 60 age group had a very significant positive influence on motivation. Other significant factors influencing motivation were: supervisor behaviors, intrinsic factors such as feedback and competence, and extrinsic factors such as benefits, rewards and promotions. The results support the argument that NASA engineers are motivated by getting feedback from their immediate project supervisor, that they feel competent in their jobs, and that the benefits, rewards, and promotions fairly reflect their contribution and loyalty to the mission of NASA.

Committee:

Jon Wergin, PhD (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Holloway, PhD (Committee Member); Carol Baron, PhD (Committee Member); Charles Seashore, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Behaviorial Sciences; Engineering; Gender; Management; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

engineers; NASA; intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation; work motivation; multiple regression; factor analysis; workplace; engineering profession; Hygiene Factors; 2 Factor Theory; scientists; government employees; African-Americans; women engineers

Johnson, Vicki D.Growth Mindset as a Predictor of Smoking Cessation
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2009, College of Education and Human Services
This study examines motivations to quit smoking within the theoretical context of self-theories (Dweck, 2000). It investigates whether self-theories play a significant predictive role in motivating adults to quit smoking. A convenience sample of 197 adult current smokers and ex-smokers in northeast Ohio completed on line or paper versions of the Smoking Questionnaire, an instrument which included the 6-item Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence, 3- items from the Self-Theory of Intelligence Self-Form for Adults, and 23 items constructed by the researcher. Descriptive analyses indicate that the sample was 66% female, 77% white, 83% college educated, and of varied ages and incomes. Stepwise logistic regression analyses reveal 4 predictors of smoking cessation success: self-theory of smoking, the presence of other smokers in the household, annual household income, and strength of intention (motivation) to stop smoking. Logistic regression analyses also indicate that self-theory of smoking and perceived helpfulness of nicotine replacement therapy are statistically significantly predictive of strength of intention (motivation) to stop smoking. Self-theory of intelligence was not a significant predictor of smoking cessation motivation or behavior. Data indicate that self-theory of smoking and self-theory of intelligence are independent and domain specific in this sample. This research indicates that self-theories play a significant role in smoking cessation and that self-theories of smoking are as potent as nicotine replacement therapy in motivating individuals to stop smoking. This research has important implications for cessation program planners and health educators and many implications for additional research on the role of self-theories in health behavior change.

Committee:

Sheila Patterson, PhD (Committee Chair); Joshua Bagaka's, PhD (Committee Member); Cheryl Delgado, PhD (Committee Member); Karl Wheatley, PhD (Committee Member); Kathleen Pantano, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Education; Nursing

Keywords:

smoking cessation; self-theories; motivation; health behavior change; cigarette smoking; mindset; logistic regression; motivation to quit; motivation to stop smoking

Wagner, David N.LEADERSHIP EDUCATION RECONSIDERED: EXAMINING SELF-PERCEIVED LEADERSHIP STYLES AND MOTIVATION SOURCES AMONG UNDERGRADUATE LEADERS
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Leadership Studies
This study examined the relationships between undergraduate leaders’ self-perceptions of their transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and their sources of work motivation. The sample was comprised of 145 elected and appointed leaders at a mid-west university. The survey included both the Motivation Sources Inventory and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Other survey items collected demographic and leadership-experience data. Participants overall scored higher for transformational self-perceived behaviors than for transactional, and higher for intrinsic motivation than extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation related positively to transformational self-perceived behaviors, and extrinsic motivation related positively to transactional self-perceived behaviors. By understanding undergraduates’ self-perceptions of their leadership behaviors and motivation, models and methods can be developed to foster and strengthen perspectives that embrace situational application of transformational and transactional behaviors.

Committee:

Mark Earley (Advisor); William Arnold (Committee Member); Judith Jackson May (Committee Member); Dafina Lazarus Stewart (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Theory; Gender; Higher Education; Organization Theory; Teaching

Keywords:

transformational leadership; transactional leadership; intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation; MLQ; Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire; MSI; Motivation Sources Inventory; undergraduate; student affairs; student development; correlation

Cole, Shana L.When Praise Falls on Deaf Ears: Is the Hedonic Impact of Compliments Muted When it Matters Most?
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2009, Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
When does praise fall on deaf ears? Though compliments may often provide a hefty emotional boost, at times they can fall short of packing their most powerful hedonic punches. In what may be an unfortunate paradox, compliments may feel least good when they come from those people most likely to offer them. In six studies, I explored the relationship between the person delivering a compliment and the affective response the compliment produced. Studies 1 and 2 provide evidence that compliments from loved ones are viewed as less emotionally impactful than compliments from strangers. Studies 3a-3c indicate that these effects are more likely to occur when the compliment is in an important domain and demonstrate that people are motivated to receive accurate feedback in important domains. Study 4 failed to find evidence of source effects when participants were given compliments in the lab. Methodological improvements are discussed and the important implications of this work for understanding how people process social feedback are underscored.

Committee:

Emily Balcetis (Advisor); Mark Alicke (Committee Member); Keith Markman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

social feedback; compliments; emotional consequences; self-assessment motivation; source effects; accuracy motivation

Wolf, Erin L.What are the Similarities and Differences in Fourth and Sixth Grade Reluctant Readers’ Responses to the Motivation to Read Profile?
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Reading

Motivating reluctant readers to read is a problem that needs to be addressed in all classrooms. Students need to be motivated to continue to develop their reading skills and experience some enjoyment of reading. As students progress through school, the expectations for reading increase, and some students begin to lose their motivation to read. This study was designed to examine the similarities and differences in fourth and sixth graders’ responses to the Motivation to Read Profile. In total, 29 students participated in this study, 23 sixth graders and 6 fourth graders. All students in the study were administered the Motivation to Read Profile Reading Survey after they had received parental consent and signed their assent. The researcher used the results of the survey to determine the reluctant readers in each grade level. These six students participated in the Motivation to Read Profile Conversational Interview.

The reading survey showed that fourth graders, overall, had higher means than the sixth grade students’ reading survey means. It should be noted that both fourth and sixth grade students had an overall lower mean for “self-concept as a reader” than they did for “value of reading.” Based on the conversational interviews, it seems students are motivated to read when they have access to books, when they have the opportunity to select their own reading material aligned with their own personal interests, and when others recommend books.

There does not seem to be any appreciable difference between fourth and sixth grade reluctant readers’ responses to the Motivation to Read Profile. While there are many similarities between the grade levels such as they are motivated by access to books, self-selection of books, and book recommendations from others.

Committee:

Nancy Fordham, PhD (Committee Chair); Cindy Hendricks, PhD (Committee Member); Mark Earley, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation

Keywords:

Motivation to Read Profile; Reading; Motivation; Reluctant Readers

Goldstein, VictorLow African-American Student Enrollment in the Post Secondary Vocational Education Step II Program: A Study of Motivational Factors
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2007, Classroom Teacher
A purposive literature review was used in this study to develop a knowledge base on motivational factors impacting enrollment of African-American students in postsecondary vocational education program specifically in the STEP II program. This study examined books, articles, reports, and data from student interviews to understand what motivational factors influence decisions. It was found that low enrollment of African- American students in post-secondary vocational education is not only dependent on motivational factors emanating from the students themselves, but also stem from the institutions that offer training programs.

Committee:

Colleen Dr. Finegan (Advisor)

Keywords:

Post secondary African-American vocational education students; motivation; community college; vocational education in the U.S.; social growth; cognitive development; self-confidence; intelligence; achievement motivation

Grant, StephanieAn Exploration of Motivation Among Collegiate Runners
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2003, Sociology (Arts and Sciences)

This study aims to explore the types of motivation, social support, and self-talk involved in the social psychological nature of collegiate runners. An exploration of past research paired with a theoretical study will work to illustrate the areas of research that have already been touched on in this field of sport sociology, as well as work to illustrate the areas still untouched by scholarly work. A data analysis and discussion of results will give a new perspective on the role motivations as well as other factors play in the lives of the collegiate runner.

Committee:

Debra Henderson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Sociology of

Keywords:

Motivation; College Athletes; Sports; Athletes; Social Support; Intrinsic / Extrinsic Motivation

Kim, MayInfluence of individual difference factors on volunteer willingness to be trained
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Physical Activity and Educational Services
Mainstream training research has shown that trainees’ motivation to learn increases the effectiveness of training (Noe, 2002). Based on this literature, a Conceptual Model of Volunteer Training in sport was proposed. In the current study, the relationships of four individual difference factors (Goal Orientation, Commitment, Self-efficacy, and Motivation to Volunteer) with Willingness to be trained, and the relationships of Willingness to be trained and the four individual different factors with Preference for two different Training methods (Presentation methods and Hands-on methods) were explored. Learning Orientation, Commitment to Organization, and Understanding function of motivation were significantly correlated with Willingness to be trained. However, contrary to expectation, Self-efficacy was positively correlated with Willingness to be trained. The influence of individual difference variables on volunteers’ Preference for Training methods was minimal. Only Learning Orientation, Commitment to Organization, Self-efficacy and Willingness to be trained were significantly related to either Preference for Presentation methods or Preference for Hands-on methods. Thus, the present results confirmed the influence of individual difference factors on volunteers’ Willingness to be trained but do not permit a clear recommendation for the type of the training method to be chosen. In order to develop and provide better training programs for volunteers, follow-up studies testing all suggested relationships in the model should be continued.

Committee:

Packianathan Chelladurai (Advisor)

Keywords:

Volunteer Training; Volunteer Motivation; Training Methods; Willingness to be trained; Goal Orientation; Commitment; Self-efficacy; Motivation; Preference for Training Methods

DeCaro, Daniel AnthonyRefining Self-Determination Theory One Construct at a Time: The Self-Determined Motivation Inventory (SDMI)
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2007, Psychology
Self-determination theory (SDT) lacks a self-report instrument to assess its entire taxonomy of situational motivation. This poses several problems for SDT’s measurement program, including its standardization of motivational indices and its ability to falsify finer predictions involving specific motivational constructs. We addressed these concerns, beginning by validating a complete measure of situational motivation, the Self-Determination Motivation Inventory (SDMI). The SDMI’s subscales – amotivation, external, introjected, identified, integrated, intrinsic – evidenced high reliability, convergent validity with indicators of intrinsic regulation, and predictive validity for problem-solving performance. We used the SDMI subscales to generate a hierarchical regression model of self-determined motivation and problem-solving performance, identifying unprecedented interaction effects among regulatory states. We also demonstrate the utility of a standardized motivational profiling system, used here to predict problem-solving performance. We believe the SDMI reaffirms SDT’s central thesis and contributes to SDT’s theory-building pursuits by refining theorists’ capacities to conceptualize and assess essential constructs.

Committee:

Joseph Johnson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Social

Keywords:

self-determination theory; extrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation; individual differences

Galliger, Courtney CarrollTo Be Or Not To Be…Motivated: A Comparison Of Students' Goal Orientation Within Direct Instruction And Constructivist Schools
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Psychology/Developmental
The goal of this study was to compare students' achievement goal orientation within schools that take a more direct instruction approach to education (e.g., schools that are not affiliated with any educational organization) and schools that take a more constructivist approach to education (e.g., Montessori schools). Participants included 209elementary school students. The results revealed that although Non-affiliated students were more performance oriented than Montessori students, Non-affiliated students and Montessori students had an equal level of mastery orientation. Additionally, the results indicated that both Montessori and Non-affiliated student were more mastery oriented than performance oriented. Lastly, it was found that students' mastery orientation was related to adaptive outcomes.

Committee:

Dara Musher-Eizenman (Advisor); Yiwei Chen (Committee Member); Catherine Stein (Committee Member); Dafina Stewart (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Montessori; Constructivism; Direct Instruction; Student Goal Orientation; Achievement Goal Orientation; Student Motivation; Academic Motivation

Chen, FangDoes an Early Second Language Immersion Experience Impact Student Motivation?
MAE, Otterbein University, 2012, Education
The aim of this study was to determine how an early immersion second language (L2)school experience might impact students’ motivation to learn the target language. The study was conducted in a Spanish Immersion Academy in the Columbus City (Ohio)school district. Students were surveyed about their motivation for learning Spanish. Three K-3 classes were observed and students’ engagement in different kinds of instruction was recorded. Teachers were interviewed in an effort to obtain their views on motivating students. The data collected suggest that learning motivation was highly valued by teachers in the school. Teachers generally reported trends in learner motivation that are consistent with the educational psychology literature that young learners are naturally internally motivated, and that motivation becomes more external and complicated as students age. Where teachers did feel a need to motivate their students, positive reinforcement and well-designed instruction were the two most frequently-adopted motivational strategies cited as important by teachers and observed in the classroom lessons.

Committee:

Wendy Sherman Heckler (Advisor); Patricia Ryan (Committee Member); Kristin Reninger (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation

Keywords:

Early Second Language Immersion; K-3 classes; students&8217; motivation; learning motivation ;

Adkins, Christopher J.Examining the X and Y Generations' Motivation for Choosing Law Enforcement: My How Things Have Changed?
Master of Science in Criminal Justice, Youngstown State University, 2015, Department of Criminal Justice and Forensic Science
The topic of motivation has been researched extensively, including where it affects job satisfaction and performance. Current research suggests that motivating factors may be evolving with younger generations entering the work force. This research was designed to compare current generation law enforcement recruits to recruits from earlier research in terms of preference in self-serving motivations over altruistic motivations. Current police academy cadets (N=176) were surveyed in northeastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania, and were asked about their motivation for choosing a law enforcement career. Statistical analysis of the data included comparisons between groups in the sample and against previous research. This research suggests that law enforcement motivation has remained stable over the past 30 years. The results reflect few significant variations in motivation based on year of birth. Additionally, few significant differences were seen by gender, race, social class, educational levels, and law enforcement and military experience. However, significant variances were present between Ohio and Pennsylvania academies. Future research should focus on comparisons of motivation between states and evaluating motivation changes over time.

Committee:

John Hazy, PhD (Advisor); Richard Rogers, PhD (Committee Member); Gordon Frissora, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Public Administration; Sociology

Keywords:

Law enforcement motivation; Police; Hiring; Recruiting; Motivation; Job satisfaction; Law enforcement

Ralston, Rachel AMotivation activation and the EPPM: Exploring real-time fear appeal processing
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Communication
The present research explored how message processing unfolds over time, and how threat and efficacy components within fear appeals function to arouse fear and exert their persuasive effects. Findings across studies raise questions about how threat and efficacy correspond to perceived fear. The first study developed and validated a codebook for assessing threat and efficacy elements second-by-second throughout the narrative. The study then confirmed that threat and efficacy content predict perceived threat and efficacy, above and beyond the influence of basic negative, positive, and arousing content. The second study found that both perceived threat and efficacy and threat and efficacy content predict perceived fear. However, psychophysiological indicators of emotional arousal, i.e., activation in the appetitive and aversive systems, was sensitive to the influence of threat and efficacy content only. The third study confirmed that post-exposure self-reports of perceived threat and efficacy predicted perceived fear in a manner consistent with the threat-efficacy-fear patterns observed in the previous two studies. It also supported previous findings in the fear appeal literature that fear arousal does not play a direct role in adaptive responses despite theoretical predictions to the contrary. Finally, perceived threat and efficacy were found to have maladaptive effects on message evaluations through fear arousal even though their direct effects on evaluations were adaptive. Future research should explore the possibility that fear and danger control pathways function simultaneously during message processing.

Committee:

Nancy Rhodes (Advisor); Zheng Wang (Committee Member); David Ewoldsen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

Fear appeals, EPPM, motivation activation, LC4MP, dynamic motivation activation framework

Cipiti, Ashley FayeCondense the Nonsense: On-task versus Off-task Sustained Silent Reading as Related to Reading Motivation
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Reading
Sustained Silent Reading is an instructional practice utilized by many schools throughout the world. A decade ago, the National Reading Panel (NICHHD, 2000) reported that it could not conclusively deem Sustained Silent Reading a useful exercise due to a lack of evidence. This study of on-task versus off-task Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) as related to reading motivation, seeks to discover whether students are engaging in on-task behaviors, or off-task behaviors during SSR time, and how this may be related to these same students' reading motivation. The findings of this investigation indicate that in a Northwest Ohio middle school language arts class consisting of 25 students, the majority of students, approximately 77%, are engaging in off-task behaviors during their Sustained Silent Reading time. Results from the instruments utilized in this study also indicate that a 71% correlation exists between on-task or off-task behaviors and students' motivation to read. This precludes that a strong correlation exists between students' motivation to read and their behaviors during SSR.

Committee:

Cindy Hendricks, PhD (Committee Chair); Tracy Huziak-Clark, PhD (Committee Member); Angela Thomas, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

silent reading; reading motivation

Toth, Michele VeronicaExploring a Relationship between Worker' Perceptions of Leaders and Workers' Self-Efficacy in Social Services
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Leadership Studies

Social service programs have existed in society for decades, with many contemporary services tracing origins in Elizabethan times and practices to assist the vulnerable and poor. Philanthropic and government dollars have funded many of these programs. And while programs and social problems have changed over the years, the core of the system to address these issues has not. And while the services and programs have changed over time, the goal and purpose of these have always been to assist clients to change and improve their lives.

These services and programs are provided under the umbrella of many nonprofit social services agencies by front line workers. These front line workers provide a myriad of tasks within the structures of both the funding entity, the organization that employs them, and the supervisors and leaders who provide leadership to guide the process. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the front line workers' perceptions of their supervisors' styles of leadership and the self-efficacy level of those front line workers who motivate social service program clients to change and improve their own lives. The research question generated the following hypotheses: Perceived leadership styles relate to the front-line social service worker's levels of self-efficacy; Transformational and Transcendental/Spiritual leadership styles will have a stronger relationship to front-line worker levels of self-efficacy than transactional and Laissez-faire non-leadership styles; and there will be differences in levels of self-efficacy between subgroups based on gender, age, years in relationship to the supervisor, and education level.

Through the integration of several conceptual frameworks, including leadership theories and self-efficacy, this study used a random sampling method of United Way funded partners in major metropolitan cities in several Midwestern states. United Way funded agencies were invited to participate because of the Live United branding which suggests some degree of philosophical and missional consistencies. Permission from a number of regional United Ways was granted to access the chief executives of funded partner agencies identified as part of the United Way Agenda for Change Education Change Initiative. Chief executives were invited to share an integrated survey instrument composed of the General Self-efficacy Scale, Bass and Avolio's Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire to measure Transformational, Transactional, and Laissez-faire Leadership, and Transcendental/ Spiritual Leadership Assessment with front line workers in these social service agencies. From the random sample of front line worker participants, 103 completed the survey.

Results of descriptive statistics showed that front line workers have a high level of self-efficacy, which was not related to any demographic variables as shown by Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) tests. However, review of the descriptive statistics revealed remarkable characteristics of these front line workers including length of service and age which demonstrated commitment and dedication to their work. Results of Pearson-r correlation tests showed that self-efficacy levels were positively correlated to Transcendental/ Spiritual, Transformational, and Transactional Leadership styles. However, self-efficacy was shown to have a negative correlation to Laissez-faire/ non-leadership.

Conclusions that were drawn by this study were that front line workers showed high levels of self-efficacy for each of the three major leadership styles, with Transcendental/ Spiritual Leadership showing the strongest correlation. This suggested that perhaps front line workers in an organizational culture with a leader who articulates spiritual values may have a higher level of self-efficacy. Results also suggested that front lines workers have a high level of self-efficacy independent of leadership, indicating that perhaps their own professional and personal skills and individual resilience serve to complete the leadership experience rather than depend on it for their self-efficacy.

Implications for practice encourage leaders to seek out training opportunities to expand their own leadership skills and integrate the best practices of each of the three major leadership styles, and to seek out training that explores leadership styles and self-efficacy of workers in a simultaneous study. Further, recognizing the importance of self-efficacy for front line workers, leaders may wish to provide in-service training, professional development and personal reflective opportunities for their workers such as the ones they take for themselves. Lastly, important considerations for recruitment and retention of leaders and managers was offered, including identification of skills, attitudes, and behaviors consistent with Transcendental/ Spiritual and Transformational Leadership to assist organizations transitioning from periods of great difficulty and dysfunction.

Committee:

Patrick Pauken (Advisor); Stephen Ball (Committee Member); Sandra Faulkner (Committee Member); Joyce Litten (Committee Member); Judy Zimmerman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Educational Leadership; Ethics; Management; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior; Social Work; Spirituality; Welfare

Keywords:

Leadership styles; self-efficacy; front line workers; Transformational Leadership; Transcendental/Spiritual Leadership; Transactional Leadership; Empowerment; Motivation; MLQ; Non-profit social service; United Way; Correlation; Analysis of Variance

Beveridge, 'Alim JThe Adoption of Social Innovations by Firms: An Inquiry into Organizational Benevolence
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2013, Organizational Behavior
I propose that current organization theories tend to cast organizations, especially companies, as entities that only pursue their own interests. Thus, existing research on why firms go “beyond compliance” in adopting socially or environmentally beneficial policies or practices depict them as responding to a perceived opportunity to either make gains in financial performance and legitimacy or avoid potential losses in these. I, however, argue that, in some cases, firms may do so because they view benefitting an external constituency as a desirable end in itself. I call this organizational benevolence and suggest that it is likely to be visible in the early adoption of social innovations by companies. I present the results of qualitative and quantitative research on U.S. companies’ adoption of fair trade, a social innovation, which I conducted to inquire into the possible presence of organizational benevolence and to identify its characteristics. In the qualitative study, I found that some interviewees’ accounts of the adoption of fair trade-certified coffee describe a commitment to furthering the well-being of coffee farmers strong enough to take precedence over many other concerns. This commitment was characterized as rooted in organizational identity, reflected in close, long-term relationships with coffee growers, and leading to a willingness to prioritize their material benefits over the firms’. Using two vignette-based decision-making experiments, I tested hypotheses which address the effects of institutional, organizational, situational and individual factors on the decision to have one’s firm adopt fair trade-certified coffee or seafood. I find that, in addition to the extent of current diffusion, decision makers’ interactions with potential beneficiaries and personal characteristics, such as moral identity, can have positive effects on adoption. I conclude that the organizational commitment to secondary stakeholders’ welfare must be fairly strong and salient to have an impact on such adoption decisions.

Committee:

David Cooperrider, PhD (Committee Chair); Ronald Fry, PhD (Committee Member); Chris Laszlo, PhD (Committee Member); Jagdip Singh, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

altruism, benevolence, social innovation, diffusion, adoption, motivation, commitment, collective commitment, affinity, beneficence, corporate social responsibility, environmental responsibility, decision-making, ethical decision-making, framing, egoism

Bays, Kimberly DawnConceptualization of Teachers Role in Urban Student Motivation
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2003, Educational Psychology
Teacher’s perceptions of and strategies to increase motivation in students were examined. Seventeen teachers from two urban high schools were utilized in this study. The teachers responded to a survey comprised of thirty questions exploring teacher concept of motivation, classroom strategies and teacher attitudes toward students. Focus groups looked into the subject further. Frequencies were tallied for each survey question. All of the respondents saw motivating their students as part of their role. The teachers defined motivation as a noun, verb, or verb involving a teacher action. Those who defined it as a teacher action saw instilling motivation as an important task for the teacher to undertake and cultivate within their students. The strategies to increase motivation that teacher’s listed fell into two main categories: variety and relevance. The relationship between teacher and student, and the effect it had on motivation levels was also explored.

Committee:

Gerri Mosley-Howard (Advisor)

Keywords:

urban teacher motivation student

Ludewig, Annika BeatriceTHE PERCEPTIONS OF ATHLETES AND ATHLETIC TRAINERS ON THE MOTIVATION AND SOCIAL SUPPORT OF INJURED ATHLETES DURING REHABILITATION
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2007, Athletic Training (Health and Human Services)

This study examined both athletes’ and athletic trainers’ perceptions on motivation and social support of injured athletes during rehabilitation. Investigating how athletic trainers motivate athletes and give social support to perform his/her rehabilitation provides insight to the impact athletic trainers have in caring for and rehabilitating injuries. Two electronic surveys, the athletic trainer survey and the athlete survey were constructed using Survey Monkey. Data were collected on the perceived motivation of injured athletes in rehabilitation, the injured athletes’ and athletic trainers’ views of motivation, and the athletic trainers’ role in motivating the injured athlete and provide social support in rehabilitation. Data analysis with an ANOVA indicated athletic trainers’ vital role in the motivation and social support of injured athletes during rehabilitation. Athletic trainers were identified as the most important individual in motivating and providing reality confirmation, task appreciation, task challenge, and emotional challenge and support.

Committee:

Jeffrey Seegmiller (Advisor)

Keywords:

Motivation; Social Support; Rehabilitation; Athletes; Athletic trainers; Sport psychology

Dyer, Christopher J.Examining College Students' Perceptions of iPad Usage on Motivation, Organization, and Cognitive Skills
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2013, Curriculum and Teaching
This qualitative study sought to explore the impacts of iPads on college students in a one-to-one deployment program. More specifically, the researcher wanted to determine how the iPad impacted students' cognitive skills, motivation to learn, and organization. The research question asked: "What are college students' perceptions of how iPads impact their cognitive skills, motivation, and organization?" iPads were distributed to eight students in a Midwestern state college to use on a 24/7 basis within a one-to-one deployment program. These students were all enrolled in the same Introduction to Social Studies Education course taught by Dr. Benson. Students were allowed to use their iPads in other classes and at home as well. Data collection employed a triangulation format as proposed by Miles and Huberman (1984). The three types of data collection during the 10-week study included: 10 classroom observations, and journal responses and matrix fill-ins students had to complete on a biweekly basis. The data was analyzed according to Erickson's model of coding (1985) and organized in regards to the three main categories from the research question framework. The coded data made it clear that students saw a clear improvement in their organization and cognitive skills because of the iPad. Specifically they enjoyed being able to keep their class materials in one location and the positive impacts on their cognitive skills. Students reported an initial increase in their motivation, but those feelings did not remain constant through the entirety of the study. These results should serve as a starting point for discussion about the relevance and effectiveness of one-to-one iPad deployment programs in college environments.

Committee:

Nancy Patterson (Advisor); Savilla Banister (Committee Member); Tracy Huziak-Clark (Committee Member); Timothy Murnen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Technology; Higher Education; Teacher Education; Teaching; Technology

Keywords:

iPad use; one-to-one deployment; motivation; cognitive skills; organization

Strout, Kody L.Average, Below Average, And Above Average First Grade Students' Beliefs about Using E-Books to Activate Interest and Motivation in Reading
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Reading
Engaging all students in selecting books that are personally meaningful and interestingare key components to helping students become motivated readers. In the past, teachers used methods and resources such as teacher read aloud and narrated audio recordings to gain student interest, motivation, and teach reading skills. With the advancements of educational technologies such as SMART Boards, computers, and the Internet, e-books are a tool that can be incorporated through the use of all of the above technologies. Schools may not be taking full advantage of these available tools. Since e-books may not be used as often as they could be, student interest and motivation may be suffering. Therefore, students are not choosing to read on a regular basis and their interests, feelings and perceptions may not be as positive as one may like. A total of nine students were recruited to participate in this study. Students were selected and categorized by reading ability level of average, below average, and above average based upon their Developmental Reading Assessment score. Each student was sent home with a consent form and signed an assent form the day of the study. During the study, students sat down for a 30 minute, one-on-one instructional session where they were introduced to e-books. They then listened to a paperback book read and answered survey and interview questions determining their individual interests, feelings, and perceptions toward the e-books. Using the category “great” from the survey as a benchmark, average students had the least interest in e-books. Below average students had the highest interest in e-books. Above average students had more interest in e-books than average students, but not has much interest as below average students. Above average students had most positive feelings toward e-books and the most positive perceptions toward e-books. Overall, the consensus among first grade students' beliefs about e-books is that they all would choose to read more often if e-books were included in their classroom.

Committee:

Cindy Hendricks, PhD (Committee Chair); Nancy Fordham, PhD (Committee Member); Cynthia Bertelsen, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Reading Instruction

Keywords:

Motivation; Interest; E-Books; First Grade; Average; Below Average; Above Average

More, Kristen M.Considering an Integrative Theory of the Values Construct: An Empirical Test of the Values as Goals Proposition Based on Perceptual Control Theory
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2012, Industrial/Organizational Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
The body of literature surrounding the study of motivation is often criticized for the plethora of research that has emerged from varying theoretical perspectives. The purpose of this dissertation was to test part of an integrative theory of the role of values in motivation based on perceptual control theory. Specifically, the values construct was reviewed using the process-content framework. The review concluded that values have been treated in two ways in motivation theory: a) as desired end-states (i.e., goals) and b) as a level of attractiveness or satisfaction. An empirical examination of the values as goals hypothesis based on perceptual control theory was conducted. It was expected that participants would learn to associate a task for which they received praise with the value of being well-respected (i.e., instrumentality). Additionally, receiving praise for performance on a task should influence the anticipated value (i.e., valence) of completing a second task for which participants previously learned they would receive praise and that receiving praise for performance on a task would influence participant's future task choice. Finally, the study explored whether receiving praise on a task prior to learning influenced the strength of a learned association. Though findings demonstrate support for a learned association between a task and value system (Hypothesis 1), I failed to find support for the remaining hypotheses. Thus, I found no evidence to support the proposition that values function as higher-level goals. Both methodological and theoretical considerations that may have contributed to this lack of findings are discussed.

Committee:

Jeffrey Vancouver, PhD (Committee Chair); Paula Popovich, PhD (Committee Member); Rodger Griffeth, PhD (Committee Member); Claudia Gonzalez-Vallejo, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Tucker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

motivation; values; Perceptual Control Theory

Zhang, BiwuChina’s Perception of the US: An Exploration of China’s Foreign Policy Motivations
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2002, Political Science
“China threat” has been one of hotly debated topics since the early 1990s. But there have been very few systematic attempts to test the relevant propositions in this debate. This dissertation is an effort to test the China threat thesis. The author argues that a test of the China threat thesis requires addressing two fundamental questions: whether China has the capabilities to challenge the international system and whether China has the motivations to do so. As there has been an abundance of scholarly works focusing on the subject of China’s capabilities, and hardly any systematic efforts to address the subject of China’s motivations, this dissertation will offer a systematic study of China’s motivations, i.e. to see whether China is a status quo or a revisionist country. For this purpose, this dissertation resorts to an image approach. The author argues that the formulation of a state’s foreign policy is affected basically by two considerations: the national interest involved in bilateral relations and key characters of a target state. Consequently, image study as an approach to study a state’s foreign policy should include these two parts. In terms of the interests involved in the bilateral relations, this project will explore the Chinese perception of threat from the US, namely how interactions with the US are perceived as harming China’s national interests, the Chinese perception of opportunity from the US, namely how relations with the US are perceived as serving China’s national interests, and the Chinese perception of American power/capabilities, namely how Chinese perceive the US as superior, similar, or inferior to China and other countries in various major dimensions of national power. In terms of key characters of the US, this project will explore China’s perceptions of American politics and economy. In doing so, the author will try not only to update the description in the existing literature, which usually focus on the Chinese perceptions before and around 1990, but also to structure the description so as to shed light on China’s foreign policy orientation. The conclusion as to whether China is a status quo or a revisionist country will be reached by exploring how consideration of national interests and how China’s perception of key characters of the US affect China’s foreign policy orientation. A summary of the dominant Chinese images of the US will also contribute to understanding China’s motivations vis-a-vis the US.

Committee:

Richard Herrmann (Advisor)

Keywords:

US-China relations; motivation; image; perception; foreign policy decision making; China threat

Ye, FeifeiDiagnostic assessment of urban middle school student learning of pre-algebra patterns
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Educational Policy and Leadership
As a route into algebra, patterns are emphasized in the middle school curriculum as an approach to algebra and provide transition for students from arithmetic thinking into algebraic thinking. Diagnostic assessment of student learning of patterns is helpful to the understanding of student abilities with solving pattern problems, and to teacher instruction and student learning. In a social-cognitive context, diagnostic assessment in the classroom context is an assessment event related to students’ motivation, task values, self-efficacy, and efforts. Understanding the role of classroom assessment in student motivation and achievement is important to teachers and students. In the framework of Evidence Centered Design, this study developed three sets of assessment tasks to diagnose student learning of numeric patterns in a 9-week instruction period of patterns and functions in 8th grade math classes in an urban school district. Further, it depicted classroom assessment related beliefs and behaviors including self-efficacy, task value, achievement goal orientations (task-mastery, performance-approach, and work-avoidant), effort, and learning strategies across the three assessment events. Student proficiencies in linear, quadratic, and geometric patterning were highly correlated. Correlation among them varied across the assessment events, suggesting different changing patterns. For linear and quadratic patterning, students’ proficiency increased during the instruction, but the increase was curvilinear with a downward trend. There was between-person heterogeneity in initial proficiency scores and growth trajectories. For geometric patterning, the growth trajectory was linear with heterogeneity in initial proficiency scores. Implications on instruction were discussed. Task-mastery and performance goal orientations, task value, and self-efficacy were consistently positively correlated. Task-mastery goal orientation was positively related to effort and active learning strategy use. The changing patterns of the studied beliefs and behaviors were different. Student perceptions of task value, task-mastery and performance goal orientations were decreasing across the assessment events. The relationship between changes in the studied beliefs and behaviors and changes in student proficiencies was varied. Initial achievement was positively related to self-efficacy, task-mastery goal orientation and effort, and negatively related to work-avoidant goal orientation. The growth rate of student proficiencies was related to the changing rate of self-efficacy, task-mastery and work-avoidant goal orientations, and the constant effort.

Committee:

William Loadman (Advisor)

Keywords:

diagnostic assessment; classroom assessment; motivation; achievement; patterns in pre-algebra

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