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Early, Jared WBusiness Opportunity Analysis of Wearable and Wireless Electromyography Sensors in Athletics
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Physics
An athlete’s quality of training has impacts on their long-term performance. Suboptimal training then prevents and athlete from achieving their full potential. The scope of the work focuses on the feasibility of a technology based on a wearable and wireless electromyography sensor to detect the onset of muscle fatigue in elite athletes. The work analyzes the biophysics of electromyography, techniques to measure muscle fatigue, and the business opportunities available. The analysis found that successfully measuring fatigue using electromyography sensors provide a difficult challenge and building a business around the technology may cause poor returns on investment. The innovation is better served when championed by a company that has the resources to develop the technology, not a startup.

Committee:

Edward Caner (Advisor); Robert Brown (Committee Member); Michael Martens (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biophysics; Business Costs; Physics

Keywords:

Electromyography, physics, biophysics, wearables, IoT, wireless, sensors, business analysis, business opportunity, athlete, athletics

Bhowmick, SatyajitA Fog-based Cloud Paradigm for Time-Sensitive Applications
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Engineering and Applied Science: Computer Science
Fog computing is a recently proposed computing paradigm that extends cloud computing and services to the edge of the network which is the entry point to the core network (e.g., router is located at the edge of a network). The new features offered by fog computing (e.g., storage, distributed analytics and intelligence at the edge of the network), if successfully applied for time-sensitive applications, has great potential to accelerate the discovery of early notification of emergency situations to support smart decision making. While promising, how to design and develop real-world fog computing-based data monitoring systems is still an open question. As a first step to answer this question, in this research, we employ a fog-based cloud paradigm for time-sensitive applications and show the practical applicability and significance of such a system. The ubiquitous deployment of mobile and sensor devices is creating a new environment, namely the Internet of Things (IoT), which enables a wide range of future Internet applications. In this work, we present dynamic fog, a high level programming model for time-sensitive applications that are geospatially distributed, large–scale, and latency–sensitive. We also analyze use cases for the fog model with real-time healthcare data. Our experiments show that our proposed system achieves minimum delay compared to fogless systems, while it also achieves the data accuracy and data consistency which are very important in many applications like medical applications.

Committee:

Paul Talaga (Committee Chair); Karen Davis (Committee Member); Nan Niu (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

IoT;Cloud;Fog computing;Time-sensitive applications

Badokhon, AlaaAn Adaptable, Fog-Computing Machine-to-Machine Internet of Things Communication Framework
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, EECS - Computer Engineering
The Internet of Things as a concept is ever-evolving. Its construct revolves around the formation of Internet-connected "Things." This thesis introduces an adaptable, expandable and modular IoT communication framework. It facilitates platform-agnostic client compatibility and inherently adopts several data types and connection schemes. To demonstrate its modularity the framework integrates several modules on the nodes level, including End-User management, Hot-Plug peripherals, Autonomous Event Handling and End-to-End Message Encryption. A distributed messaging scheme along with network traffic analysis connecting to a single server (XMPP) have been conducted to validate the framework's interoperability and expandability. Results show that adding more nodes and increasing messaging frequency on nodes generates network traffic exponentially. Implementing XMPP allows for server-to-server communication on the application protocol layer, thus reducing the domain-centric network overhead. This framework opens the opportunity for future integration of modules, their features, and the analysis of IoT data in the broader scope.

Committee:

Chris Papachristou, Dr. (Committee Chair); Ming-Chun Huang, Dr. (Committee Member); Michael Rabinovich, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Information Systems; Information Technology; Systems Design

Keywords:

Fog-Computing; Mobile-Edge Computing; M2M; Application Layer; Communication Framework; Internet of Things; IoT; XMPP; Node-Centric, Autonomous Event Handling or Processing; Node to Node Communication; Peer to Peer Communication; Platform-Agnostic; Network

Guttman, JeremyPolymer-based Tunnel Diodes Fabricated using Ultra-thin, ALD Deposited, Interfacial Films
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2016, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Conjugated p-p bonded polymers offer a wide range of new electronic devices which have developed as a unique niche in the marketplace with an ever-growing need for integration. In particular, polymer-based tunnel diodes (PTDs) which exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature can be integrated with other novel components to realize memory and logic cells for highly manufacturable, roll-to-roll (R2R) printed electronics. The research presented here focuses primarily on the fabrication and operating principles behind PTDs. By incorporating an ultra-thin TiO2 interfacial tunneling barrier into a modified organic light emitting diode (OLED) structure, reproducible NDR can be realized. By varying the properties of the interfacial tunneling oxide, characteristics of NDR such as the peak-valley-current-ratio (PVCR), peak current density (J_peak), and the voltage at the peak density (V_peak) can be improved for memory and logic. This work successfully demonstrates room temperature NDR in PTDs using ultra-thin TiO2 interfacial tunneling barriers grown via atomic layer deposition (ALD). The intention of this work is to present a viable prototype PTD using ALD to deposit the tunneling barrier. By taking a look at the physical and electrical behavior behind the ALD deposited films, a better understanding can be gained on the nature of interfacial layer. It is suggested that localized defect states caused by oxygen vacancies induced during oxide growth is behind the tunneling behavior observed in the PTDs. By controlling the oxide growth, the crystal structure can be altered in order modify the oxygen vacancy concentration and therefore improve PVCR. Therefore, a key aspect of this thesis will be to observe how morphology, realized through varying temperature of ALD growth, can affect device characteristics. Additionally, to fully classify these devices, the physics behind the electrical operation needs to be further evaluated. Mapping the properties of the various materials through experimentation and modeling will serve as the starting place for future work to come. Finally, this thesis is part of an ongoing exploration for low-power, low-cost printed electronics. Therefore, a key aspect of this work is to present an argument for a printable process on a flexible, plastic substrate, and as such the requirement for a low temperature deposition is imperative. Low temperature ALD can come in the form of alternative precursors or alternative tunneling oxides. Moreover, by choosing to use alternative oxides, lower power NDR appearing at lower voltages may be realized. This study begins the work on finding alternative tunneling oxides that demonstrate similar oxygen vacancies observed in TiO2 films. In this case, Ta2O5 replaces TiO2 as the tunneling barrier. The initial data is promising, demonstrating a drop in the NDR voltage by approximately half compared to its TiO2 counterpart. Moreover, this work bolsters the claim that NDR is the result of a trap-based tunneling event through a defined defect band in the ALD deposited tunneling oxides. Though this thesis focuses solely on PTDs, the materials and processes demonstrated can be applied towards research interested in the conductivity properties of metal-oxides in addition to being useful for further work performed in the field of plastic electronics.

Committee:

Paul Berger (Advisor); George Valco (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry; Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Nanoscience; Nanotechnology; Organic Chemistry; Physical Chemistry; Physics; Plastics; Polymer Chemistry; Solid State Physics; Technology

Keywords:

polymer; organic; NDR; Negative Differential Resistance; Tunneling; IoT; Internet of Things; ALD; Atomic Layer Deposition; TiO2; Ta2O5; Memory; Logic; Low-power; flexible; printable; disposable; thin-film; oxygen vacancy; metal-oxide; defect; solid-state

Prakash, AbhinavRendering Secured Connectivity in a Wireless IoT Mesh Network with WPAN's and VANET's
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Engineering and Applied Science: Computer Science and Engineering
A ubiquitous pervasive network incorporates today’s Internet of Things/Internet of Everything Paradigm: Everything becomes smart with at least one microprocessor and a network interface. All these are under an umbrella of IoT/IoE paradigm where everything is network capable and connected. In most of the cases, these devices have multiple microprocessors and network interfaces at their disposal. In such a scenario, bringing every application to specific network on the same platform is critical, specifically for Sensor Networks, Cloud, WPANs and VANETs. While, enforcing and satisfying the requirements of CIA triad with non-repudiation universally is critical as this can solve multiple existing problems of ISM band exhaustion, leading to excessive collisions and contentions. Cooperative Interoperability also enables universal availability of data across all platforms which can be reliable and fully synchronized. Plug and play universal usability can be delivered. Such a network necessitates robust security and privacy protocols, spanning uniformly across all platforms. Once, reliable data access is made available, it leads to an accurate situation aware decision modeling. Simultaneous multiple channel usage can be exploited to maximize bandwidth otherwise unused. Optimizing Content delivery in hybrid mode which will be the major chunk of network traffic as predicted for near future of IoE. Now, such a proposed hybrid network does sound very complicated and hard to establish and maintain. However, this is the future of networks with huge leaps of technological advancement and ever dropping prices of hardware coupled with immensely improved capabilities, such a hybrid ubiquitous network can be designed and deployed in a realistic scenario. In this work, we go through not only looking into the issues of the large scale hybrid WMN, but also minutely discovering every possible scenario of direct mesh clients or sub-nets (VANET, Cloud or BAN) associated to it. Further, we propose to design and implement a robust all around security and privacy for each and every possible unit of such a large network. Special focus is provided to the application of a BAN in medical usage with intricate details is provided in form of our recent endeavor, along with an ongoing work for a wearable device patent, Smart Shoe (Patent Pending). The concepts explained with this example are equally applicable to any such Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN’s).

Committee:

Dharma Agrawal, D.Sc. (Committee Chair); Richard Beck, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Yizong Cheng, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Rashmi Jha, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Wen-Ben Jone, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Marepalli Rao, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

IoT;Mesh Networks;Security;Ubiquitous Networks;Vehicular Networks;Cryptography