Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are one type of ad hoc networks with data-collecting function. Because of the low-power, low-cost features, WSN attracts much attention from both academia and industry. However, since WSN is driven by batteries and the multi-hop transmission pattern introduces energy hole problem, energy management of WSN became one of fundamental issues.
In this dissertation, we study the energy management strategies for WSNs. Firstly, we propose a packets propagation scheme for both deterministic and random deployment of WSNs so to prolong their lifetime. The essence of packets propagation scheme is to control transmission power so as to balance the energy consumption for the entire WSN. Secondly, a characteristic correlation based data aggregation approach is presented. Redundant information during data collection can be effectively mitigated so as to reduce the packets transmission in the WSN. Lifetime of WSN is increased with limited overhead. Thirdly, we also provide a two-tier lifetime optimization strategy for wireless visual sensor network (VSN). By deploying redundant cheaper relay nodes into existing VSN, the lifetime of VSN is maximized with minimal cost. Fourthly, our two-tier visual sensor network deployment is further extended considering multiple base stations and image compression technique. Last but not the least, description of UC AirNet WSN project is presented. At the end, we also consider future research topics on energy management schemes for WSN.