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Bruno, Amy JDo Mathematics and Test Anxiety Influence the Decision to Drop Out?
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2015, School Psychology
GED students and non-traditional adult learners are a vastly understudied population within the field of school psychology. However, we do know that individuals who do not have a high school diploma or GED have poorer life outcomes than their counterparts with high school diplomas and degrees from universities. This study examined the levels of mathematics and test anxiety in a sample of students enrolled in GED courses in order to see if a relationship existed between high academic anxiety levels and the decision to “drop out” of high school. Additionally, this study provides qualitative insight to the rationale adult learners had for leaving high school and returning to get their GED, as well as aspirations they have for their futures and how earning their GED will help them attain those goals. Significant findings, future directions for study of this population of learners, and implications for practitioners are addressed.

Committee:

Susan Mosley-Howard (Advisor); Amity Noltemeyer (Committee Member); Paul Flaspohler (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Continuing Education; Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Mathematics Education; School Administration; School Counseling; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Teacher Education; Teaching; Vocational Education

Keywords:

dropout, drop out, adult learner, GED students, GED, school climate, anxiety, mathematics anxiety, test anxiety, high school dropout

Rivera, Christina A.The identification of key factors student-athletes perceived to be important to the college student-athlete retention process
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Educational Policy and Leadership
The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors student-athletes perceived to be important in their decision-making to stay in school. To accomplish this purpose, it was necessary to: 1) construct a conceptual model of student-athlete retention based upon the literature associated with traditional student retention and the college student-athlete experience, 2) utilize the conceptual model of student-athlete retention to guide the creation of an instrument that captures student-athlete perceptions of factors important to the retention process, and 3) use exploratory factor analysis to extract meaningful factors underlying the items of the instrument. Participants in this study consisted of 330 NCAA Division I student-athletes attending a large west coast university. Using the Understanding College Student-Athlete Retention Questionnaire developed for this study, data were collected in person during a team meeting for each participating sport. A total of 42 items, one question regarding intent to leave, and 17 demographic questions were included in the questionnaire. The Likert-scaled items were measured on a six-point scale ranging from Not Important (1) to Very Important (6) with the Importance scale referring to how important each statement is to the participant's decision to stay in school. Principal components analysis with VARIMAX rotation extracted a four-factor model. Cronbach's alpha and split-half (Spearman-Brown) reliability coefficients were calculated for the instrument and for each extracted factor. The questionnaire had a reliability coefficient of .930, whereas each factor had a reliability coefficient greater than or equal to .784. Forty-one of the 42 items included in the questionnaire loaded onto one of four factors: Quality of Academic Experience, Quality of Athletic Experience, In-Network Support, and Out-Of-Network Support. These four factors reflect what student-athletes perceived to be important to the student-athlete retention process. Factor scores were also calculated for each factor based on intent to leave. Results indicated that respondents who did not have intentions of leaving school early placed a significantly higher level of importance on the Quality of Academic Experience, whereas respondents who did have intentions of leaving school early placed a significantly higher level of importance on the Quality of Athletic Experience.

Committee:

Ada Demb (Advisor)

Keywords:

student-athletes; retention; attrition; dropout; dropping out; dropout process; college athletics; college athletes; intercollegiate athletics; college sports

Reynolds, David JeromePREMATURE TERMINATION: THE PATIENT'S PERSPECTIVE
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Arts and Sciences : Psychology
This thesis compares patients who prematurely terminated psychological services to those who completed or continued treatment. It examines between-group differences in demographic and clinical variables, including patients' opinions about their therapists as well as their responses to open-ended questions regarding hopes, surprises, and the most and least effective aspects of treatment. Premature terminators are defined as patients who stop psychological services before meeting their treatment goals - as judged by their therapist - with or without informing the therapist. Data were collected as part of a larger naturalistic study of the effectiveness of a waiting-list group, which patients could attend after their initial interview but before they were assigned a therapist at a university-affiliated urban mental health center. The data clarify the consistent finding that race, education, and income have a low to moderate relationship with premature termination. Compared to completer/continuers, premature terminators were more likely to be African-American, less educated, and report less income. While premature terminators did not differ from completer/continuers in terms of symptom discomfort, as measured by the OQ-45, they rated as significantly lower their overall benefit from treatment, and the extent to which their therapists were likable, understanding, and gave good advice. Patient ratings of getting good advice and being understood emerged as the best predictors from among other variables that included race- and gender-based matching of patient to therapist, patient ratings of therapist abilities, prior inpatient or outpatient experience, education, occupational status, occupational type, and reported monthly income. Good advice and understanding together predicted 34% of the variance and correctly classified 71% of patients in a bivariate logistic regression. A similar percentage of the two groups reported medication and talking one-on-one as "hoped for" treatments and experienced "talking" as the most effective part of treatment. Few members of either group reported positive or negative surprises with treatment.

Committee:

Edward Klein (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

PSYCHOTHERAPY; TERMINATION; DROPOUT

Karmas, ConstantineProgress through college : determinants of successful completion of each undergraduate year /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1974, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

College dropouts;Dropout behavior

Valerius, Kristin SundstromAn Exploration of Racial Disparities in High School Dropout From an Ecological Developmental Perspective
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Arts and Sciences : Psychology

During 2004 in the United States, 3.8 million youth between 16-24 had dropped out of school and were at substantial risk for unemployment, psychological difficulties, and contact with welfare and criminal justice systems. Despite decades of research, trends in school dropout have remained stagnant and minority youth continue to graduate at lower rates than White youth. The purpose of this research was to explore dropout by prospectively identifying childhood predictors across multiple developmental domains (i.e., neighborhood, family, peer, and academic) and determine how these domains attenuated the racial disparity in graduation rates.

Secondary analyses were conducted from a longitudinal project investigating the social functioning of chronically ill children and comparison peers. Data were collected from peer, parent, and self-report when children were ages 8-15 and after age 18. Twenty-four percent of students were identified as having dropped out, and the odds that a Black student dropped out were eight times that of a White student. Dropout rates did not vary as a function of gender and health-status.

Stepwise analyses assessed associations between individual predictors and dropout. Neighborhood unemployment increased the risk of dropout, while the proportion of upper-income neighbors and workforce non-participation decreased the risk. Family SES and maternal responsiveness decreased the risk. Social aggression increased the risk. Finally, IQ and academic competence decreased the the risk of dropout. Black students evidenced greater risk across all predictors except academic competence. Hierarchical logistic regression indicated that each developmental domain made a unique, direct contribution in predicting dropout. Together the domains clearly distinguished individuals who dropped out versus those that graduated. Racial disparity in dropout was reduced by almost 70% following the inclusion of the neighborhood, family, and social domains, but increased somewhat after the inclusion of the academic domain in the predictive model. Overall, although proximal risk factors (e.g., academic) contributed more to the prediction of dropout, the distal risk factors (e.g., neighborhood and family poverty) were more successful at reducing the association between race and dropout. Analyses suggest that school graduation must be viewed as a broad, developmental, multilevel challenge, with a childhood etiology. Directions for future research and public policy interventions are discussed.

Committee:

Kathryn Vannatta (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Developmental

Keywords:

High school dropout; Racial Disparities; Neighborhood effects; Socioeconomic status

Giraldo Garcia, Regina JINDIVIDUAL, FAMILY, AND INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS THAT PROPEL LATINO/A STUDENTS BEYOND HIGH SCHOOL
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2014, College of Education and Human Services
The study was designed to determine the extent to which individual and institutional support variables can predict Latino/a students successful completion of high school and enrollment in post-secondary institutions in the U.S. Current research suggests that the Hispanic population will constitute approximately 25% of the national workforce in the USA by the year 2050. However, according to the NCES (2002) data, the high level of dropout rates from high school among Latino/a (11.5 for males and 10.3 for females) is alarming. The study examined individual student factors as well as institutional and family variables that may enhance the likelihood of Latino/a students completion of secondary education and enrollment in post-secondary institutions. Using the 2002-2006 Education Longitudinal Study data, consisting of a sample of 2,217 Latino/a students, the binary logistic regression model identified students socioeconomic status, their educational aspirations as well as the aspirations of their parents, and school support programs to be significant predictors of high school completion as well as enrollment in post-secondary education. The findings indicate significant differences between the predictive power of the individual and institutional variables on the completion of high school and enrollment in post-secondary institutions of first, second and third generations of Latino/a students in the U.S. In this study, females of first and second generation Latino/a students were found to be two times more likely than males in the same group to complete high school on time. This trend did not apply to third generation female students who were found to be less likely than males of the same group to complete high school on time, with males holding 20% more chances of completion of high school. The presence of institutional based Dropout Prevention Programs was significantly associated with less likelihood of Completion of High School and Enrollment in Post-Secondary Institution across all generation of Latino/a students. The presence of Mentoring Programs was found to significantly predict Completion of High School only for second and third generation of students, and Enrollment in Post-Secondary Institutions only for third generation Latino/a students. The model correctly classified approximately 79 percent of the observations. The findings contribute towards drawing new conclusions regarding Latino/a students completion of high school and their enrollment in post-secondary institutions in the U.S. The study also informs educational policies regarding school environment and institutional support available for Latino/a students in the U.S. The study recommends that schools should design targeted support programs in order to enhance Latino/a students success beyond high school. Further research to study the phenomenon of Latino/a students completion of high school and enrollment in post-secondary institutions, targeting areas with high concentration of Latino/as in the U.S. is recommended.

Committee:

Joshua Bagaka's (Committee Co-Chair); Anne Galletta (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Higher Education; Hispanic Americans; Minority and Ethnic Groups

Keywords:

Academic attainment; High School; Latino-a Students; Institutional Support; College Enrollment; Dropout Prevention Programs; Mentoring Programs; Family; Educational Aspirations

Willis, Renee T.The Effect of a Dropout Prevention Program for Black High School Males in the Cleveland Metropolitan School District
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2012, College of Education and Human Services
There is a new endangered species in this country – the black male. The education of the black male in the United States has recently garnered much-needed national attention. Two national reports in 2010 have heightened the awareness of the fact that the black male student is not successfully navigating our public school systems, often dropping out. Unfortunately, it now appears that this chorus of pessimism has entrenched itself in the minds of black boys, teachers, and even parents. At the very least, there are economic and moral reasons as to why we must help our black male students graduate from high school. The future of an entire race hangs in the balance of this crisis, as well as the economic devastation that results from the numbers of black males that are not becoming productive, wage earning citizens – but rather populating our penal system in disproportionate rates. This study will examine the effectiveness of a targeted intervention for this targeted population. The first cohort to participate in this intervention graduated June, 2011 after having participated for four years while in high school. This study is comprised of a mixed method research design, as there will be a clear quantitative data analysis comparing pre-intervention data to post-intervention data. Complementing that analysis will be documented anecdotal interviews with some of the students in this initial cohort. The quantitative analysis will show whether the intervention was effective or not, while the documented voices of the participants will reveal salient themes or variables related to the intervention. If confirmed that the fundamental logic of this type of program is sound, then the information will prove to be invaluable for districts across the nation.

Committee:

Frederick Hampton, EdD (Committee Chair); Brian Harper, PhD (Committee Member); Deborah Morin, PhD (Committee Member); Ronnie Dunn, PhD (Committee Member); Paul Williams, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

dropout prevention; black males; closing achievement gaps; mentoring; exposure trips; culturally relevant teaching

Howard, Kristen PaigeTherapist-Relevant Constructs Predicting Treatment Dropout
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2017, Psychology
Dropout from psychotherapy is an important issue in treatment provision and research. Therapist-related factors that serve to reduce this risk are essential to elucidate given the consequences of premature dropout. The therapeutic alliance is a commonly studied component of psychotherapy (Martin, Garske, & Davis, 2000) and may reduce the risk of dropout from treatment (Cooper et al., 2016; Principe, Marci, Glick, & Ablon, 2006; Tryon & Kane, 1995; Wnuk et al., 2013). Although less well-studied, validation and invalidation are also theorized to be important constructs in therapy outcomes (Linehan, 1997; Lynch, Chapman, Rosenthal, Kuo, & Linehan, 2006). However, these variables have received limited attention in regard to dropout research. I examined the relation between these therapist-relevant constructs (i.e., therapeutic alliance, validation, and invalidation) and dropout from treatment. Participants included clients in psychotherapy (n = 52; 79% female; 83% Caucasian) and therapists (n = 22; 68% female; 86% Caucasian) in three graduate training clinics. Clients, therapists, and outside observers rated therapist validation, invalidation, and the therapeutic alliance (alliance was only rated by clients and therapists) across four early sessions of therapy (i.e., sessions 3-7). Scores for each construct were averaged across the four sessions and examined as predictors of client dropout from treatment. Client ratings of therapist validation, invalidation, and the alliance all independently predicted dropout. Clients who reported a strong alliance and more therapist validation were less likely to dropout, while higher ratings of invalidation predicted a greater risk of dropout. Therapist and observer ratings of these constructs were unrelated to dropout. With regard to these therapist-relevant constructs, only the client’s view significantly predicted treatment dropout. Assessing and attending to client perceptions of alliance and validation/invalidation by the therapist early in treatment, through brief self-reports, can alert therapists to clients at greater risk and, thus, possibly prevent further dropout.

Committee:

Jennifer Cheavens, Ph.D. (Advisor); Daniel Strunk, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Laura Wagner, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Therapy

Keywords:

dropout, validation, invalidation, alliance

Zeigler, WilliamThe use of expectancy theory to explain and predict persistence in adult education /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1980, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Adult education dropouts;Dropout behavior

Roma, Anne E.Contextual Predictors of High School Dropout for Latino Immigrant Youth
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Social Welfare
Latino immigrant youth are particularly at risk of dropping out of school (Callahan, 2013; Rumberger, 2000, 2011; Swanson, 2009). Historically, it has been assumed that immigrants to the United States will experience increased levels of economic, social and educational success with longer exposure to American culture and educational systems (Alba, Kasintz, & Waters, 2007; Portes & Zhou, 1993; Portes & Fernandez-Kelly, 2008), but segmented assimilation theory posits that today’s immigrant youth can no longer expect this upward trajectory. Growing empirical evidence suggesting Latino immigrant youth may have unique risk and protective factors as well as experience individual, family and neighborhood factors differently than do European- and African-American youth (Burdick-Will, Ludwig, Raudenbush, Sampson, Sanbonmatsu, & Sharkey, 2012; Santiago et al., 2014; Van Ham, Manley, Bailey, Simpson, & Maclennan, 2012) such as English-language fluency (Callahan, 2013), generational status (Fischer, 2010; Perreira et al., 2006; Portes & Hao, 2004; Portes & Rumbaut, 2001) and family socioeconomic status (Lutz, 2007; Perreira, Harris, & Lee, 2006). The primary aim of the study is to identify the role of contextual predictors of school dropout in predicting high school dropout rates among Latino immigrant youth, with particular attention to the youth’s generational status. Using a longitudinal dataset, Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), that oversampled low-income Latino immigrant families with children in poor neighborhood settings (Sastry, Ghosh-Dastidar, Adams, & Pebley, 2005), this study was designed to examine the impact of generational status while controlling for individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics that are often identified in the literature as influencing youth dropout status. Findings suggest that the influence of generational status on dropping out of high school is attenuated by other individual characteristics and family-level variables. Language fluency and academic achievement test scores emerged as significant predictors of dropping out of school even when controlling for family and neighborhood characteristics. Practice and policy implications as well as reflections on segmented assimilation theory are discussed in the Conclusion chapter.

Committee:

Anna Marie Santiago, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Tim Black, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Elizabeth Tracy, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mark Joseph, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Work; Sociology

Keywords:

dropout high school Latino neighborhood

Getson, R. FrankPrediction of high school dropout /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1965, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

High school dropouts;Dropout behavior

Hellenthal, Rebecca L.Utilizing an Empirically-Supported Parenting Intervention in Rural Community Settings: an Investigation of Effectiveness, Mediators of Change, and Dropout
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2009, Clinical Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
This project investigated the effectiveness of a behavioral parent training program utilizing empirically-supported parenting techniques (Barkley, 1997) with low-income families in a Mental Health Professional Shortage Area (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2007), an underserved and understudied population. In addition, the study examined mediators of treatment effectiveness and factors associated with premature dropout. The overarching goals of the parenting intervention were to improve parent-child relationships and to prevent and/or reduce child behavior problems (e.g., noncompliance, oppositionality) through effective parenting practices. In all, eight parenting groups were facilitated by masters-level mental health clinicians across three Southeastern Ohio counties in non-clinical settings. Fifty-seven parents completed both the pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Paired samples t-tests revealed that parents who attended at least four of eight sessions reported improved child behavior, increased family cohesion, enhanced parenting competence, increased sense of social reassurance of worth, reduced parenting stress, and more consistent discipline practices. The parents did not report a significant change with regard to perceived social guidance. However, the changes made by parents who continued in the program were not significantly different from those who attended three or fewer sessions. Parent age was the only variable related to premature dropout, such that younger parents were more likely to drop out before attending at least four sessions. Treatment satisfaction and change in parenting self-efficacy, reassurance of worth, and parenting stress were not found to be mediators of the relationship between attendance and change in parenting practices. Further, reduction in inconsistent discipline was not found to mediate the relationship between attendance and change in child behavior. Results from this investigation will help to inform future behavioral treatments for noncompliant children in this region, and particularly parenting groups.

Committee:

John Garske, PhD (Committee Chair); Christine Gidycz, PhD (Committee Member); Julie Owens, PhD (Committee Member); Karen Carlson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Mental Health; Psychology

Keywords:

parent training; rural; Appalachia; child; disruptive behavior; prevention; at risk populations; community; low income; dropout; mediators; effectiveness

Deng, WeiMultiple imputation for marginal and mixed models in longitudinal data with informative missingness
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Public Health
The method of multiple imputation by Rubin (1978) calls for imputing draws from a predictive distribution and incorporates the sampling variability due to the missing values. If data are missing at random in the sense of Rubin (1976), it is well known that multiple imputation based on the correct missing data model, when used along with maximum likelihood, yields consistent estimators and valid inference. However, multiple imputation for longitudinal data, and in the case where missingness is not at random, has not been well studied. In this thesis, I consider longitudinal data with informative missingness, where the missing data process depends on the individual random effects. I propose a multiple imputation method based on a conditional linear mixed-effects model with summary measures for missing data as additional fixed effects, and implement this method using Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Furthermore, when the complete data is to be analyzed using a marginal model, another major approach for the analysis of longitudinal data, imputation can be performed based on a corresponding mixed-effects model. In this setting, it is of interest to study the validity of the inference since the imputation and analysis models differ. I conduct a simulation study to compare the performance of estimators under a variety of circumstances. Results show that the proposed multiple imputation approach corrects bias caused by ignoring the missing data mechanism, and the inference is fairly robust to the imputation model.

Committee:

Lei Shen (Advisor)

Keywords:

Generalized estimating equations; non-ignorable missingness; dropout; Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC); Gibbs' sampler

Loeffler, Valerie AA Qualitative Study of Perspective Divergence and Premature Termination from Psychotherapy
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2003, Psychology
Approximately one-third of clients that therapists label 'premature terminators' will, if asked, say that they were no longer in need of services when they ended therapy. While the current literature assumes that this disjoint in opinion is due to therapist miscalculation of therapy outcome, this study explored an alternative model based on a divergence of perspectives between therapists and clients. Three former psychotherapy clients (who indicated that they were no longer in need of services) and their therapists (who indicated that their clients were still in need of services) participated in interviews during which they described the problems they were working on in therapy, the process of termination, and their views on therapy in general. The results suggested that therapist-client differences in problem conceptualization and therapy values contributed to divergent perspectives on the appropriateness of termination. A final section of this paper includes a discussion of the implications of these results for psychotherapy practice and research.

Committee:

Larry Leitner (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

premature termination; perspective divergence; dropout; qualitative research; therapy values; therapy outcome

Russell, Alecia MarieAn Effective Dropout Prevention Program for Urban Students
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2009, College of Education
There have been limited qualitative case studies exploring effective urban dropout prevention programs. Specifically, few studies have presented a conceptual orientation based solely upon the polyphonic voices of dropouts themselves to solve the dropout crisis in America's public schools. The aim of this study was to bridge this literature gap by presenting the collective stories and ideas from 12 adult urban dropouts who left their public high school to attend an urban dropout prevention program. Framed upon three major strands to predict reasons students depart from school, data produced new knowledge of what I refer to as a potential cure to the silent epidemic. Consequently, this study added to the literature by emphasizing (a) social/emotional concerns that are associated with students' decisions to quit school, (b) interventions and practices implemented by effective dropout recovery programs to increase graduation rates, (c) reasons students desire alternative educational designs, (d) reasons students do not desire online recovery programs, and (e) vital warnings for administrators of dropout recovery programs.

Committee:

Judy Alston, PhD (Advisor); Constance Savage, PhD (Committee Member); Amy Brady, PhD (Committee Member); Donna Villareal, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

adult urban dropouts; case study; African-American dropouts; urban dropout prevention programs

Crawford, Dana ElaineBlack Students’ Risk for Dropout at a Predominantly White Institution: The Role of Adjustment & Minority Status Stress
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2009, Psychology
This study examined the relationship of minority status stress (MSS) and adjustment with risk for dropping out of college and the impact of MSS on the adjustment of Black undergraduate students at a PWI. Similar to White students, adjustment was a predictor of risk for dropout for Black students at a PWI. Additionally, this study found MSS impacted the adjustment of Black students at a PWI. The findings from this study indicate that interventions aimed at decreasing the risk for dropout for Black students at PWIs should focus on decreasing MSS. This paper also provides specific recommendations as to how this can be done. Further research is necessary to understand what specific aspects of MSS (e.g. faculty relationships, cross-cultural relationships) impact adjustment to academic and social environments.

Committee:

Paul Flaspohler, PhD (Committee Chair); Jhan Doughty Berry, PhD (Committee Member); Roger Knudson, PhD (Committee Member); Geri Susan Mosley-Howard, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Academic Guidance Counseling; African Americans; Black History; Education; Higher Education; Mental Health; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Psychology

Keywords:

minority status stress; adjustment; Black undergraduate students; White students; risk for dropout; attrition; environment

Walters, Gwendolyn MaePerceived Caring of Instructors Among Online Doctoral Nursing Students
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2013, Higher Education
The concept of caring has been integral to the practice of nursing and nursing education since the early teachings of Florence Nightingale. Significant changes in both the practice and the need for educating increasing numbers of advanced-degree nurses have resulted in an increase in online doctoral-level nursing programs. This internet¬based survey used the Organizational Climate for Caring Questionnaire and a set of demographic questions to investigate the perceived caring of instructors among self-selected online doctoral nursing students attending one of the AACN 210 institutions. The relationship between attributed caring and intention to drop a course was also studied. Attributed levels of caring were found to be similar to those reported for other categories of nursing students; this held across different types of programs and full- or part-time enrollment status. Students who had not thought about dropping out of an online course were found to have significantly higher levels of attributed caring than those who had. A discriminant function analysis indicated that a decision to drop out of a course is likely to be based on factors in addition the attributed level of caring by an instructor for their students. It remains to be determined how caring, as a motivational variable, is related to academic and or clinical performance among students taking such courses even though it was found that an instructor's use of best educational practices was associated with higher attributions of caring.

Committee:

David L. Meabon, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Ronald D. Opp, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sue E. Ikczak, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mary A. Kozy, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Higher Education; Nursing

Keywords:

attributed caring; best practices; doctoral nursing students; dropout; nursing; online

Boyd, Barbara AEarly-Warning Indicators of High School Dropout
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Human Ecology: Human Development and Family Science
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which there are characteristics of sixth grade students and their schools that are predictive of whether students are promoted on time to the tenth grade, as an early-warning indication of dropout. Many studies have examined the reasons for dropout and determined it to be a multifaceted and challenging problem with no single reason for students’ to drop out. This study examined the variables associated with dropout and applied them to on-time arrival to the tenth grade using both variable- and person-centered approaches. The variables selected for this study are readily available data on students from schools including attendance, behavior, core academic performance, and sociodemographic factors. The setting for this study was Columbus City Schools, the largest school district in the state of Ohio. To qualify for this participant set, students needed to have data from the end of sixth grade (school year 2009-2010) and the beginning of tenth grade (school year 2013-2014). The sample included 2162 sixth grade students from 34 Columbus City Schools who had an average rate for on-time promotion of 81.5% to the tenth grade, meaning that 18.5% of the students or 400 students in this sample were not promoted to the tenth grade on time. There were three major findings. First, the results revealed that there were several student-level variables at sixth grade, which predicted on-time promotion to the tenth grade. Attendance, two core academic variables and two sociodemographic variables, were significant in predicting on-time promotion to the tenth grade. Second, there were four reliable profiles of sixth graders based upon attendance, core academics, and sociodemographic factors. Third, and most important, these profiles were associated with on-time promotion to the tenth grade. A student’s decision to dropout is the culmination of a long-term process; no single factor and no single event fully accounts for the choice to leave school. In addition, students show signs of dropout long before they actually drop out. These signs are evident in their school data; metaphorically, their data is raising a hand to ask for help. Early identification allows more time for effective intervention and is the main value of this study. Accordingly, three research-based prevention and intervention programs are presented. The results of this study suggest it is possible to use these indicators and profiles to identify children at risk, to determine the real issues facing students based upon their feedback, and to develop an appropriate intervention for each child.

Committee:

Xin Feng, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Laura Justice, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

dropout; early-warning indicators; K-12 education

Bishop, BrendenExamining Random-Coeffcient Pattern-Mixture Models for Longitudinal Data with Informative Dropout
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Psychology
Missing data commonly arise during longitudinal measurements. Dropout is a particular troublesome type of missingness because inference after the dropout occasion is effectively precluded at the level of the individual without substantial assumptions. If missingness, such as dropout, is related to the unobserved outcome variables, then parameter estimates derived from models which ignore the missingness will be biased. For example, a treatment effect may appear less substantial if poor-performing subjects tend to withdraw from the study. In a general sense, missing data lead to scenarios in which the empirical distribution of observed data is lacking nominal coverage in some areas. Little (1993) proposed a general pattern-mixture model approach in which the moments of the full data distribution were estimated as a finite mixture across the various missing-data patterns. These models and their extensions are flexible and may be estimated using wildly available mixed-modeling software in some special cases. The purpose of this work is to review the relevant missing-data literature and to examine the viability of random-coeffcient pattern-mixture models as an option for analysts seeking unbiased inference for longitudinal data subject to pernicious dropout.

Committee:

Robert Cudeck (Advisor); DeBoeck Paulus (Committee Member); MacEachern Steve (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Pattern-Mixture Model;Longitudinal;Dropout;Missing Data;NMAR;Nonignorable Missingness

Schmidt, Iony DaniellePredictors of Treatment Dropout in Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2017, Psychology
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been demonstrated to be an efficacious treatment for depression (Strunk, Adler, & Hollon, 2017). Despite efforts to disseminate this treatment more widely, the need for individual psychotherapies such as CBT continues to exceed the supply. In an effort to meet this ongoing need, online treatments requiring considerably less labor per treatment course have been introduced. These programs include Beating the Blues, Mood Gym, and Good Days Ahead. Research on computerized CBT (cCBT) has indicated that the provision of help (i.e., contact with a coach) is positively associated to maximizing therapeutic benefits of these programs (see review in Johansson & Andersson, 2012). Overall, clinical trials have shown cCBT outperforms wait-list control conditions and may even perform on par with face-to-face psychotherapy (Cuijpers et al., 2010). Nonetheless, even with help, cCBT is far from universally successful. A substantial number of participants do not respond. Others drop out of treatment prematurely. While the definition of dropout has varied from study to study, there is reason to suspect that the rate of dropout may be an important problem for cCBT programs. It is imperative that we decrease dropout so that more frequent use of cCBT occurs and depressive improvement is maximized. Dropout rates for cCBT range from 28% to 74%, with a mean of 57% (Richards and Richardson, 2012). These rates are much higher than those seen in face-to-face CBT treatments for depression, where the mean is approximately 17.5% (Cooper & Conklin, 2015). In the context of a study of 117 participants participating in cCBT provided with support, we sought to examine predictors of program dropout. Through an examination of baseline assessment variables and chart review, we examined participant characteristics and variables characterizing participants’ skill use and technical difficulties they may have encountered with the program as predictors of dropout risk across varying definitions of dropout. Results of this study suggest that lower educational level, lower extraversion, lower participant skill use, higher openness, and increased technical difficulties significantly predict increased likelihood of dropout before adequate dose of treatment (completion of less than six of the eight sessions). Lower extraversion, less participant skill use, increased openness, and more technical difficulties significantly predicted treatment dropout before completion of the entire treatment. Lower levels of education and participant skill use significantly predicted higher likelihood of dropout as defined by program coaches. In exploratory analyses, lower levels of extraversion and participant skill use significantly predicted higher likelihood of dropout when excluding treatment responders (or those who reach the sub-clinical depression scores on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9). We encourage future research testing whether these findings replicated in other samples of guided BtB and other types of cCBT programs.

Committee:

Daniel Strunk, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jennifer Cheavens, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Laura Wagner, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy; Beating the Blues; depression; dropout

Liu, WeiAnalysis and Development of A Trusted Low Dropout Regulator (LDO) Model For Intellectual Property (IP) Reuse Aiming at System Verification
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Electrical and Computer Engineering
In recent years, with the explosive increase of the wireless communication and consumer electronics products, the advanced system solutions which have powerful computation capability and multi-functions are in great demand in the market. Among the various solutions, System on Chip (SoC) is being widely exploited due to the fact that it has the highest level of integration of a large quantity of reusable intellectual property (IP) blocks such as microprocessor, memory block, interface block, RF block, and power management blocks. The success of a SoC design mainly relies on the available reusable IP blocks provided by the IP vendors. Given the trusted reusable IP blocks, a SoC system can be delivered to the market in a very timely way. Therefore, both powerful computation capability with multi functions and great productivity can be implemented at the same time by using SoC. However, the quality assurance of the reusable IP blocks is vital to the successful SoC design. In this dissertation, we analyzed and developed trusted Low Dropout Regulator (LDO) models for intellectual property (IP) reuse aiming at system verification. The LDOs were designed with TI (Texas Instrument) Analog System Lab Kit (ASLK) Pro kit and verified by using TI TINA simulation tools. Based on the performance of the LDOs, high level models of the LDOs in MATLAB are given for initial system validation. In addition, the Verilog-AMS behavior models are presented to cover the full functions of the LDOs. The correctness and effectiveness of the models are verified under Cadence design environment. The proposed models not only satisfy the reusable IPs quality assurance for SoC application but also indicate the practical issues with the use of building component ICs from ASLK Pro kit. Therefore, they can be used as trusted reusable IP blocks for design and verification of SoC.

Committee:

Steven Bibyk (Advisor); Wu Lu (Committee Member); Jin Wang (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Low Dropout Regulator, Intellectual Property , System On Chip, Verification, modeling

Miller, Emby McKinleyEDUCATION IN PERIL: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BLACK MALE HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS AND GRADUATES
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Human Ecology
Education is seen as one of the several critical factors in promoting the healthy development of youth as they transition to adulthood. In the current era, a high school diploma is considered a minimum requirement for employment in most sectors of the economy (Barton, 2006). The job prospects for youth who have not completed high school often are bleak, unstable, and relatively undesirable. Among youth living in disadvantaged urban communities, the rates of high school drop-out are highest among African American and Latino males. Although considerable efforts and resources have been devoted to preventing vulnerable youth from dropping out of high school, it is a persistent problem in many of our large urban school districts around the country. Part of the reason for this impasse is the gap between what is known about why and how vulnerable youth leave school or what helps them to succeed. Recognizing the effects of dropping out of high school on society, the question is why do urban, African American male students drop out of high school? What makes these students more prone to dropping out than their counterparts who remain in school? In an effort to better understand the lives and circumstances of these student groups, this research investigation uses a comparative case method to examine similarities and differences in the life histories of a matched sample of high school graduates and dropouts. This study investigates how the developmental systems of family, neighborhood, peers and education shape the youth's perspective on school. Findings reveal that while both groups experience high levels of risk factors high school drop-outs had significantly more risk experiences in the family, community, and criminal justice domains. Dropouts also had fewer protective factors in the school, peers, community, and family domains. Individuals experience educational obstacles in multiple domains and as such schools are not likely to promote educational resiliency without additional supports operating in the community to assist disadvantaged families.

Committee:

Deanna Wilkinson, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

African Americans; Comparative; Counseling Education; Developmental Psychology; Ecology; Education Policy

Keywords:

African American males, High school, School dropout, Urban education, Comparative case method

MORRISON, JULIE QUATMANSCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Education : School Psychology
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Cincinnati Scholarship Foundation (CSF) High School Program. Attrition rates, dropout rates, state-mandated proficiency test passing rates, and suspension rates were examined longitudinally to determine if differential outcomes existed for CSF Scholars when compared to a matched control group cohort and a district-wide cohort. The goal of the Cincinnati Scholarship Foundation (CSF) High School Program is to encourage students who might otherwise be "at risk" of dropping out of school to graduate with the highest level of academic achievement possible. The CSF Program is available to students in the urban school district at Grades 7-12 whose family income falls at or below the poverty level. Clear and specific behavioral expectations and explicitly stated contingencies are the defining features of the CSF Program. By meeting the specific academic and behavioral criteria, students have an opportunity to earn small monthly grants to meet their immediate financial needs. Positive outcomes in terms of higher proficiency passing rates and lower suspension rates were demonstrated for CSF Scholars who remained in the CSF Program two or more years, however, the confounding influence of selection bias and experimental mortality limit this study's ability to draw definitive conclusions about the merit or worth of the CSF Program.

Committee:

Dr. F. Edward Lentz (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Educational Psychology

Keywords:

dropout prevention; urban education; high schools

KROEGER, STEPHEN D.THE VOICE OF STUDENTS AT RISK
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Education : Curriculum and Instruction
Middle school educators want to gain deeper understanding of students at-risk for failure in order to improve practice and student performance. Paying attention to student voice encourages the formation of community and acts as a supportive factor by deepening student engagement in school. This study examined the social validity of Photovoice, an action research strategy that provides an opportunity for student voice, and has the potential to increase engagement. Through Photovoice, individuals of a community create and share photographs. The sharing of the photographs becomes a means of personal development and needs assessment, establishing relationships, making changes in the environment and in teaching practice, creating community, developing a shared sense of vision, and creating awareness in other members of the community. The dialogue and engagement with students produced in the process changed teacher perceptions of the student by breaking the child out of the isolated perceptual context that an educational setting can sometimes create. Implication for practice will be discussed.

Committee:

Dr. Anne M. Bauer (Advisor)

Keywords:

risk factors; photovoice; protective factors; engagement; dropout