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Jordan, Laura LExploring How Design and Digital Interactive Technology Assists in Health Information Communication in the Context of Missed Oral Contraceptive Pills
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2017, Design
An overwhelming number of people in the United States possess a below basic health literacy level. They are unable to or have difficulty gathering, processing and understanding health information and services necessary to make appropriate health decisions (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Currently, the state of communication of health information is widely diverse and in many instances, not effective to meet users’ informational needs. The intent of this research was to explore through a human-centered design approach how design and digital interactive technology can contribute to health literacy – specifically, the communication of missed oral contraceptive pills information to female college students. Often, women using this type of contraception lack understanding about the medication, struggle to take it accurately and effectively, which in many cases leads to unintended pregnancies. The outcome is a proposed interaction model that focuses on direct manipulation interfaces, digital representation of physical objects (pill package and inserts) and tailored cause and effect results seeking to more effectively personalize and communicate medication information. The implementation of the model is portrayed in a prototyped product solution that was guided by research of previous studies, user needs, behaviors and goals. The prototype embodies a webpage displayed through a smartphone that was evaluated by users through an iterative design process. The results conclude that a human-centered designed digital product that sensibly employs interactive features can elevate the current state of communication and delivery of information for missed oral contraceptive pills.

Committee:

R. Brian Stone (Advisor); Carolina Gill (Committee Member); Lorraine Wallace (Committee Member); Maria Palazzi (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Health; Health Care; Health Education

Keywords:

health literacy; oral contraceptives; design; interaction design; interface design; health information communication; human-centered design; goal-directed design; interactive technology; design research; product design

Evensen, Erik A.Making it Fun: Uncovering a Design Research Model for Educational Board Game Design
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, Industrial, Interior, and Visual Communications Design

This study discusses the importance of rigorous design research in the development of an educational game for an academic research project sponsored by an established non-profit diabetes association. The goal of this project was to create a board game to engage children with diabetes, their friends and parents in the diabetic’s daily personal health management, the self-management requirements of which are hard to understand and maintain. The board gameformat was perceived as a highly appropriate form of communication because of its capacity to simplify large concepts, making them appropriate for the experiential learning required to master complex information.

Research and design process of this case study involved collaborations with graduate student researchers, sponsor clients, subject experts, and faculty advisors. The design team collaborated during several stages of research, and developed a research model for educational board game design encompassing many design research methods, starting with a data gathering stage including interviews and literature review, a creative stage including participatory research methods and generative tools, and an evaluative stage including usability testing and pilot testing. The research model is designed to follow an iterative design process, allowing for the most informative participation from all participants. This study summarizes the collaborative and rigorous research process used in the identification and development of relevant content that informed the design development of an emotionally connective and engaging game that was fun, educational, and significant to the management of diabetes.

Committee:

Peter Chan, PhD (Advisor); Elizabeth Sanders, PhD (Committee Member); Paul Nini (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

design; design research; participatory research; board games; game design; research model; case study; information design; communication design; systems design; education design; diabetes

Ford, Ramsey A.Design and Empowerment: Learning from Community Organizing
MDes, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Design
Should designers move past creating ‘tools which empower' impoverished communities to ‘empowering impoverished communities' to make tools? As designers have begun to work on the complex problems associated with global poverty they have slowly documented methods and identified best practices for creating social impact through design. One such practice is to increase the capacity of impoverished communities to solve problems. However, little has been written on how to accomplish this task. This thesis looks to community organizers for insight on community empowerment. It analyzes and compares design and community organizing in order to identify compatible and complimentary aspects of each profession. This comparison is used to suggest benefits each profession would realize from working with the other. The thesis culminates in the presentation of a novel approach for creating social impact through design and community organizing that moves beyond collaboration and into hybridization.

Committee:

Mike Zender (Committee Chair); M. Ann Welsh, PhD (Committee Member); Craig Vogel (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Social Work; Urban Planning

Keywords:

design; design for social impact; social design;design and community empowerment; design and economic development; poverty and design

Bean, Trenton WilliamScenic Design for a Production of John Dempsey's and Dana P. Rowe’s Zombie Prom
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2014, Theatre
Zombie Prom by John Dempsey and Dana P. Rowe was a musical theatre production presented during the fall semester of 2013 produced by The Ohio State University Department of Theatre. This thesis is a documentation of the process of scenic design for this show. The first chapters are a discussion of the pre-production elements of the project and the collaboration with the production team. Later chapters will discuss the design aspects in terms of the director’s concepts, my analysis of the script, the technical aspects that brought the production to the Thurber Theater, and my evaluation of the final product. Briefly, the director’s concept for the scenery was to uphold the tenants of the love of artifice, the sentimentality toward the past, and the serious intentions of “pure” Camp.

Committee:

Brad Steinmetz, MFA (Advisor); Janet Parrott, MA (Committee Co-Chair); Amanda Fox, MFA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Theater; Theater Studies

Keywords:

Theatre; Production Design; Technical Theatre; Design Process; Scenic Design; Scene Design; Design; Scenery Design; Zombie Prom

Kauffman, Jordan A.G.Success Metrics and Sustainable Business Models in Social Innovation Design Firms
MFA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Communication and Information / School of Visual Communication Design
This thesis is an investigation into sustainable business models and the different evaluation methods utilized in social innovation design. Over the last twenty years, there has been an increase in awareness and desire within the design industry to utilize design as a way to help solve some of the large, systemic social problems facing people all over the world. To make this work financially and sustainably, designers are utilizing a variety of for-profit and nonprofit business models. However, these business models are potentially hindering social innovation designers’ access to the resources needed to measure the impact of their work. Social innovation designers are co-designing and developing services, programs, systems, and products with nonprofits and communities that are dealing with these social problems. Social change work of this nature requires designers and their partners to be engaged in measuring the long-term impact of their work in order to truly make lasting change. This has led social innovation designers to turn to evaluation methods used in the parallel fields of social work, community organizing, education, and public health, in order to track the impacts of their work. These evaluation methods also play a key role in helping social innovation designers better communicate the value they bring to their clients and partners. By utilizing and integrating these evaluation methods into their design processes, social innovation designers are leading the way for this field to gain broader acceptance and support.

Committee:

Ken Visocky O'Grady, MFA (Advisor); Jessica Barness, MFA (Committee Member); Sanda Katila, MFA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Entrepreneurship; Social Work; Systems Design

Keywords:

Social Innovation Design; Design for Social Good; Business Models; Business Models in Social Innovation Design; Visual Communication Design; Theory of Change; Logic Model; Evaluation Methods in Design; Evaluation Methods; Nonprofits; Nonprofit Design;

Damle, Amod N.Influence of design tools on design problem solving
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Industrial and Systems Engineering

The literature on design thinking indicates that, in order to avoid early fixation on a less than effective overall form, product designers are trained to sketch the overall form for a design before focusing attention on the details of individual components. Using a between-subjects design, an empirical study involving 30 experienced designers was conducted to investigate how design tools can influence this process, specifically investigating the potential for color to induce early fixation on the details of a design rather than first exploring concepts for an effective overall form of that design.

In this study, the participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Both groups performed a design task that involved creating a concept sketch for a lamp by selecting and combining two features from each of the two lamps seen in a reference picture. The participants were asked to assemble several line segments of various sizes and orientations on a computer screen to create the sketch. Group one was provided with the line segments in a single color while Group two had access to the line segments in multiple colors.

It was hypothesized that the availability or use of multiple colors for sketching could influence the participants to focus on the details of the individual components before sketching the overall form. Based on the data from the verbal protocols it was found that the participants in the multi-color group were 33% more likely to verbalize the goal of sketching the overall form than those in the multi-color group. Consistent with these verbal protocols, it was observed that the multi-color group made significantly more revisions (p=0.02) on the first component before leaving it for the first time than after revisiting it (as contrasted with the single color group). This suggests that the multi-color group was more likely to focus on the details of the first component before completing a sketch of the overall form.

One way of explaining these results is to say that the availability of multiple colors influenced the participants to mentally group design elements into discrete objects and create a perceptual or cognitive discontinuity, focusing attention on the details of the first component before sketching the outlines of the rest of the components. As a result, they were less likely to apply their training and to sketch the overall form before working on the details of specific components. Thus, these findings indicate that, like the problem-solving processes involved in diagnosis and planning, the problem-solving processes involved in a creative activity like design can be influenced in fundamental ways by the features of the tool provided.

Committee:

Philip Smith, PhD (Committee Chair); Liz Sanders, PhD (Committee Member); Matthew Lewis, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Design; Fine Arts; Industrial Engineering; Psychology; Systems Design; Technology

Keywords:

early design; prototyping; sketching; design thinking, design cognition; design theory; science of design; graphic design tools; cognitive boundary theory; breadth-first; depth-first; fixation

Hu, LingyueDesign Research Planning and Execution: A comparison between undergraduate design students’ and design research practitioners’ processes of design research planning and execution
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2014, Industrial, Interior Visual Communication Design
As more and more design students go into the design research field after their graduation, it becomes increasingly important to understand what students learned about design research at school and what design research practitioners are expected to achieve in industry, so different strategies can be created to better prepare design students to go into the design research field and grow as design research professionals. The process of design research planning and execution as the foundation of every design research project, however, is not well described in the existing literature. In order to help fill this knowledge gap, this thesis research focuses on understanding and comparing design students’ processes of research planning and execution while learning at school and design research practitioners’ processes of research planning and execution in industry. Indepth interviews were conducted with fourteen design research practitioners to understand how practitioners with various levels of experience working in different companies plan and execute their research. Participant observation was conducted with junior design students in their Design Research II course to understand their process of research planning and execution. In addition, students’ presentations, documentations as well as their responses for the journal questions were collected and analyzed in an effort to understand what students learned and didn’t learn in their research course. This research reveals the pattern among experienced practitioners, beginning practitioners and students’ processes of research planning and execution. A gap is identified between what current undergraduate education enables design students to do about design research and what design research practitioners are expected to achieve in industry. This research also has implications for the design research education and design research industry in terms of better preparing students to go into the design research industry and helping beginning practitioners make the transition to experienced practitioners.

Committee:

Elizabeth Sanders (Advisor); R. Brian Stone (Committee Member); David Staley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Education

Keywords:

design research; design research planning and execution; design research practitioners; design education; design research processes;

Shahi, SepidehBusiness sensible design: Exploratory research on the importance of considering cost and profit for undergraduate industrial design students.
MDES, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Design
This research aimed to investigate how important it is to embed business education into undergraduate industrial design curriculum and help design students understand the financial aspects of their design ideas, particularly in the areas of cost and profit. To respond to this question, a user-centered design approach was applied to understand design students' perceptions towards business education. Later on, the research findings were synthesized into a list of design requirements for developing a financial assessment tool. After rounds of ideation and looking into other frameworks from business related disciplines, a financial assessment tool was developed. Consequently, this tool was prototyped and piloted in a senior industrial design class in order to test its effectiveness. At last, students who had participated in the experiment evaluated the tool. Their positive feedback proved such methods could be successfully integrated into undergraduate design curriculum and help industrial design students gain a better understanding of the business aspects related to their ideas.

Committee:

Craig Vogel, M.I.D. (Committee Chair); Steven Doehler, M.A. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

design education;design process;business design;financial assessment tool;design tools;design business model;

Prather, Evin GamalThe Research and Design of an Inclusive Dishwashing Appliance
MDes, University of Cincinnati, 2007, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Design

The goal of this project is to follow user-based qualitative research to design a dishwashing appliance that is superior in functionality and more desirable to use.

The Introduction contains the background, problem statement, hypothesis, goals, objectives, parameters and pre-research opportunities.

The Design Strategies chapter investigates the components of inclusive design and emotional design as well as how the stakeholders, users and companies, benefit when inclusion is considered in the design process.

The Dishwashing Research chapter will document findings from the preliminary literature- and internet-based research phases, which includes analyses of the history, function, paradigm, technologies, and ergonomics related to dishwashing.

The User Research chapter will include conclusions from six in-home interviews with individuals and families of various types, one focus group of retirement-aged women, and internet-based opinions websites.

The Design chapter describes the concept generation, development and optimization phases of the design process all of which were informed directly by the previous three chapters. This section is composed of sketches, images of mockups and CAID-based visualizations of final concepts supplemented with explanations of the concepts.

Committee:

Dale Murray (Advisor)

Subjects:

Design and Decorative Arts

Keywords:

Design; Industrial Design; Inclusive Design; Emotional Design; Dishwahser; Dishwashing; Qualitative Design Research; User Research

Green, JuliaDesign Thinking for Conceptualization
MDES, University of Cincinnati, 2017, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Design
Through observation in undergraduate design studios, it was found that the ability of translating ideas into concept proved to be taxing for students. This study identifies the ambiguity between idea and concept generation in the design process and proposes a solution through a design thinking methodology known as `Idea Propagation’. Research began with a comprehensive examination of design thinking, pedagogy and methods through a literature review. Qualitative testing followed with three participatory rounds involving undergraduate design students and one involving the researcher through applied research methods.The proposed design methodology known as `Idea Propagation’ is the result of testing, framed through investigatory phases involving reflective, semantic, contextual and aesthetic analysis. Implementing these principles in a successful comprehensive order is the result of testing analysis, thus leading to a proposed solution known as the `Idea Propagation’ method.

Committee:

Steven Doehler (Committee Chair); Phyllis| Borcherding (Committee Member); Cynthia Lockhart (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

Conceptualization;Design Process;Pre-Concept Design;Design Methods;Design Pedagogy;Design Research

Singh, SapnaFuture And Value Of Graduate Design Education Master of Design 2031
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2016, Design
“Design is a problem–solving process and the fundamental skills of the designer are the ability to look for meaningful problems, frame them into appropriate contexts, and design a process for developing and implementing a solution” (Irwin, 2015). This definition of design and the role of the designer are a significant departure from its original definition by the Bauhaus where the objective of all creative effort in the visual arts was to give form to space and where the source of creative imagination was in developing a proficiency in the craft (Gropius, Bayer, & Gropius, 1938). Design as a discipline has evolved and is expanding its impact from individual physical objects and spaces to experiences and organizations. There is increasing interest in design thinking and human-centered design methodologies. Organizations are discovering the value and potential of design. Although definition and the sphere of design influence have changed, design education has remained rooted in the craft skills. Design education has two trains of thought: the foundation and the progression. The foundation skills of observation and application have remained consistent through the history of design but the progression of design is in constant change (Foster,O.,2015 as cited by Currey, 2015). “If design is to live up to its promise it must create new, enduring curricula for design education that merge science and technology, art and business, and indeed, all the knowledge of the university” (Norman & Klemmer, 2014). What is that promise that design has to offer? How can design schools lay the foundation to deliver that promise? How can or should design education prepare future designers for this expanding sphere of design influence? This research attempts to addresses these questions by exploring the future and value of graduate design education. This multidisciplinary research and design thesis combined design research methodologies with business strategy concepts and tools for developing plausible future scenarios. The future scenarios were translated into future roles for designers. The roles formed the basis for developing a framework for exploration of graduate design programs and strategic planning for design schools and universities. Design research conducted for this research combined an information-based and inspiration-based approach (Sanders E. B.-N., 2005). Four stakeholders groups – students, faculty members, alumni and industry members - participated in the research. Stakeholders visualized the future of graduate design education in a participatory design exercise using a generative design make toolkit (Sanders & Stappers, 2012) in the inspiration-based approach. The information-based approach utilized survey and conversational interview to reflect on current experience and future aspirations. Common themes were observed in the findings from the two approaches. These themes along with influencing factors and trends formed the basis for developing future scenarios translated into four future roles for designers: traditional designer, constructive design researcher, hybrid co-designer and systems sense maker. A framework was developed to explore potential implications of these future roles on graduate design education. This framework is a starting point for a conversation about the future of graduate design education.

Committee:

Elizabeth Sanders (Advisor); David Staley (Committee Member); Mary Anne Beecher (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Education

Keywords:

Future of graduate design education, futuring, design research and business strategy, design education, generative design research, participatory design

Jenkins, Lillie RuthDesigning systems that make sense: what designers say about their communication with users during the usability testing cycle
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Communication
This dissertation project focused on design practitioners’ communicative experiences as they occurred during usability testing in an attempt to isolate and lay out the contradiction that occurs between practitioners’ belief in user-centered design (UCD) and their practice of that methodology. Communication was important to study because it is a central aspect of UCD, but the notion that design practitioners perceive communication to be instructive and/or useful as indicated by their design practice has not been well documented and represents an axiom of sorts in the design field. The goals of this research were to trace the contradiction to determine how design practitioners perceive communication between themselves and the users—the UCD rationale—and by extension, to better understand communication’s impact upon their subsequent design decisions. The following research questions flowed from this idea: (a) How does the contradiction between design practitioners’ values and practices play itself out in their experiences communicating with users to implement UCD in the form of usability testing? (b) What do design practitioners say about the reasons that factor into their decisions to exclude users’ suggestions from the final product design? Sense-Making Methodology, a methodology in the tradition of Grounded Theory, was used to isolate contradictory communication behaviors related to design practitioners’ belief in UCD and their practice of UCD methodology as represented by usability testing and users’ suggestions. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted and Sense-Making’s Communication-As-Procedure analytic was used to analyze the data, examining occurrences of contradicting communication behaviors. The results of this exploratory study indicated that communicative tactics seeking connection with and direction from users to validate the product under design, led most often to a design effort that included usability testing and users’ suggestions. On the other hand, the results of tracing the communication showed that behaviors that disconnected from users, did not seek to orient toward the direction of their needs, and in the end rejected their input led most often to a design process that excluded both usability testing and users’ suggestions as means of practicing UCD.

Committee:

Brenda Dervin (Advisor)

Keywords:

Communication; Cognitive Engineering; Design Process; Design Lifecycle; Design of Information Technology; Design Practitioners; Developers; Designers; Human-Computer Interaction; Interaction; Usability Testing; Usability Evaluation; User Centered Design

Sanderson, Kyrsten AEngaging health care providers in design research Proposing future interaction designs for communicating with limited English proficient patients at the Emergency Department bedside.
MDES, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Design
The purpose of this research is to demonstrate how a constructive and participatory design research approach can facilitate dialogue between University of Cincinnati Emergency Medicine health care providers and designers regarding a future interaction design and overcome their conservative fallacy about the existing solution. Conservative fallacy relates to the notion that what exists today cannot be improved. Utilizing ethnographic research techniques to understand healthcare providers' attitudes toward their current communication methods, and conducting participatory design research sessions with providers helped affirm the need to re-think how healthcare providers communicate with limited English proficiency patients at the exam room bedside. A set of design concepts was identified through the synthesis of personal ideation and the facilitation of a design workshop with 57 industrial design students at the University of Cincinnati. A total of 15 emergency department physicians, were involved in an evaluation study to validate design requirements using a novel evaluation tool, and measure their perception about the design problem and current tools before and after interacting with proposed concepts. Drawing from this study, design requirements were affirmed and proposed concepts were evaluated for further development. Furthermore, this study demonstrates how provider's attitudes about the design problem and urgency to address the issue shifted after exposure to proposed design concepts.

Committee:

Paul Zender, M.F.A. (Committee Chair); Heekyoung Jung, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mary Privitera, M.Design (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

participatory design;constructive design;healthcare;limited English proficiency;interaction design;design research;

Rosensweig, Ryan R.Elevating Design: Building Design as a Dynamic Capability
MDES, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Design
This thesis focuses on the interaction between design and business, exploring its impact on the success of organizations through two case studies of design managers, Dan Harden, Chief Executive Officer for Whipsaw Inc and Sam Lucente, Global Vice President of Design for Hewlett-Packard. Through an analysis of organizational strategy and design, this thesis proposes a theoretical model that identifies how design becomes a dynamic capability for any organization when its promotion and support shifts from a person to a function. Finally, based on this model, this thesis analyzes the effectiveness of design thinking in supporting design as a dynamic capability and offers conclusions for the elevation of a design function in support of a sustained competitive advantage in organizations.

Committee:

Craig Vogel, MD (Committee Chair); Dale Murray, MA (Committee Member); Martha Ann Welsh, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

design;dynamic capabilities;design management;business design;design strategy;case studies

Puliyambalath, Naushad PashaLambda designs for lambda less than 60
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, Mathematics
Ryser and Woodall’s lambda design conjecture states that each lambda design can be obtained from a symmetric design by certain complementation procedure. Ivan Weisz proved this conjecture for lambda less than 35. In this thesis we extent the validity of the conjecture to all lambda less than 60 except possibly for (45, -3, 6), (54, -22, 4) and (55, -19, 12) for the tuple (lambda, d, rho).

Committee:

Akos Seress (Advisor); Neil Robertson (Committee Member); Stephen Milne (Committee Member); Carter Findley (Other)

Subjects:

Mathematics

Keywords:

lambda-design; block design; Ryser-Woodall conjecture; lambda design conjecture; design theory; Kramer; Shrikhande; Sighi

Rutherford, SarahBusiness Environmental Design, Consumer Visual Literacy and Self-Concept
MFA, Kent State University, 2012, College of Communication and Information / School of Visual Communication Design
This research explores the hypothesis that the identity and environmental design of a business, whether created intentionally or not, attracts customers because it affirms some aspect of the customer’s self-concept. Two online surveys featuring photo-simulated shopping experiences in eight shopping scenarios—grocery stores, book stores, shoe stores, bakeries, wine stores, coffee shops, sit-down restaurants, and clothing stores—were distributed to online survey participants to evaluate self-concept, purchasing behavior, the application of retail patron images, store choice, and consumer perception of brand personality. Although connections to self-conflict were not conclusive, the findings of this research imply that consumers make judgments about the quality and availability of merchandise and service based on the exterior of a business. Consumers are also able to convey whom they think shops at a given store, an additional motivator for patronage. The research displays that it is important for retailers to have an understanding of their target audience in order to connect with them, and that predictive value may lie in consumer preference for similar store types.

Committee:

Ken Visocky O'Grady (Committee Chair); Sanda Katila (Committee Member); Jerry Kalback (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Architectural; Business Community; Design; Interior Design; Urban Planning

Keywords:

retail design; visual communication; branding; retal branding; environmental graphic design; EGD; graphic design; business exteriors; business; self-concept; self-consistency; self concept; self consistency; visual literacy; visual design; consumers

Shen, DaComparative Evaluation of Repurposing and Optimized Approaches in Web Application Design
MDES, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Design
Given the emergence of mobile technology, the difference of devices and their adjunct operating systems have been progressively enlarged. On devices with varying screen sizes, user interaction and user experience become different. This makes web application design a more complicated task than before in order to meet various compatibility and user experience requirements. To fix this issue, web application design approaches have evolved into two categories: repurposing approach and optimized approach. In this study, I design and develop a cross–device web application by using these two approaches respectively. Usability testing is performed to collect data and user experience comments from respondents. Then analysis of the data shows which approach is more superior in specific situations.

Committee:

Benjamin Meyer, M.F.A. (Committee Chair); Heekyoung Jung, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

web application;web design;usability testing;responsive design;optimized design;repurposing design;

Tu, Yu-WeiApplication Of Parametric Design To User Center Products
MDES, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Design
The world we live in is composed of different ethnic groups, gender, age, and culture. Each user group has specific requirements and tastes. User-centered Design is a solution to reduce the gap between end users and product design. In the traditional product manufacturing process, it costs more time and energy to deliver products and to generate new designs for marketing. Parametric Design is a solution to maintain all the possibilities of 3D form and can instantly generate different types of design. In this way, a designer could obtain different styles of prototypes by simply adjusting the feature parameters. This could help a designer generate diverse design proposals that incorporate ergonomic contribution at the same time. The time consuming manufacture processing could be reduced and a diversity of designs would be delivered. Divergent thinking of modeling structure would also generate some unexpected results and form styling. All the various design elements would contribute to a wonderful composite world.

Committee:

Gerald Michaud, M.A. (Committee Chair); Peter Chamberlain, M.F.A . (Committee Member); Tony Kawanari, M.A., I.D. (Committee Member); Aaron Rucker (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

Parametric Design;User-Centered Design;Diversity deliverable;Design Manufacture;Design;

Amatullo , Mariana V.Design Attitude and Social Innovation: Empirical Studies of the Return on Design
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2015, Management
Today, in a world context defined by increasing complexity, deepening disparities and rising uncertainty, the imperative of connecting knowledge with action to create systemic social change and achieve more equitable futures for all human beings is greater than ever. The task is ongoing and necessitates both the adaptation of known solutions and the discovery of new possibilities. This dissertation investigates the subject matter of design as a deeply humanistic knowledge domain that is drawing mounting attention and praise for its ability to open up new possibilities for action oriented toward social innovation and human progress. Paradoxically, despite unequivocal signs of such forms of design gaining prominence in our institutions and organizations, the unique value that professional designers impart to the class of systemic challenges and innovation opportunities at stake is an understudied pursuit that lacks articulation and merits elucidation. This dissertation contributes to filling that critical gap. Integrating theories of social innovation, organizational culture, institutional logics and design, and building on the construct of “design attitude” (a set of unique capabilities, abilities and dispositions espoused by professional designers and that are related to organizational learning and innovation), the dissertation relies on the interpretation and analyses of three independent field studies organized in a multiphase mixed methods exploratory design sequence. The dissertation is organized in a dialectical progression that presents the following overarching research question: How might we elucidate the value designers bring to the field of social innovation? The first study combines a grounded theory approach with a comparative semantic analysis of four case studies of design for social innovation projects (conducted with design teams from IDEO.org, Frog Design, Mind Lab and the former Helsinki Design Lab). The insights culled from semi-structured interviews of designers and managers with a high fluency of “design attitude” point to a unanimous concern to claim, with more clarity, the value of design as a means to achieve social innovation. This central finding informs the research design of the second study, a quantitative investigation composed of a field survey that offers an aggregate view of the positive significant relationships between the multidimensional construct of design attitude (and the five first-order dimensions of the construct that we operationalize as creativity, connecting multiple perspectives, empathy, ambiguity tolerance, and aesthetics) and social innovation project outcomes, team learning and process satisfaction, as reported by managers and designers with a high level of design fluency practicing predominantly in the social and public sectors. The study presents a set of foundational metrics that explain with new evidence how and why design matters in the domain of social innovation. The third study of the dissertation uses an ethnographic case study approach to extend the statistical insights from the prior study and probe the manifestations of design attitude in the organizational context of the Innovation Unit at UNICEF. A key finding is the identification of a number of enablers and inhibitors that advance and alternatively collide with efforts to promote and integrate design attitude capabilities as part of the organization’s overall innovation agenda. In this study, the themes of accountability and urgency emerge as important macro-level forces that define the institutional logics of UNICEF and impact the agency of design attitude at the individual level of its organizational actors. Collectively, and through the sequence of perspectives that they offer, these three empirical studies reveal with disciplined coherence and powerful evidence a set of principles and capabilities that further clarify the significance of design attitude for social innovation. From a theoretical perspective, this dissertation advances our understanding of the possibilities, limits and implications of design for social innovation amidst a multidisciplinary landscape characterized by a pluralism of emergent practices, a diversity of methods and a wide range of cultural circumstances. At the core of its theoretical contribution is a new framework that conceptualizes what we call the “return on design” (ROD) for social innovation. From a perspective of practice, this research offers new insights into how organizations might recognize and more confidently integrate key design attitude capabilities that can result not only in social innovation outcomes, but also in broad organizational impact and human progress.

Committee:

Richard Buchanan, PhD (Committee Chair); Richard Boland Jr., PhD (Committee Member); Kalle Lyytinen, PhD (Committee Member); John Paul Stephens , PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Entrepreneurship; Management

Keywords:

design; social innovation; organizational culture; institutional logic; design attitude; design thinking; design practice; dialectics; ethnography; case study; innovation; mixed methods; metrics for social innovation; team learning; process satisfaction

Stumpo, GordonDesign Iterations Through Fusion of Additive and Subtractive Design
MA, Kent State University, 2016, College of the Arts / School of Art
This collection seeks to explore the process of design in a systematic way, through the use of additive and subtractive design. Centering on three iterations of three garments, a total of nine looks provide a base for design explorations. The creation of two new design frameworks guided the design process and aided in final analysis. These are the Stumpo Surface and Structure Scale and the Stumpo Surface and Structure Style Summary. In the Stumpo Surface and Structure Scale, design is comprised of surface and structure, which are both present in any fashion design. That is to say, the surface or embellishment of the textile and the physical shape or structure the textile takes on are both integral parts of design. Surface and structure influence one another but are not always equal in ratio; some designers emphasize surface, others structure, and some emphasize both. Different ratios of complex to simple and surface to structure can help identify a specific brand or designer, as seen in the Stumpo Surface and Structure Style Summary. Different emphasis on surface and structure creates four main styles, in which a designer may consciously or unconsciously design. Creation of alternative armhole and sleeve combinations is also a major part of this study, in terms of function, fit, and aesthetics. Analysis also includes costing and production information for each look in this collection.

Committee:

Vince Quevedo (Advisor); Margarita Benitez (Committee Member); Brian Peters (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aesthetics; Design; Fine Arts; Textile Research

Keywords:

fashion design; collection; additive design; subtractive design; surface; structure; design framework; sleeve gusset; alternative armhole; pattern making; apparel; fit; textiles

Braun, Erika L.Framing Wicked Problems Using CoDesign and a Hybrid Design Toolset
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2016, Industrial, Interior Visual Communication Design
Design is not simply an outcome, but a process of problem solving. The current transitional process for adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the challenges faced by their healthcare providers and parents is a wicked problem that needs to be addressed. Wicked problems are not good or bad, but are often made up of multiple stakeholders and an indeterminate end-state. Design problems are often wicked; there is no definitive formula or an existing solution. Trained and practiced in reshaping complexity and ambiguity through Design Thinking to give form to new ideas that do not yet exist, Designers have the capacity to expand their role from simply `makers’ of artifacts to `makers’ of sense, building new tools and integrating new ways of problem solving to assist with framing wicked problems. The objective of this body of research is to investigate a hybrid CoDesign approach (using digital and non-digital Design Thinking tools), and the expanding role of the Designer and stakeholders in tackling wicked problems through an exploratory autism case study. The role of the Designer in addressing wicked problems and the use of technology for collective sensemaking in the Design process were investigated through the development of a digital prototype in parallel with an exploratory Participatory Action Research (PAR) case study centered on issues surrounding transitional care and support for adults with autism and their families. A diverse group of stakeholders was brought together to participate in an iterative CoDesign process aimed at building shared understanding, stimulating new ways of thinking, and reframing the wicked problem to create new resolutions for the Center for Autism Services and Transition (C.A.S.T.), a clinic for adults with autism connected to The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. The outcomes of the case study and findings from the development and testing of the digital prototype support the value of sensemaking and reframing, and the significance of diversity, inclusivity and immersion in PAR to engender intangible outcomes as well as design concepts that can be carried into the next stages of Design development. Additionally, the findings support the contribution potential of people on the autism spectrum in CoDesign roles and the significance of a Designer’s skillset in facilitating collaborative sessions around a multi-faceted problem and creating the tools and seeing/maker spaces through which a collective team of Designers and CoDesigners can frame problems and innovate. The case study promotes the benefit of a hybrid PAR framework that incorporates face-to-face interaction, physical toolsets for shared/critical making, and technology applications to engender new forms of engagement and to nurture each expert’s ability to meaningfully contribute to creating true value in a wicked problem. When Design is no longer perceived as only an aesthetic outcome, but instead as a valuable asset for tackling complexity, Designers will be able to see themselves, and be seen by others, as framers, new types of form givers in the front-end of the Design process – extending their value and reach to tackle more pressing issues in society.

Committee:

Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders, Ph.D., (Advisor); Alan Price (Committee Member); David Staley, Ph.D., (Committee Member); Elliot Bendoly, Ph.D., (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

wicked problems, co-design, design, sensemaking, design thinking, hybrid, digital, participatory design, framing, adductive reasoning

Kuhlman, Lane M.Gesture Mapping for Interaction Design: An Investigative Process for Developing Interactive Gesture Libraries
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, Industrial, Interior, and Visual Communications Design
Gestures play important roles as facilitators of language development, temporal-spatial learning, and non-verbal communication. Gesture-based interaction design seeks to capitalize on this natural method of human communication by using gestures as a means of interfacing with digital content. While technological factors address important issues related to sensing gestural input, design factors are the most critical factors relate to developing useful and approachable gesture-based interactivity. The goal of this research is to articulate more clearly some intrinsic characteristics of gesture that are significant to gestural interface designers, while providing methodologies that designers can use to gather and implement this information in a fashion that suits their unique design processes. Gesture researchers have published a great deal of research that has significant implications related to gestural interface design, but most research in the field of gesture studies relates to gestures that are produced in combination with speech or in place of speech. Directly applying this research to visual interface design is difficult because many of the examples of gestures provided by these researchers analyze gesture in terms their linguistic characteristics. Because interface designers are seeking gestures that can be incorporated into interactive scenarios, there is a need for example of gestures produced in response to visual-spatial cues. The aim for this study and beyond is to create a library of gestures that can serve as a reference to designers who are seeking visual-spatial representations of a broad range of gestural expression. This study presents methods of visual and spatial contextualization that can be applied or expanded upon by gestural interface designers who are seeking to build unique gestural vocabularies on a project-by-project basis. This document outlines a pragmatic approach to gestural interface design that aims to inspire designers toward further investigation. This thesis documents the development processes for several interactive prototypes. Each of these prototypes helped to define specific research questions that may be important issues as gesture-based interaction design moves forward as a field of research. Discussion of interactive prototypes is followed by documentation of a user centered research study. This study presents new strategies for provoking, documenting, analyzing and contextualizing gestures within specialized visual-spatial scenarios. The results of this study include documentation of an approach that can be used to generate libraries of interactive gestures. Several categorical patterns of gestural expression emerged from this research study, which reaffirms the potential for standardization of gestural interaction. Because gestures have recognizable visual and formal relationships to the things that they represent, their interpretation is closely tied to the context in which they are used. Through a process of contextualization, interaction designers can create visual-spatial frameworks for understanding the intended meaning of the gestures that a user produces. This thesis discusses best practices for applying gestures within interactive scenarios by defining many characteristics of gesture that represent a broad range of gestural expression.

Committee:

Alan Price (Advisor); Liz Sanders (Committee Member); Maria Palazzi (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design

Keywords:

gesture-based interaction; gestural interaction; interactive gestures; multi-touch; multi-user; multi-model; user interface design; interaction design; generative design research; user centered design research

Hallstrom, Jason OlofDesign Pattern Contracts
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Computer and Information Science
A design pattern describes a commonly recurring problem in the design of object-oriented software, a solution to that problem, and the context in which the solution can be applied. The benefits of design patterns are two-fold. First, patterns serve as guidance to the novice designer. Second, they provide an extended vocabulary for documenting software design. In the mid 1990s, the publication of several pattern catalogs – compendiums of design patterns – popularized patterns as a tool for designing object-oriented software. Unfortunately, the descriptive format popularized by these catalogs is inherently imprecise. As a consequence, it is unclear when a pattern has been applied correctly, or what can be concluded about a system implemented using a particular pattern. This ambiguity threatens to undermine the two principal benefits associated with the use of design patterns. First, novice designers are more prone to error without a precise description of how each pattern must be applied. Second, documentation describing the patterns applied in designing a system may be misleading, as different designers can interpret pattern descriptions in subtly different ways. To address the ambiguity issues associated with design pattern descriptions, we introduce the concept of a design pattern contract as a formalism for precisely specifying design patterns. Like all contracts, a design pattern contract consists of two primary components: a responsibilities component and a rewards component. The responsibilities component of a pattern contract precisely characterizes the requirements that must be satisfied by the designer when applying a particular pattern. The rewards component specifies the system properties that are guaranteed to be exhibited if the contract responsibilities are indeed satisfied. The contract formalism alone, however, is insufficient to guarantee that design patterns will be applied correctly. Even when guided by a precise set of requirements, designers can – and do – make mistakes. To detect such contract violations, we introduce the notion of a contract monitor – an executable unit of deployment used to detect runtime contract violations. We present two approaches to implementing these monitors. The choice of which to use depends on the requirements of the system, and the skill-set of the designer.

Committee:

Neelam Soundarajan (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

design patterns; design pattern specifications; reasoning about design patterns; runtime monitoring of design patterns

De Laney, Velvette LDesigning for Sustainability: A Path Forward to Improve Graphic Design Practices
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2017, Design
Design for Sustainability (D4S) is the process of incorporating environmental considerations into design practice (including environmental impacts, renewable and recyclable materials, material and project processes, etc.). Graphic and Print Designers have yet to fully embrace D4S incorporation for various reasons—fear of losing clients, not knowing how to apply D4S without negatively impacting their work, and a lack of education on the subject are among them. The purpose of this thesis is to explore ways to motivate a change in Graphic Design processes toward more environmentally sustainable processes. The original path of this research was to create a tool for Graphic Designers to use to assess the potential environmental impacts of their projects at the beginning of the design process. Through a series of surveys and interviews with design professionals, it became clear that the issue could not be resolved by a tool alone. The challenge was reframed to focus on the larger context of who could use the tool as well as how they might collaborate in its use on print projects. The reframing resulted in a Journey Map that encompasses the tool concept and all of the `players’ that might use it, including Design players (e.g., Graphic and Production Designers, Art and Creative Directors) and Design-Adjacent players (e.g., Clients, Management, Project Managers, and Vendors) in an ongoing process. Its purpose is to motivate them to start, as well as guide them along the journey toward sustainable design. There is a significant need for the Graphic Design field to evolve and become a greater advocate for the environment, given the resources we require of it for our work. This research offers an opportunity for Designers to educate themselves and take the lead on making print projects that showcase D4S thinking. Designers should take the lead, and also collaborate with Design-Adjacent partners to move the industry forward.

Committee:

Elizabeth Sanders (Committee Chair); R. Brian Stone (Committee Member); Blaine Lilly (Committee Member); Noel Mayo (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Environmental Studies; Sustainability; Technology

Keywords:

environmental sustainability, design for sustainability, graphic design, design research, sustainable design

Chesson, DaniDesign Thinker Profile: Creating and Validating a Scale for Measuring Design Thinking Capabilities
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2017, Leadership and Change
This study developed a scale for assessing design thinking capabilities in individuals. Many organizations today are turning to design thinking to tackle the complex challenges they face. As organizations move toward adopting this way of working the need to develop design thinking capabilities in individuals becomes imperative. The capabilities needed for engaging in design thinking are skills that we all have to some varying degree, but we do not all use them to their full potential when solving problems. The scale developed in this study measures the degree to which an individual uses design thinking capabilities when engaged in problem solving. The research process involved a two-phase mixed methods design. In Phase 1, 536 individuals responded to an online survey. The data collected were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A new scale was developed that identified the three core capabilities needed to engage in design thinking: Solution Optimism, Visual Expression, and Collaborative Discovery. In Phase 2, 10 respondents from Phase 1 were selected to participate in follow-up interviews. Findings from the second phase of the study indicated the scale was perceived to accurately measure the use of design thinking capabilities in individuals when engaged in problem solving. Participants commented that this profile was unlike any other assessments they have taken in the past because this profile focuses on skills not emphasized in other assessments. Therefore, the new scale could be used along with other assessments to get a complete view of an individual’s skill set. The findings also indicate that this profile will be useful for executive coaches, change management practitioners, educators teaching design related courses, leaders engaged in team development, and for researchers exploring design thinking capabilities. This dissertation is accompanied by an Executive Summary [pdf] and the author’s MP4 video introduction (for transcript see Appendix I). This dissertation is available in open-access at OhioLink ETD Center, etd.ohiolink.edu, and AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/

Committee:

Mitchell Kusy (Committee Chair); Carol Baron (Committee Member); Shannon Finn Connell (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences; Behaviorial Sciences; Business Administration; Business Education; Design; Management; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior; Social Research

Keywords:

Mixed-Methods; Scale Development; Design Thinking; Design Thinker; Design Thinking Capabilities; Design Thinking Skills; Complex Problem Solving; Innovation; Leading Change; Leadership

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