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Braun, Nichole A.Investigating Environmentally Responsible Behavior: A Phenomenological Study of the Personal Behaviors of Acknowledged Leaders in the Area of Climate Change
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Environment and Natural Resources
The question of the apparent ‘gap’ between what people intend to do with regards to the environment and what they actually do has been simultaneously accepted in environmental education and behavior while at the same time remaining controversial. While we know many of the characteristics of those who engage in pro-environmental behaviors and the external factors, such as money, time limitations and opportunity that either strengthen or counteract these characteristics, less is known about the internal, mental process that results in action or inaction. Not understanding these internal processes may account for our continued observations of a discrepancy between what people know, think, feel, believe, and intend to do about environmental issues and their actual conservation behavior. This study was conducted in two parts: a primary phenomenological study and an emergent, descriptive quantitative study. The phenomenological study described the personal behaviors of eleven acknowledged leaders in the area of climate change, specifically understanding the motivations for, and processes used to decide on environmentally responsible behaviors. Analysis reveals that the need to choose a behavior often initiated the evaluation of behavioral options and context influenced which environmental options could be taken. The results suggest that the process residing in the ‘gap’ is one of weighing options and making trade-offs. When faced with a behavioral decision that would impact the environment, participants considered a number of factors in deciding on how to proceed. The need to protect the environment was only one among many considerations, and decisions on which behaviors to engage in, and when, were consistent with their overall internal and external, situation specific needs. It was also revealed that such trade-offs can result in cognitive dissonance, specifically feelings of guilt. Finally, findings were suggestive of a potential need to reevaluate the micro and macro level solutions in environmental education’s approach to climate change, possibly in our approach to many environmental problems. Analysis of the quantitative portion of the study revealed that respondents have strong expectations about the behaviors of others and while they may or may not act on those expectations, they may in fact hold a judgment about the behavior and/or the person performing the behavior. If taken together, results indicate that the perceived gap may not be an internal gap, experienced by the individual doing a given behavior, but rather an artifact of the expectations of others about how people should act.

Committee:

Joseph Heimlich, PhD (Advisor); David Stein, PhD (Committee Member); Thomas Koontz, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Education

Keywords:

Environmentally Responsible Behavior; Conservation Behavior; Responsible Environmental Behavior; Mind-Behavior Gap; Climate Change Behavior

Robinson, Sean D.Expanding Turnover Theory: Testing Behavioral Predictions of the Proximal Withdrawal States and Destinations (PWSD) Model
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2014, Industrial/Organizational Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
The proximal withdrawal states and destination (PWSD) model (Hom, Mitchell, Lee, & Griffeth, 2012) addresses the shortcomings of current research by introducing the proximal withdrawal states (PWS) as a new construct for turnover investigations. According to Hom et al. (2012) the PWS are pre-departure mindsets that can energize participation with the organization. This study empirically investigates the PWS component of the PWSD model and its ability to predict two behaviors that reflect employee participation prior to departure: organizational citizenship behavior (OCB; indicative constructive participation) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB; indicative of destructive participation). This study also considers how the PWS affect the role of personality and its relationship with OCB and CWB. A self-reported survey was completed by 607 full-time, classified employees from a large hospital complex in South Central United States. Results from multivariate analysis of variance indicate significant effects for the PWS predicting OCB and CWB, although the PWS were most predictive of behaviors directed at the organization. Findings from moderated regression analyses also demonstrate significant and marginally significant interactions between PWS and personality in predicting behavior. Specifically, the reluctant stayer mindset depressed the relationship between positive affectivity and OCB and the enthusiastic stayer mindset strengthened the relationship between negativity and CWB. Results are discussed and implications for turnover research are presented.

Committee:

Rodger Griffeth (Advisor); Jeff Vancouver (Committee Member); Keith Markman (Committee Member); Diana Schwerha (Committee Member); Jason Stoner (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Personality; Psychology

Keywords:

proximal withdrawal states and destinations model; proximal withdrawal states; organizational citizenship behavior; helping behavior; voice behavior; loyalty behavior; counterproductive work behavior; positive affectivity; negative affectivity

Guld, Amanda ElizabethBreaking The Link: An Analysis Of Procedures To Decrease Inappropriate Behavior When It Is A Link In A Response Chain
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, ED Physical Activities and Educational Services
The current study examined the effectiveness of a strategy to disrupt behavior chains, consisting of an inappropriate behavior followed by an appropriate behavior of 3 children with moderate to severe disabilities. A baseline measure was collected of each response in the chain: response one (R1) and response two (R2). Conditional probabilities were calculated to provide evidence that the two responses occurred in a predictable sequence and may therefore constitute a chain. The subsequent intervention consisted of providing the appropriate discriminative stimulus that occasioned R2 on a fixed schedule and reinforcing the appropriate response (R2) regardless of when it occurred (i.e., within the chain or alone). The results of a multiple baseline across participants analysis demonstrated that the intervention was effective in disrupting the response chains and in decreasing the inappropriate response for all 3 participants. In addition, the intervention was effective in increasing the appropriate response in 2 of the 3 participants. These results have implications for use of the disruption procedure in applied settings in which challenging behavior is a member of a response chain.

Committee:

Nancy Neef, PhD (Advisor); Helen Malone, PhD (Committee Member); William Heward, PhD (Committee Member); Ralph Gardner, III, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Psychology; Psychology; Special Education

Keywords:

response chain; behavior analysis; developmental disabilities; behavior chain; inappropriate behavior; appropriate behavior

Eftekhari, MohammadrezaCreep, Fatigue, and Their Interaction at Elevated Temperatures in Thermoplastic Composites
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2016, Mechanical Engineering
Thermoplastic composites are suitable alternatives to metals in some load-bearing applications such as in the automotive industry due to a large number of advantages they present. These include light weight, ease of processing for complex geometries at high production rate, outstanding cost to performance ratio, ability to reprocess, and corrosion resistance. Addition of fillers such as talc or reinforcements such as short glass fibers can improve the mechanical performance of unreinforced thermoplastics to a high degree. Components made of thermoplastic composites are typically subjected to complex loadings in applications including static, cyclic, thermal, and their combinations. These applications may also involve environmental conditions such as elevated temperature and moisture which can dramatically affect their mechanical properties. This study investigated tensile, creep, fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) behaviors of five thermoplastic composites including short glass fiber reinforced and talc-filled polypropylene, short glass fiber reinforced polyamide-6.6, and short glass fiber reinforced polyphenylene ether and polystyrene under a variety of conditions. The main objectives were to evaluate aforementioned mechanical behaviors of these materials at elevated temperatures and to develop predictive models to reduce their development cost and time. Tensile behavior was investigated including effects of temperature, moisture, and hygrothermal aging. Kinetics of water absorption and desorption were investigated for polyamide-6.6 composite and Fickian behavior was observed. The reductions in tensile strength and elastic modulus due to water absorption were represented by mathematical relations as a function of moisture content. In addition to moisture content, aging time was also found to influence the tensile behavior. A parameter was introduced for correlations of normalized stiffness and strength with different aging times and temperatures. Higher strength and stiffness were obtained for re-dried specimens after aging which was explained by an increase in crystallinity. Mechanisms of failure were identified based on fracture surface microscopic analysis for different conditions. Creep behavior was investigated and modeled at room and elevated temperatures. Creep strength decreased and both creep strain and creep rate increased with increasing temperature. The Larson-Miller parameter was able to correlate the creep rupture data of all materials. The Monkman-Grant relation and its modification were successfully used to correlate minimum creep rate, time to rupture, and strain at rupture data. The Findley power law and time-stress superposition principle (TSS) were used to represent non-linear viscoelastic creep curves. Long-term creep behavior was also satisfactory predicted based on short-term test data using the TSS principle. Effect of cycling frequency on fatigue behavior was investigated by conducting load-controlled fatigue tests at several stress ratios and at several temperatures. A beneficial or strengthening effect of increasing frequency was observed for some of the studied materials, before self-heating became dominant at higher frequencies. A reduction in loss tangent (viscoelastic damping factor), width of hysteresis loop, and displacement amplitude, measured in load-controlled fatigue tests, was observed by increasing frequency for frequency sensitive materials. Reduction in loss tangent was also observed for frequency sensitive materials in dynamic mechanical analysis tests. It was concluded that the fatigue behavior is also time-dependent for frequency sensitive materials. A Larson-Miller type parameter was used to correlate experimental fatigue data and relate stress amplitude, frequency, cycles to failure, and temperature together. Effects of temperature and mean stress on fatigue behavior were also investigated by conducting load-controlled fatigue tests under positive stress ratios and at room and elevated temperatures. Larson-Miller parameter was used and a shift factor of Arrhenius type was developed to correlate fatigue data at various temperatures. Effect of mean stress on fatigue life was significant for some of the studied materials, however, for the polyphenylene ether and polystyrene blend no effect of mean stress was observed. Modified Goodman and Walker mean stress equations were evaluated for their ability to correlate mean stress data. A general fatigue life prediction model was also used to account for the effects of mean stress, temperature, anisotropy, and frequency. Creep-fatigue tests were conducted using trapezoidal load signal with hold-time periods. Effects of temperature, frequency, load level, mean stress, and hold-stress position on creep-fatigue interaction behavior were studied. In-phase TMF tests were conducted on polyamide-based composite for the temperature variation between 85 to 120 °C. Significant non-linearity was observed for the interaction of creep and fatigue damage. The applicability of Chaboche non-linear creep-fatigue interaction model to predict creep-fatigue and TMF lives for thermoplastic composites was investigated. A frequency term was added to the model to consider the beneficial effect of increased frequency observed for some the studied materials. The Chaboche model constants were obtained by using pure fatigue, pure creep, and one creep-fatigue interaction experimental data. More than 90% of life predictions by the Chaboche model were within a factor of 2 of the experimental life for both creep-fatigue and TMF test conditions.

Committee:

Ali Fatemi, Dr. (Advisor); Mohamed Samir Hefzy, Dr. (Committee Member); Saleh Jabarin, Dr. (Committee Member); Joseph Lawrence, Dr. (Committee Member); Efstratios Nikolaidis, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Tensile Behavior; Creep Behavior; Fatigue Behavior; Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Behavior; Creep-Fatigue Interaction; Short Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite; Talc-Filled Thermoplastic Composite

Shaffer, Elizabeth AnnEffects of Peer-Monitored Social Skills Training on Measures of Social Acceptance
Specialist in Education, Miami University, 2009, School Psychology
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect that intensive social-skills training, peer monitoring and role modeling has on elementary students’ prosocial behavior. Twelve students in grades 3 – 5 served as participants in this intervention. Participants first received social-skills instruction, peer modeled during classroom skits, and peer monitored at recess while dispersing coupons to children demonstrating positive social-skills. Increases in positive social behavior in the classroom were found across all grade level participants.

Committee:

T. Steuart Watson, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Education; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Elementary Education; Personal Relationships; Personality; Psychology; School Administration; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Sociology; Special Education; Teacher Education; Teachi

Keywords:

social skills training; school behavior intervention; school positive behavior support; antisocial behavior; peer monitoring; role-modeling; prosocial behavior

Allen, Janelle RenéeBIOGENIC AMINES AND THE MODULATION OF BEHAVIOR IN DOMINANT AND SUBORDINATE MALE CRICKETS (Acheta domesticus)
Master of Science, Miami University, 2004, Zoology
This study focuses on the neural basis of behavioral choice in the cricket, Acheta domesticus, primarily changes in escape behaviors of male crickets after fighting. When two mature males are placed together, chemosensory antennal contact triggers stereotyped, escalating aggressive behavior that concludes with the dominant male chasing and biting the subordinate male, who ultimately escapes by running away. Pre- and post-fighting touch-evoked behaviors of dominants and subordinates were evaluated. Before a fight, males who became subordinates showed significantly fewer kicking and more forward locomotion responses than those who became dominant. This suggests that kicking is an aggressive behavior and that subordinates are inherently less aggressive and destined to lose a fight. Following a fight, dominant crickets expressed decreased jumping and subordinates no change in jumping, but increased backward locomotion responses, while both crickets showed increased kicking. Fought subordinates, like unfought mating males, showed complete suppression of escape during copulation. After mating, mated subordinates did not show decreased jumping like post-fighting dominants. HPLC/ECD was used to measure levels of serotonin, dopamine, octopamine, and their n-acetylated metabolites in the brain, metathoracic ganglion, and terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG) of control, dominant, and subordinate crickets. Serotonin and octopamine activity in fighting males differed little from that of unfought control males. Differences were reported for dominant brain dopamine and n-acetyl dopamine, and dominant and subordinate TAG n-acetyl dopamine. Analyses of amine levels based on time of sacrifice and maximum fight level reached confirmed these amine level changes; however, the time analysis also reported serotonin level changes in the metathoracic ganglion. This thesis also reports limitations within these studies and directions for future research.

Committee:

Kathleen Killian (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biology, Neuroscience

Keywords:

escape behavior; aggressive behavior; fighting behavior; mating behavior; serotonin; dopamine; octopamine; metabolites; HPLC/ECD

Patel, Monica RajivParental Attitudes Toward Advanced Behavior Guidance Techniques used in Pediatric Dentistry
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2012, Dentistry
Purpose: To reexamine parental attitudes toward advanced behavior management techniques currently used in pediatric dentistry and determine how factors such as cost, urgency and amount of treatment influence parental acceptability. Methods: Parents bringing children for routine dental care viewed previously validated videotaped clinical vignettes of four advanced behavior guidance techniques: passive restraint, active restraint, general anesthesia and oral premedication (sedation). The study was conducted at both a children’s hospital setting and a suburban private pediatric dentistry office. Parents rated overall acceptance of the techniques, as well as acceptance under specified conditions using a visual analogue scale. Results: One hundred five parents completed the survey; fifty-five from children’s hospital and fifty from private practice. Overall, oral premedication (sedation) was rated as the most acceptable technique, followed (in order of decreasing acceptance) by general anesthesia, active restraint and passive restraint. As urgency, convenience and previous experience increased, parental acceptability of the technique increased. As cost of treatment increased, acceptability decreased. Acceptability rankings between the children’s hospital group and private practice group differed, as did the following demographic variables: insurance, income and race. Conclusions: The hierarchy of acceptability is changing with increasing approval of pharmacological management and decreasing approval of physical management. The healthcare delivery system, urgency, convenience, previous experience and cost all influence parental acceptability.

Committee:

Dennis McTigue, DDS, MS (Advisor); Sarat Thikkurissy, DDS, MS (Committee Member); Henry Fields, DDS, MS, MSD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Dentistry

Keywords:

behavior guidance; parental acceptance of behavior guidance; behavior management; behavior management techniques

Shaver, Amy ElizabethPatterns of rule-violating behavior in children and adolescents
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Psychology
This study examined the influence of individual, family, and environmental factors on the development of rule-violating behaviors over time among 508 children and adolescents and their parents drawn from a longitudinal study of bereavement and depression. Participants ranged in age from 5-17 [M(SD) = 11.4(3.2)] at study entry; 52% were male, and 98% Caucasian. Hierarchical multivariate multilevel models were created to measure the effect of individual, family, and environmental factors on participation in rule-violating behaviors over five repeated assessments. Interaction effects were also examined. Overall reported unruly behavior, alcohol use, drug use, and sexual activity were quite low, but strongly correlated. Parent and child reports of behavior were correlated, but parents reported less substance use and sexual activity, and more unruly behavior overall. Significant differences were found in the models for the four dependent variables. No sex or SES differences were found, with the exception of reported sexual activity, which was higher among girls and older adolescents. Use of alcohol was greatest among those with normative pubertal development. Sensation seeking predicted increased unruly behavior and alcohol use. Impulsivity predicted more unruly behavior in younger children, but had no effect for older adolescents. Depression significantly predicted more unruly behavior, but effects on alcohol use and drug use interacted with age and differed for parent and child report. Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms were linked with increased sexual activity, and predicted greater alcohol use and more unruly behavior among older adolescents. CD symptoms predicted more drug use among depressed youth, but decreased drug use in non-depressed participants. Older adolescents living in two-parent households at study entry reported less alcohol use. Parent psychopathology predicted greater sexual activity. Positive family functioning predicted decreased unruly behavior and drug use, and healthy parental marital relationships predicted less unruly behavior. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and significant life events predicted more overall unruly behavior and drug use. Involvement in family activities protected against alcohol use and unruly behavior in the presence of psychosocial stressors. Parental marital conflict increased the risk for drinking, but only in the presence of psychosocial stressors. Implications and directions for future study are discussed.

Committee:

Mary Fristad (Advisor)

Keywords:

adolescent development; rule-violating behavior; risk behavior; problem behavior; substance use; sexual activity; conduct problems

LOTLIKAR, HARSHAD SURESHA BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY APPROACH FOR CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2005, Engineering : Civil Engineering
Background: Behavior-based safety (BBS) is one of the promising methods used in the construction industry to reduce the incidence of accidents and injuries. However, the construction industry needs to an approach which can address its safety issues with the required flexibility. Objective: To provide a decision support system which will let construction companies (especially small and medium-sized construction companies) implement behavior-based safety. Methods: Perform a review of the existing literature on the topic and carry out a pilot study to verify the credibility of the model. Develop a rating system to quantify and evaluate the performance of different sub-contractors working for the company. Results Most of the sub-contractors showed a statistically significant improvement in at least three of the behaviors. Some showed improvement in more than six behaviors. Conclusions The rating procedure suggested in this research can provide the information about the actual safety performance of the company for different behaviors. The research shows that a statistically significant improvement in safety performance is possible with the model.

Committee:

Ossama Salem (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Keywords: Behavior based safety, applied behavior analysis, behavior modification, accidents/injuries;

Hayman, Emily LReducing Verbal and Physical Aggression in Elementary Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Aggression Replacement Training Program
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2014, Curriculum and Instruction: Special Education
Elementary students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often exhibit aggressive behavior, causing disruption of the classroom-learning environment. Disruptive students are at risk of being removed from the classroom and being excluded from valuable class time. Remediating and reducing aggression in students with ASD requires intervention strategies to address social, communication, and anger management skills. The study examined the effectiveness of the Aggression Replacement Training (ART) (Glick & Gibbs, 2011) in reducing verbal and physical aggression for nine students with ASD. ART teaches students to use effective communication and anger management techniques to prevent conflicts, maintain self-control, and manage stressful situations in an appropriate manner. ART is a 10-week program, and was implemented with three groups of students with ASD using a multiple baseline across groups study design. The study used visual inspection of data to determine if the ART program decreases levels of aggression in students with ASD. The purpose of the study was to decrease frequency of verbal and physical aggression and increase prosocial skills. Results of the study found ART to be an effective intervention for reducing verbal and physical aggression in elementary students with Autism. All participants also demonstrated acquisition and increased use of social skills.

Committee:

Edward Cancio, PhD (Committee Chair); Laurie Dinnebeil, PhD (Committee Member); William McInerney, PhD (Committee Member); Ronald David, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Cognitive Psychology; Early Childhood Education; Educational Psychology; Elementary Education; Neurosciences; Psychological Tests; Psychology; Special Education; Teacher Education

Keywords:

autism; autism spectrum disorders; behavior disorders; aggression; Aggression Replacement Training; behavior; social skills; anger management; communication; behavior modification; autism interventions; theories of aggression; theory of mind; ASD

Finlinson, ScottIncreasing Organizational Energy Conservation Behaviors: Comparing the Theory of Planned Behavior and Reasons Theory for Identifying Specific Motivational Factors to Target for Change
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2005, Psychology (Arts and Sciences)

Social scientists frequently assess factors thought to underlie behavior for the purpose of designing behavioral change interventions. Researchers commonly identify these factors by examining relationships between specific variables and the focal behaviors being investigated. Variables with the strongest relationships to the focal behavior are then assumed to be the most influential determinants of that behavior, and therefore often become the targets for change in a behavioral change intervention. In the current proposal, multiple methods are used to compare the effectiveness of two theoretical frameworks for identifying influential motivational factors. Assessing the relative influence of all factors and sets of factors for driving behavior should clarify which framework and methodology is the most promising for identifying effective change targets. Results indicated each methodology adequately predicted the three focal behaviors examined. However, the reasons theory approach was superior for predicting factor influence ratings compared to the TpB approach. While common method variance contamination had minimal impact on the results or conclusions derived from the present study’s findings, there were substantial differences in conclusions depending on the questionnaire design used to collect the data. Examples of applied uses of the present study are discussed.

Committee:

Jeffrey Vancouver (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Industrial

Keywords:

Organizational Energy Conservation; Theory of Planned Behavior; Reasons Theory; Behavior Change Intervention

Ferratt, Thomas WilliamPatterns of organizational variables and relationships : theory with predictions using a simulation methodology
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1974, Business Administration

Committee:

H. Randolph Bobbitt, Jr. (Advisor); James P. McNaul (Committee Member); Larry P. Ritzman (Committee Member)

Keywords:

organizational units; Task Behavior; Search and Choice; Program of Task Behavior; Aspiration level

Vaillancourt, Joseph RobertUniversity students' attitudes and behavior regarding farmers' markets: an Ohio study
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2012, Agricultural and Extension Education
While the majority of Americans are three generations removed from agricultural production, there has been a renewed interest in local foods in the U.S. Farmers’ markets, a commonplace where producers and growers gather on a recurring basis to sell fruits, vegetables, and other produce, have tripled domestically since the mid-1990s. Not only do farmers’ markets provide fresh, locally grown produce, but they also provide a medium by which now-distant consumers can reconnect with the agricultural community. One population that has growing interest in these markets is college-aged individuals. This study is unique in that it explores the attitudes and behaviors regarding farmers’ markets that one sector of the college-aged population has. The theory of planned behavior was used as framework for this study, which utilized a researcher-administered questionnaire to students at The Ohio State University’s Columbus campus. Questions addressed university students’ attitudes, behaviors, subjective norm behaviors, respondent background, and how respondents heard about markets. The survey, adopted from a 2004 Norwegian study, was administered to 174 students. Respondents reported positive attitudes toward farmers’ markets. The majority of the respondents had been to a farmers’ market at least once in their life, and the majority of respondents also plan to purchase from farmers’ markets after college. Respondents from rural and non-rural areas reported similar attitudes and behaviors regarding markets; however, rural respondents were more likely to purchase foods straight from a farm or roadside stands. While friends’ behaviors regarding farmers’ markets and organic produce did not appear to have an impact on respondent behavior, respondents whose family purchased organic produce and attended farmers’ markets were more likely to behave similarly. In accordance with several other studies, this population heard about farmers’ markets primarily through word-of-mouth. Recommendations for further research include exploring attitudes and behaviors of students at other universities in other states, different populations such as families, and qualitative research performed right at farmers’ markets. It was recommended that farmers’ market managers and communications directors position themselves to communicate with university students through word-of-mouth and social media, as this population has shown positive attitudes and a high level of awareness of farmers’ market.

Committee:

Emily Rhoades, PhD (Advisor); Cano Jamie, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Communication

Keywords:

college students; farmers' market; theory of planned behavior; farm market; sustainable; sustainable agriculture; agricultural communication; organic; organic farming; attitudes; local food; behavior; communication; alternative agriculture; behaviors

Rogers, Timothy E.Using the Theory of Reasoned Action to Predict College Men’s Intentions to Seek Psychological Help
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2009, Counseling Psychology
This study sought to increase current understanding of men’s help-seeking intentions using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). The TRA provides a comprehensive framework to simultaneously assess several beliefs that may contribute to the formation of attitudes and subjective norms that, in turn, determine a person’s intention to perform a specific behavior such as seeking psychological help. Using existing psychological measures of help-seeking variables (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, anticipated risks and benefits of self-disclosure, treatment fears, self-disclosure willingness, social and personal stigma for seeking psychological help) and masculinity constructs (i.e., gender role conflict and conformity to traditional male norms), this study examined a fully mediated and partially mediated TRA model to predict help-seeking intentions in a sample of college men (N = 338). Results from both models revealed a less-than-adequate fit with the data, accounting for 18.1% to 26.5% of the variance in men’s help-seeking intentions. Based on these results, an alternative post-hoc TRA model was examined and found to be an excellent fit with the data, accounting for 42.4% of the variance in men’s help-seeking intentions. Overall, results from this study supported an alternative partially mediated TRA model that accounted for a large portion of variance in men’s help-seeking intentions.

Committee:

David Tokar, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Health Care; Mental Health; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Therapy

Keywords:

help seeking behavior; help seeking intentions; male help seeking behavior

Galliger, Courtney C.NAUGHTY OR NICE: SOCIAL INTERACTION ON THE SCHOOL BUS
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Psychology/Developmental
Past research has found that different contexts create unique experiences that contribute to a child's development. A context that remains unexplored, however, is the bus ride to and from school. The current study explored the school bus as a unique context for social interaction. More specifically, the purpose of this study was to understand any gender differences, developmental differences, and differences in being an actor versus a recipient in the rate and types of prosocial and aggressive behaviors that occur on the bus ride to and from school. One hundred and fifty-seven elementary school students (78 males and 79 females) in grades 3, 4, and 5 completed a questionnaire concerning the rate and types of prosocial and aggressive behaviors that occur on the school bus. Overall, the results indicated that students were prosocial more often on the school bus than they were aggressive. Regarding the rate of prosocial and aggressive behaviors, the results showed several signficant effects with respect to participant gender, peer gender, being an actor versus a recipient, and age. Regarding the types of social behaviors, five types of prosocial behavior were identified and five types of aggressive behavior were identified. Although the types of social behaviors were consistent with past research, differences found in the current study were distinctive. For example, participants mentioned non-traditionally studied prosocial behaviors (e.g., companionship and benevolence) more often than traditionally studied behaviors (e.g., sharing and helping). In addition, participants mentioned physical aggression more often among their female peers than among their male peers. It is concluded that the present results have important implications for the school bus context and for future research.

Committee:

Marie Tisak (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Developmental

Keywords:

school bus; social interactions; prosocial behavior; aggressive behavior; children's social interactions

Abernathy, William ButlerCase studies in organizational behavior modification /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1978, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Behavior modification;Organizational behavior

Murray, R. DanielMating patterns among kin and nonkin in a captive group of stumptail macaques /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1984, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Stump-tailed macaque--Behavior;Sexual behavior in animals;Courtship in animals

Jones, Kelley SimmonsChildhood Sexual Behavior: An Integrated Developmental Ecological Assessment Approach
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2014, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology
This qualitative, theoretical review and analysis of extant literature explored the sociocultural influences effecting conceptualization of childhood sexual behavior problems. Themes emerged from analysis of peer-reviewed journals that illustrated the complex, multidimensional, and ecological factors influencing child sexual development and problematic sexual behavior. These included major themes of Child Sexuality: Ecological Context, Developmental Context, Complex Trauma, and Ecological Interventions. Specific factors associated with childhood sexual behavior problems included trauma, domestic violence, sexual and physical abuse, psychological and emotional distress, impaired attachment, and the effects of diverse ecological systems such as the family, parents, and sociocultural influences of the greater community. Analysis culminated with an enhanced conceptualization of childhood sexual behavior named Ecological Developmental View. This conceptual model, integrated within the framework of ecological theory, evolved into an innovative approach of clinical assessment for childhood sexual behaviors applicable in outpatient clinical settings. The model, Integrated Developmental Ecological Assessment Approach (IDEAA), recognized the significance of the developing child influenced within the ecological contexts of the child, family, social, and community environments. The IDEAA model intends to help professionals and adults to address concerns related to childhood sexual behavior from an ecological perspective that will enhance and benefit outcomes for children, parents, families, and communities. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Mary Wieneke, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Melissa Kennedy, Ph.D. (Committee Member); William Luecke, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Developmental Psychology; Families and Family Life; Mental Health; Psychology

Keywords:

Childhood Sexual Behavior; Child Sexual Behavior Problems; Complex Trauma; Children; Families; Clinical Assessment; Assessment Model;Developmental Theory; Social Construction; Qualitative Analysis; Thematic Analysis; Theoretical and Conceptual Research

Campbell, Lacey DBehavior and success in web contests between an invading Pholcus spider and a local congener
Master of Science, Miami University, Biological Sciences
Contests over limited resources frequently occur when species occupy the same area. Certain behaviors may predispose some species to have a competitive advantage during these contests. The cellar spider, Pholcus manueli, recently expanded its range and appears to have displaced local populations of Pholcus phalangioides. I quantified activity differences between these species and investigated whether the success of P. manueli is due to its competitiveness. In my first experiment, P. manueli displayed more activity and web deposits than P. phalangioides, but P. phalangioides deposited webbing at a faster rate. Next, I staged interspecific contests over territory—an empty web site or a site occupied by a web (higher resource value) of one species. Pholcus manueli did not win any contests and retreated from interactions more often. The success of P. manueli is not due to its ability to take over territory but may be related to its active nature.

Committee:

Ann Rypstra (Advisor); Alan Cady (Committee Member); Nancy Solomon (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Behavioral Sciences; Biology; Ecology; Zoology

Keywords:

animal behavior; contest behavior; interspecific competition; resource competition; invading species; cellar spiders

Clevenger, Kimberly A.Impact of the Teaching HENRY (Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Recommendations for Youth) Intervention on Physical Activity Knowledge and Behavior in Rural Appalachia
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Exercise Physiology-Research (Health Sciences and Professions)
Introduction: Storybook characters may provide young children with a role model for healthy behaviors and improve their understanding of recommendations for daily physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: To assess the effect of a character-based intervention on children’s knowledge of recommendations, benefits, and definitions of PA and SB and participation in these behaviors. Methods: All children (6-11 y, N = 21) in an after-school program completed a questionnaire on knowledge, self-efficacy, and habits at pre- and postintervention. A consented subset (n = 6) completed anthropometric measures at baseline and wore an accelerometer for 7 days at both time-points to objectively determine PA. A repeated measures ANOVA assessed changes in knowledge, self-efficacy and behavior from pre- to postintervention by sex, consent status, and program-determined team (based on grade) (p < 0.05). Results: Knowledge increased 14.3% points (p < 0.01) and self-efficacy increased 22.5% points (p = 0.01). Measured PA increased by 7 min/day (p = 0.41), while SB decreased 21 min/day (p = 0.62) and self-reported screen-time decreased by 1.5 hr/day (p = 0.39). Conclusion: This character-based intervention promoted positive changes in knowledge and self-efficacy, with practically important changes in behavior in rural Appalachian youth.

Committee:

Cheryl Howe, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Health; Health Education; Health Sciences; Kinesiology; Public Health; Recreation

Keywords:

physical activity; nutrition; children; health; education; youth; behavior; appalachia; school; pediatrics; childhood obesity; MVPA; accelerometry; intervention; sedentary behavior

Gray, LorrainePerceived Gender Role Conflict and Violence: Mexican American Gang Members
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2015, Antioch Santa Barbara: Clinical Psychology
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine gender role conflicts (the inability to express emotions or feelings) within the lived experiences of former Mexican American gang members. This study involved exploring the relationship between restricted emotionality, machismo, and violence. O’Neil developed the theory of gender role conflict in 1980 to identify areas of stress in masculine behavior, cognitions, affective behavior, and the unconscious. According to O’Neil (1981a), “Gender role conflict is a psychological state in which gender roles (masculine, feminine, or androgynous roles) have negative consequences or impacts on the persons” (p. 203). The extreme result of conflict is the limitation of a person’s ability to ascertain his or her highest and best human potential or to limit another person from reaching his or her inherent capacity. A review of literature revealed no research on the distinctive subculture of Mexican American gang members and gender role conflict. The focus of this study was one of O’Neil’s six patterns of gender role conflict: restricted emotionality. This study involved examining machismo from various perspectives, including exploring the anthropological roots of a patriarchal society as a possible infrastructure to misogyny and strict traditional male ideologies such as hypermasculinity. This study helped elucidate how the dominant culture plays an active role in influencing the identity and behavior of a subcultural group, specifically Mexican American gang members. The electronic version of this dissertation is available free at Ohiolink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Steven Kadin, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Salvador Trevino , Ph.D (Committee Member); James O'Neil, Ph.D (Other)

Subjects:

Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

machismo; gender role conflict; Mexican gangs; male socialization; masculine behavior; early behavior modeling

Horan, Kristin ACounterproductive work behavior (CWB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and their relationship to work stressors: The role of physical activity
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Psychology/Industrial-Organizational
Previous research has demonstrated relationships between work stressors and the outcome variables of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The present study examines physical activity as a potential moderator of these relationships. This study also examines mood and energy as underlying mechanisms of the proposed moderation effect. To test this relationship, 294 firefighters completed a survey measuring work stressors, physical activity, CWB, and OCB. 54 firefighters participated in a six-week follow-up survey. Main effect and moderation analyses were performed using hierarchical linear regression. Results revealed that various work stressors, including interpersonal conflict, organizational constraints and procedural injustice, were positively related to CWB. Interpersonal conflict, workload, organizational constraints, and procedural injustice were positively related to OCB. Physical activity moderated the relationship between interpersonal conflict and CWB and the relationship between workload and OCB. Energy and mood did not account for these relationships. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

Committee:

Steve Jex (Advisor); Russell Matthews (Committee Member); Dara Musher-Eizenman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

work stressors; counterproductive work behavior; organizational citizenship behavior; physical activity

Chang, Christopher SRelationships of Organizational Justice and Organizational Constraints With Performance: A Meta-Analysis
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Psychology/Industrial-Organizational
The purpose of the current study was to meta-analytically examine the relationships of organizational justice and organizational constraints with three performance criteria: task performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). A meta-analysis of 106 studies (n = 35699) revealed that task performance and OCB were positively related to all forms of organizational justice, but only task performance was negatively related to organizational constraints. On the other hand, CWB was negatively related to all forms of organizational justice and positively related to organizational constraints. Furthermore, different dimensions of organizational justice had differential relationships with performance criteria. Procedural and interactional justice had a weaker positive association with task performance compared to OCB. Procedural justice had a stronger positive relationship with OCB-O than OCB-I. With regard to the differential relationship between organizational constraints and performance, organizational constraints had a stronger negative relationship with task performance than OCB. Another significant finding was that negative emotions fully mediated the relationship between organizational constraints and CWB. The relationship between organizational justice with self-rated versus other-rated OCB was not significantly stronger for self-rated versus other rated OCB. Lastly, an unexpected finding was that organizational constraints had a stronger relationship with self-rated CWB than other-rated CWB. The study’s implications for research and practice are discussed, and directions for future research are provided.

Committee:

Steve Jex (Advisor); Michael Zickar (Committee Member); Mary Hare (Committee Member); Gregory Rich (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

meta-analysis; organizational justice; procedural justice; distributive justice; interactional justice; organizational constraints; task performance; OCB; organizational citizenship behavior; CWB; counterproductive work behavior; negative emotions

Cabaniss, Amy DyerMessage Matters: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Increase Household Hazardous Waste Program Participation
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies
Removing household hazardous waste (HHW) from the municipal solid waste stream is important to protect health, safety and the environment. Communities across the U.S. separate HHW from regular trash for disposal with hazardous waste, however nationally, participation rates are low with only five to ten percent of households estimated to participate in any given collection. This two-part study used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to understand individuals’ beliefs and attitudes toward HHW collections, and to develop a print message intervention to increase participation. In Study 1, respondents (N = 983) completed a survey administered to homeowners in the Connecticut River Estuary region. Correlational and regression mediation analyses showed that the TPB significantly predicted self-reported attendance at an HHW collection. Despite wide use of the TPB in studies designed to predict intention and behavior, application in behavior change interventions is not common. Thus in Study 2, an experiment was conducted in which the sample comprised of survey respondents and non-respondents (N = 2,409) was randomly assigned to receive one of the following intervention print message treatments: (1) only factual information about the HHW collections; (2) factual information plus positive attitudes toward HHW collection participation; (3) factual and normative messages about HHW participation; and (4) factual, attitudinal and normative messages. The control condition was single-family households in the region that received neither the survey nor treatment. Results of the experiment were mixed. The information-only card showed a 15% participation rate while the card that provided information and appealed to both attitudes and norms, showed a 22.5% participation rate, compared to the control group with 8.7% participation. Two conditions hypothesized to show significant increases in participation, an information and attitude message card and an information and normative message card did not significantly differ from the control. The results of this research imply that direct-mailed print messages with program information and appeals to both attitudes and norms can be an effective tool for motivating HHW collection participation

Committee:

Thomas Webler, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); George Tremblay, Ph.D. (Committee Member); P.Wesley Schultz, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Communication; Conservation; Environmental Health; Environmental Studies; Experiments; Marketing; Social Psychology

Keywords:

survey; experiment; Theory of Planned Behavior; communications messages; community-based social marketing; community; household hazardous waste; HHW; environmental behavior

Bumberry, LauraPersonality and behavioral patterns of juvenile offenders as measured by the MACI and the CBCL
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2008, Psychology
Although there is general agreement that juvenile offenders are a heterogeneous group, few theories have been developed to identify subgroups of offenders. The current study utilized a hierarchical cluster analysis to examine the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory profiles of first-time male juvenile offenders (n=680). Five clusters were generated: Internalizing, Conforming, Antisocial, Depressive/Delinquent and Reactive/Abused. Child Behavior Checklist Syndrome scales were examined to provide external validity for these clusters. There were no significant differences in offender type across MACI clusters. The utility of these clusters are addressed, including their use is identifying intervention programs specific to each cluster of offenders to minimize risk of future offending.

Committee:

Kathleen J. Hart, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Chair); W. Michael Nelson III, Ph.D., ABPP (Committee Member); Myron Fridman, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behavioral Psychology; Criminology; Personality Psychology

Keywords:

social sciences; psychology; personality; behavior patterns; juvenile offenders; Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory; MACI; Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL

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