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Shaughnessy, Ryan D.No Sense in Dwelling on the Past? The Fate of the U.S. Air Force's German Air Force Monograph Project, 1952-1969
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, History
This thesis examines the German Air Force Monograph Project, also known as the Karlsruhe Project, through which the United States Air Force employed former Luftwaffe generals to record the history of World War II from the German perspective. Historians have explored parallel programs in the U.S. Army and Navy, but the Karlsruhe Project has received little attention; however, the Air Force monographs have proven useful to historians because of their high quality. This paper attributes the Karlsruhe monographs’ strength as works of history primarily to the Air Force’s limited interest in them, which insulated the writers from outside pressure to produce studies of immediate utility to the military. Whereas policy needs drove the Army and Navy programs and often caused them to search for convenient tactical “lessons” in German history, the German Air Force Monograph Project was effectively autonomous, but this was a mixed blessing. Chronically undermanned and inadequately funded, the project ended with most studies still unfinished. The Air Force ignored the monographs and failed to benefit from the experience of the Luftwaffe. This paper illustrates the inherent tensions in writing official military history and utilizes the Karlsruhe Project as a lense to examine problems plaguing the Air Force during the early Cold War. Still, cooperative historical work proved to be an inexpensive and unexpected way of cementing the critical West German-American military alliance, and both air forces came to value this aspect of the project more than the historical studies it produced.

Committee:

John Guilmartin, Jr. (Advisor); Alan Beyerchen (Committee Member); Peter Mansoor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; European History; History; Military History

Keywords:

Luftwaffe; air force ; United States air force; official history; karlsruhe project; german air force monograph project;; airpower

Mierzwiak, Sara M.The Development of the Contaminant Exceedance Rating System (CERS) for Comparing Groundwater Contaminant Data
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2012, Geography

The typical approach to mapping groundwater contaminant plumes involves drawing plume contours out to each contaminant’s site-specific cleanup criterion. Cleanup criteria differ between contaminants, sites and U.S. states. For this reason, it is difficult to determine which monitoring wells, plumes and sites are most contaminated within a given area or region. For the same reason, it is also difficult to determine which individual contaminant is most concentrated within a single monitoring well.

The Contaminant Exceedance Rating System (CERS) was developed to address these issues by normalizing groundwater contaminant data against their site-specific cleanup criteria. Each contaminant’s laboratory analytical result is divided by its respective site-specific cleanup criterion and the result is a unitless ratio which is then compared against other CERS Values. The CERS Values are then ranked into a set of CERS Ranking Categories for data grouping purposes and ease of mapping.

The CERS was successfully implemented utilizing data from the Former Wurtsmith Air Force Base (WAFB) in Oscoda, Michigan (provided by the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment[AFCEE]). Basewide groundwater volatile organic compound (VOC) data from Summer/Fall 2009 was utilized. ESRI┬┐┬┐ ArcGIS Version 10.0 was used to map the resultant CERS Values, symbolized by their Ranking Categories. By implementing the CERS, the following were successfully determined for this data: the most concentrated contaminant in each sample, the most contaminated well(s) within each site, the most contaminated wells on the entire base, and the most contaminated plumes on the base.

It is recommended that the CERS be further implemented using additional temporal data from the Former WAFB. It is also recommended that the CERS be implemented using contaminant data from other Department of Defense (DoD) installations. The CERS could allow for comparison of maximum degree of contamination between entire installations, with the overall intent being to assist in the DoD-wide remedial funding prioritizing process. CERS Values could also be used to track remedial progress over time when implemented using temporal data. The CERS does not take into consideration such factors as toxicity or receptor analysis. This document serves as a manual for implementation of the CERS using contaminant data from other sites.

Committee:

Patrick Lawrence, PhD (Committee Chair); Peter Lindquist, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Beckwith, PG (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry; Environmental Economics; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geochemistry; Geographic Information Science; Geography; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology; Information Science; Information Systems; Natural Resource Management; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

groundwater; contamination; monitoring wells; water; pollution; pollutants; ranking; categories; remediation; Department of Defense; Air Force; AFCEE; DoD; Wurtsmith Air Force Base; Air Force Base; GIS; Geographic Information Systems; ArcGIS; ESRI; VOC

Shackelford, Philip ClaytonOn the Wings of the Wind: The United States Air Force Security Service and Its Impact on Signals Intelligence in the Cold War
BA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
The United States Air Force Security Service (USAFSS), created in 1948, was the first signals intelligence organization to be created post-World War II and played an integral role in Cold War intelligence gathering. Indeed, despite its relatively young age compared to its Army and Navy counterparts, the USAFSS soon became the premier agency for signals intelligence in the early Cold War and was responsible for hundreds of secret listening posts around the world. This thesis argues that the USAFSS was able to have such a large impact on the post-World War II intelligence community due to a high level of technological proficiency, dedication, and a close working relationship with the National Security Agency (NSA) after its establishment in 1952. Using oral history interviews and declassified government documents, this thesis explores how the USAFSS was established and how it grew to leave a lasting impact for both contemporary Cold War intelligence agencies and the modern incarnation of Air Force intelligence.

Committee:

Elizabeth Smith-Pryor, Ph.D (Advisor); Timothy Scarnecchia, Ph.D (Committee Member); Fred Endres, Ph.D (Committee Member); Leslie Heaphy, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Computer Science; Engineering; European History; History; Information Science; Information Technology; International Relations; Mass Communications; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History; Political Science; Russian History; Science History; Technical Communication; Technology; World History

Keywords:

Air Force; United States Air Force; Security Service; National Security; Intelligence; Signals Intelligence; Cold War; Soviet Union; United States; Armed Forces; National Security Agency; NSA; USAFSS; Cold War History; History; United States Military;

Tufts, Winfield F.High People-High Mission: The Power of Caring Leadership as Experienced in the Air Force
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2018, Leadership and Change
On the surface, caring and the military appear to be opposites. The stereotypical image of the military giving and obeying orders does not conjure up images of leaders caring for their subordinates. In reality, caring for subordinates and caring for the mission could help leaders form stronger relationships with subordinates, because subordinates may have confidence that their leaders will not recklessly send them into harm’s way. Subordinates may develop confidence in their leaders based on their leaders’ care during non-combat environments. Yet, empirical studies of caring in the military are sparse. This study investigates how Air Force retirees characterize “great bosses” care for them and care for the mission. A mixed method study of 12 qualitative interviews with Air Force retirees, followed by a quantitative survey study of 226 Air Force retirees revealed that caring actions cluster into four themes: Caring for Subordinates Personally, Caring for Subordinates Professionally, Caring for the Mission with a Focus on Mission Execution, and Caring for the Mission with a Focus on Empowering the Unit. This study also examined how these subordinates responded to those bosses that cared for them through Stronger Job Performance and Stronger Relationship with the Boss. The dissertation findings operationalize caring, demonstrate correlations between caring actions and self-reported increases in performance and boss-subordinate relationship quality, and detail actions that an authentic, caring leader can take to pursue the flourishing of subordinates and mission success simultaneously. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/ and Ohiolink ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

Committee:

Laura Roberts, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Carol Baron, Ph.D. (Committee Member); William Davis, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Military Studies

Keywords:

Air Force; bosses; mixed methods; leadership; care; caring; caring leadership; military culture; military leadership; servant leadership; virtuous leadership

Hammond, Edith AnneThe relationships between selected factors and the adjustment of Air Force career officers' wives during separation created by unaccompanied PCS tours /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1975, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Air Force wives

French, BrentThe Reintegration Myth: An Interpretive Phenomenological Inquiry into the Reentry Experiences of Air Force Reservists Returning from Afghanistan
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2012, Leadership and Change
This project documents the 18-month reentry trajectory of nine (including the author) United States Air Force Reservists returning home from a six-month deployment to Afghanistan in 2009 and 2010. Compared with their Active Component peers, members of the Reserve Component are more likely to be diagnosed with adaptive disorders and have an elevated risk of unemployment, substance abuse, and suicide. Since a critical difference between Active and Reserve Component members is the dual-status of reservists as both military members and civilians, this project sought to better understand this duality within the context of nonpathological reentry. This required an interdisciplinary approach that included medical perspectives (psychological trauma), political science, economics, and sociology (the adjustment approach), research by change and transition theorists, and literature on cultural crossings. The author used interpretive phenomenology to a) foreground his own experiences with return, b) explore existing theories relevant to reentry, and c) conduct a deep exploration of reentry over time. Semi-structured interviews occurred six, 12, and 18 months after return. Three main findings emerged from this project. First, participants paradoxically experienced the combat zone as ordered and predictable compared to their civilian lives in which competing demands overwhelmed depleted adaptive capacities. Second, the longitudinal design revealed participants gradually became less certain about their own reintegration prospects. Finally, the method created reflective space for the participants during a period when opportunities for reflection were especially rare. Several potential guidelines for policy merit consideration in light of the data. First, reservist reentry is sudden and spent among civilians, employers, and family members who find it difficult to understand the reservist's experiences. By ramping reentry and making the return more gradual some of the turmoil and isolation experienced after returning from the combat zone can be avoided. The more intractable issue identified in this dissertation concerns the widening gap between the two domains (military and civilian) reservists occupy and broader levels of mutual engagement are needed to reverse this trend. The electronic version of this dissertation is at the OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Alan E. Guskin, PhD (Committee Chair); Philomena Essed, PhD (Committee Member); Susan M. Ross, PhD (Committee Member); Michael C. Musheno, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Armed Forces; Mental Health; Military History; Military Studies

Keywords:

interpretative; interpretive phenomenology; qualitative; reservist; military reserve; USAFR; USAF; AF; Air Force; Afghanistan; Operation Enduring Freedom; OEF; deployment; return; returnee; reentry; reintegration; adaptation; coming home

Bowers, Margaret AnnaThe Effects of Workload Transitions in a Multitasking Environment
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2013, Psychology, General
Previous research has found that performance is sometimes affected by transitions in workload. For some tasks and occupations, this type of change in demand can severely impact performance, which makes this a topic of interest for further research. The previous research conducted used a variety of tasks and methods, but few of the results obtained have been consistent. This study sought to determine the effect of workload transitions in a multi-tasking environment, which is an under-represented area in research on this topic. The use of subjective questionnaires to assess perceived workload and task-related stress has also been limited in previous research. Therefore, this study used the Air Force Multi-Attribute Task Battery (AF-MATB), which is a multi-tasking environment, the NASA Task Load Index, which is a measure of subjective workload, and the shortened Dundee Stress State Questionnaire, which a subjective measure of task-related stress. During testing, all participants completed AF-MATB trials that transitioned from an easy level to a difficult level or from a difficult level to an easy level. Also, they all completed easy and difficult control trials. Analyses of the performance data principally supported the success of the task difficulty manipulation, with significant differences only occurring between the easy and difficult portions of trials. However, the results of several AF-MATB subtasks indicated that the transition in task difficulty from difficult to easy had a negative impact on performance compared to performance in the easy control condition. The significant differences in two of these performance measures, however, may reflect trends in the data of the easy control condition as opposed to transition-related decrements in the difficult-easy condition, thereby making conclusions about the presence of transition effects in these instances somewhat difficult. The analysis of both the NASA Task Load Index and of the shortened Dundee State Questionnaire did not reveal any significant differences related to workload transitions.

Committee:

F. Thomas Eggemeier, Ph.D. (Advisor); James Christensen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Susan Davis, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Experimental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

Workload Transitions; Hysteresis, Multi-Attribute Task Battery; MATB; Air Force Multi-Attribute Task Battery; AF-MATB

Hurley, Matthew M.Sanctuary Lost: The Air War for "Portuguese" Guinea, 1963-1974
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, History

From 1963 to 1974, Portugal and the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde, or PAIGC) waged an increasingly intense war for the independence of “Portuguese” Guinea, then a colony but today the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. For most of this conflict Portugal enjoyed virtually unchallenged air supremacy and increasingly based its strategy on this advantage. The Portuguese Air Force (Força Aérea Portuguesa, abbreviated FAP) consequently played a central role in the war for Guinea, at times threatening the PAIGC with military defeat. Portugal’s reliance on air power compelled the insurgents to search for an effective counter-measure, and by 1973 they succeeded with their acquisition and employment of the Strela-2 shoulder-fired surface-to-air missile, altering the course of the war and the future of Portugal itself in the process. To date, however, no detailed study of this seminal episode in air power history has been conducted. In an international climate plagued by insurgency, terrorism, and the proliferation of sophisticated weapons, the hard lessons learned by Portugal offer enduring insight to historians and current air power practitioners alike. This study consequently aims to correct that shortfall in the existing literature.

Much of the information in this document has been derived from the reflections and first-hand recollections of combatants on both sides of the conflict. Additional data has been drawn from the archival record, particularly the Archivo Histórico da Força Aérea outside Lisbon and satellite collections of PAIGC documentation in the United States. The collected evidence is presented as a narrative detailing the context and course of the conflict itself, the struggle for air mastery, and the aftermath. Additional contextual information is presented in separate chapters to frame the central narrative regarding the air and air defense war for Guinea.

The evidence demonstrates that the FAP—despite the many challenges it faced—was indeed effective against its insurgent adversaries in Guinea, so much so that those insurgents devoted considerable military effort and diplomatic capital to the problem of air defense. Their subsequent use of the Strela-2 missile, a weapon ideally suited to guerrilla needs, downed five Portuguese aircraft within a two-week period in the Spring of 1973. Those losses initiated a cascade of effects that impacted, in turn, the FAP’s ability to prosecute the air war, the Portuguese Army’s ability to maintain its military position on the ground, and Portuguese forces’ willingness to continue the three colonial wars then raging in Angola and Mozambique as well as Guinea. Ultimately, this cascade of effects contributed to—and in some respects precipitated—the 25 April 1974 coup that overthrew the authoritarian regime in Lisbon and led to the independence of Portugal’s African territories. The air war for Guinea thus represents a near-textbook case of war’s inherent complexity (given the disproportionality between action and result), as well as the value—and the vulnerabilities—of air power in a counter-insurgency context.

Committee:

John Guilmartin, PhD (Advisor); Alan Beyerchen, PhD (Committee Member); Ousman Kobo, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African History; Military History

Keywords:

Portuguese Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; air defense; SA-7; Strela; Portuguese Air Force

Shackelford, Philip ClaytonFighting for Air: Cold War Reorganization and the U.S. Air Force Security Service, 1945-1952
MA, Kent State University, 2016, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
This thesis explores the early history of the U.S. Air Force Security Service (USAFSS), an early Cold War military communications intelligence (COMINT) agency established by the Air Force on October 20, 1948. Using bureaucracy theory, the study seeks to understand why the U.S. Air Force was motivated to create a separate COMINT capability at this point in time, how the capability would be organized, and what functions the organization was expected to provide. Drawing upon a number of declassified Air Force and Executive Branch documents, congressional testimony, official historical studies and oral history materials, this study argues that the Air Force developed the USAFSS to resist dependence upon other military intelligence efforts and that the organization successfully accomplished Air Force objectives for a separate, communications intelligence capability.

Committee:

Ann Heiss, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

American History; Armed Forces; History; Information Technology; International Relations; Military History; Military Studies; Modern History; Technical Communication; Technology

Keywords:

Air Force; Cold War; intelligence; national security; military; post-World War II; communications intelligence; COMINT; USAFSS; NSA; National Security Agency; defense; United States; intelligence community; technology; reorganization; USAF; history;

Brown, Katie Lynn“The Bomber Will Always Get Through”: The Evolution of British Air Policy and Doctrine, 1914–1940
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2011, History (Arts and Sciences)
The historiography of British grand strategy in the interwar years overlooks the importance air power had in determining Britain's interwar strategy. Rather than acknowledging the newly developed third dimension of warfare, most historians attempt to place air power in the traditional debate between a Continental commitment and a strong navy. By examining the development of the Royal Air Force in the interwar years, this thesis will show that air power was extremely influential in developing Britain's grand strategy. Moreover, this thesis will study the Royal Air Force's reliance on strategic bombing to consider any legal or moral issues. Finally, this thesis will explore British air defenses in the 1930s as well as the first major air battle in World War II, the Battle of Britain, to see if the Royal Air Force's almost uncompromising faith in strategic bombing was warranted.

Committee:

Peter John Brobst, PhD (Committee Chair); Robert Ingram, PhD (Committee Member); Ingo Trauschweizer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; History; Military History; Modern History

Keywords:

Royal Air Force; World War II; Great Britain; Battle of Britain; strategic bombing

Higley, JoelThe Brains of the Air Force: Laurence Kuter and the Making of the United States Air Force
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, History
This study examines the establishment of the United States Air Force as an independent service, through the lens of General Laurence Kuter. Covering from his birth through the end of the Second World War, it yields five observations. First, Laurence “Larry” Kuter played an unappreciated role in shaping the United States Air Force and its antecedents. Second, the Air Corps Tactical School’s impact on its students was likely minimal, but the school’s impact on its faculty—particularly its most junior members—was almost inestimable. Third, fighter pilots dominated the senior ranks of the Air Force and its antecedents from the Interwar Period through well into the 1950s. Fourth, the Army’s interwar personnel policies had disproportionately negative impacts on Air Corps development, but very positive impacts on Kuter’s career. The effects of those policies, combined with the massive army air corps/army air forces expansion from 1939 through 1944, provided a greater justification for service independence than strategic bombing did. Finally, the first major war that the Air Force fought, wherein it had reasonably full control over the selection and professional development of its people, all the way up to its senior leaders, was the First Gulf War in 1991.

Committee:

Peter Mansoor (Advisor); Paula Baker (Committee Member); Mark Grimsley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biographies; Military History

Keywords:

airpower; Second World War; World War II; Air Force; Cold War

Morris, Nathaniel R.Adaptive Optics System Baseline Modeling for a USAF Quad Axis Telescope
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2017, Physics
Atmospheric turbulence has afflicted accurate observations of celestial bodies since man first gazed upon the stars. In this past century, the technology of adaptive optics was invented to help compensate for the optical distortions that atmospheric turbulence causes. As part of that technology, artificial guide stars, wave front sensors, deformable mirrors, and other optical components were developed to correct these wave aberrations. The purpose of this study focuses on the modeling and configuration of an adaptive optics system that is appropriate for the John Bryan Observatory Quad Axis Telescope System (JBO-Q), which is funded by the United States Air Force. Scaling law modeling of site-specific atmospheric parameters using numerical weather data and laser propagation theory was used determination and optimization of some critical system specifications and threshold parameters for this baseline model.

Committee:

Jerry Clark, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jason Schmidt, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Elizabeth Beecher, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Astronomy; Atmosphere; Atmospheric Sciences; Engineering; Optics; Physics

Keywords:

Adaptive Optics; John Bryan Observatory; Atmospheric Turbulence Compensation; LIDAR; Air Force Research Lab; Fried Parameter; Greenwood Frequency; Rytov Number; Baseline specifications for AO system

Johnson, Phillip M.Casting Off the Shadow: Tactical Air Command from Air Force Independence to the Vietnam War
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2014, History (Arts and Sciences)
The American military fully realized a third dimension of warfare in World War II that sparked a post-war discussion on the development and employment of air power. Officers of the Army Air Forces lobbied for an independent service devoted to this third dimension and agreed on basic principles for its application. By the time the Truman administration awarded the Air Force its autonomy, the strategic bombing mission had achieved primacy among its counterparts as well as a rising position in national defense planning. Because of the emphasis on the Air Force's Strategic Air Command, Tactical Air Command found itself in jeopardy of becoming an irrelevant organization in possession of technology and hardware that American defense planners would no longer deem necessary. In order to thwart irrelevancy Tactical Air Command underwent a modernization process to align it with national defense policy, but in the process, developed systems ill-suited to meet the challenges of limited, conventional war.

Committee:

Ingo Trauschweizer (Advisor)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Tactical Air Command; United States Air Force; air power; tactical air power; Cold War; Strategic Air Command; nuclear weapons; limited war