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Bakke, Sharen A.Privacy, Control, and the Use of Information Technology: The Development, Validation, and Testing of the Privacy-Invasive Perceptions Scale
PHD, Kent State University, 2006, College of Business Administration / Department of Management and Information Systems
Advances in civilization and in technology cultivate new sensibilities and vulnerabilities toward invasions of privacy. Individuals are becoming privacy assertive: they ask to be removed from marketing databases, decline to register at e-commerce sites, and avoid using technology that evokes privacy-invasive perceptions. While individual’s concerns about privacy are well documented in the literature, research on the source of these concerns is limited. In particular, there is a scarcity of research in the IS field that focuses on the features of information technology that influence an individuals’ IT-related privacy-invasive perceptions. To fill the gap in the literature, this dissertation develops and validates an instrument that identifies and measures the extent to which information technology influences individuals’ IT-related privacy-invasive perceptions. This newly created IT-related privacy-invasive perceptions (PIP) scale is then used to predict behavioral intention toward using information technology. The results of this study indicate that privacy cannot easily be decomposed into distinct dimensions such as information management, organizational technology management and interaction management. This finding is supported by previous studies attempting to separate privacy into components, namely, the Concerns for Information Privacy (CFIP) scale measuring individuals’ concerns about organizational information privacy practices. A marginally significant negative relationship exists between the PIP scale and Intent to use IT. This relationship was found to be almost totally mediated by an individual’s desire for control: individuals with a high desire for control are more likely to use information technology irrespective of their IT-related privacy-invasive perceptions. The PIP construct is bested represented by a second-order model suggesting the presence of a general privacy factor.

Committee:

Alan Brandyberry (Committee Co-Chair); Marvin Troutt (Committee Co-Chair); Robert Faley (Other); Michael Mayo (Other)

Subjects:

Information Science

Keywords:

Privacy; Control; Information Technology Use; Scale Development

Hastings, Tricia A.Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Leadership Studies

Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships. The purpose of this correlational study was to identify factors that predict quality classroom technology use and inform educators about effective technology integration.

The researcher analyzed both Technology-Related (Risk-taking Behaviors and Comfort with Technology, Perceived Benefits of Using Technology in the Classroom, Beliefs and Behaviors about Classroom Technology Use, Teacher Support for Technology Use, Teacher Technology Proficiency, and Technology-Related Professional Development) and Non-Technology-Related (Teacher Self-Efficacy, Teaching Philosophy, Teaching Professionalism: Hours Beyond Contract, and Teaching Professionalism: Years Teaching Experience) variables in regard to Teacher, Student, and Overall Technology Use. Five research questions were developed to investigate factors of quality classroom technology use.

This study relied primarily upon two frameworks to identify factors that predict and a method of measuring quality classroom technology use. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) is a conceptually-based theoretical framework for understanding the complex relationships between Technology, Pedagogy, and Content that pertain to classroom technology use. In addition, the study also utilized a framework, the Tiers of Technology Integration into the Classroom Indicators (TTICI), which was developed by the Washington State Technology Integration into the Curriculum Working Group (2005). The researcher applied the TTICI framework in order to generate technology integration scores, based upon levels (low, moderate, high) of quality classroom technology use.

Two online surveys were administered to 280 K-12 public school teachers in Northwest Ohio. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all five research questions and inferential statistics, including correlation and multiple regression, t-test of independent samples, and an ANOVA were calculated for research questions 3-5. The study revealed that Technology-Related factors generated better models in predicting technology use than Non-Technology-Related factors. The factors that best predict weighted technology use were: 1) Beliefs and Behaviors about Classroom Technology Use; 2) Technology Proficiency in Productivity Software, and 3) Perceived Benefits of Using Technology in the Classroom. A few, culminating themes have emerged from the literature review and data analysis of the results. The study concludes that: 1) teachers, in general, are still not using technology effectively; 2) technology-related professional development is essential to promoting quality technology use; 3) measuring classroom technology use is a complex, multifaceted process; and 4) educators must become reflective practitioners in an effort to promote quality classroom technology use.

Committee:

Rachel Vannatta Reinhart (Advisor); Judith Zimmerman (Committee Member); Beth Christoff (Committee Member); Savilla Banister (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; School Administration; Teaching; Technology

Keywords:

technology; quality; teacher technology use; technology integration; predict; proficiency; professional development; self efficacy; professionalism; education

Alsadoon, Elham A.Factors Influencing Faculty to Adopt Web Applications in their Teaching
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Instructional Technology (Education)
The social nature of Web applications can empower education if used properly (Light 2011). These applications provide a learning environment in which students can construct their learning, collaborate with others, generate ideas, edit and distribute their material, and more. The better way to seed Web applications into the learning environment and to make them effective educational tools is to implement them in the pre-service teachers programs. This research study aimed to investigate the influence of knowledge and experience of Web applications, perceived ease-of use, perceived usefulness, perceived pedagogical support, perceived risk, and colleagues’ influence on the faculty’s decision to adopt Web applications in their teaching within the pre-service teacher programs. Two hundred forty-nine faculty participated in this study by filling an online questionnaire that was self-designed and was distributed to a random proportional stratified sample of the faculty who teach at the colleges of education in American universities. The findings of this research study reflect that the faculty currently teaching in these programs are knowledgeable of and have experience in using Web applications and even intend to implement them more in their teaching in the future. The findings showed that faculty knowledge and experience of Web applications and faculty perception of the usefulness of such applications were significant predictors of faculty intention to adopt Web applications in teaching. This, in turn, is a strong predictor of their actual use. Implementation of the study was provided, along with recommendations for further research.

Committee:

Teresa Franklin (Committee Chair); George Johanson (Committee Member); Gordon Brooks (Committee Member); Greg Kessler (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Web applications; Technology use in education; factors influence faculty to adopt Web applications in teaching

Hollowell, Meghan YancyThe Use of Face-to-Face and Out-of-Classroom Technology in Higher Education
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Curriculum and Instruction
National standards and funds have helped ensure that technology access is no longer as problematic as it once was in education, but some questions remain about how effectively educational technologies are being utilized prepare students with 21st century skills that include higher-order thinking skills. For this reason, scholars have emphasized the need for research that investigates how effectively technologies are being utilized for teaching and learning. Immediate research of this kind is particularly necessary in the context of higher education; although most campuses are outfitted to some extent with expensive classroom technologies, little is known about how often and at what level these technologies are being utilized. Therefore, this study uses electronic surveys to investigate technology use among instructors assigned to teach in electronic classrooms at the University of Cincinnati. This investigation has two primary purposes of study within the use of technology in higher education instruction. The first purpose was to establish an understanding of general descriptive use patterns across technologies in face-to-face and out-of-class instruction across colleges. The second purpose was to explore the differences in uses across the disciplines, especially related to technology for promoting higher order thinking. Findings confirm that both frequencies and meaningfulness of face-to-face and out-of-classroom technology use are low. The implications of these findings for institutions of higher education are discussed, and needs for future research efforts in this area are identified.

Committee:

James Basham, PhD (Committee Chair); Helen Meyer, PhD (Committee Member); Christina Carnahan, EdD (Committee Member); Catherine Maltbie, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

technology use;higher education;higher order thinking skills;Humanities;Science and Math;Social and Behavioral Sciences

Ivanov, Danail IvanovENSURING LONG-TERM ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY: MANDATED USE AND INDIVIDUAL HABIT AS FACTORS THAT ESTABLISH TECHNOLOGY INTO HEALTHCARE PRACTICE
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2008, Management Information and Decision Systems
Over two decades MIS Research has identified wide range of individual influences which shape user attitude and lead to the initial acceptance of new technology. The research has emphasized expanding the knowledge base of attitudinal influences that shape the development of intention to use. Far less is known regarding the development of usage behaviors and their integration and habitualization within existing practices after the initial acceptance. This research explores the relationship between intention to use, habit development, and the actual long-term use of technology. It compares between the development of individual habit and technology use in voluntary conditions where individual choice drives use, versus habitualization in mandated settings where organizational rules define the nature of usage patterns. In voluntary settings cognitive attitudes and intentions drive the behavior of individuals. In organizationally mandated settings, usage behaviors establish habits which subsequently shape attitudes regarding the technology. The study shows significant differences between the attitude-behavior relationship in voluntary and mandated adoption settings. It also shows that individual habit is a significant mediator between attitudes and behavior. In voluntary users behavioral intention is a significant influence on use, but it also shapes development of habits. In mandated setting technology use is not significantly related to attitudes and intentions, but instead shapes individual habit, which mediates between use and attitude formation. The salience of habit builds attitudes towards technology, but also weakens active cognition (behavioral intention) as the driver which initiates use.

Committee:

Betty Vandenbosch (Advisor)

Keywords:

Technology Adoption; Habit formation; Technology Use

Mao, YupingDoes Culture Matter? Relating Intercultural Communication Sensitivity to Conflict Management Styles, Technology Use, and Organizational Communication Satisfaction in Multinationals in China
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2010, Communication Studies (Communication)

Communication is very complex in multinational companies due to the diverse body of employees with different social, cultural, and educational backgrounds. Organizational communication among employees in China branches of multinational companies remains largely unexplored in previous literature. Taking an Asiacentric approach, this study examines the relationships among intercultural sensitivity, organizational communication satisfaction, organizational conflict management, and use of technologies in China branches of multinational companies. This study also compares the organizational communication experiences of Chinese employees with overseas experience and those without overseas experience.

An online survey was conducted with Chinese employees of multinational companies. Comparisons were made between those with some degree of overseas living experience and those without any overseas living experience. The survey included the Intercultural Communication Sensitivity Scale (ISS) (Chen & Starosta, 2000), a revised version of the Technology Usage Scale (TUS) (Scott & Timmerman, 2005), the Organizational Communication Conflict Instrument (OCCI) (Putnam & Wilson, 1982), and the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) (Downs & Hazen, 1977).The following pairs of variables were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlations: intercultural sensitivity and organizational communication satisfaction, intercultural sensitivity and conflict management styles, intercultural sensitivity and use of technologies, organizational communication satisfaction and conflict management styles, organizational communication satisfaction and use of technologies, conflict management styles and use of technologies. Significant correlations were found in the above six pairs of variables and their factors. Overall no significant differences between Chinese employees with overseas experience and those without overseas experience were found in the following key variables: intercultural sensitivity, conflict management styles, organizational communication satisfaction level, and use of technology in organizational communication. Although minor differences existed between those two groups of participants, in general, the two groups revealed similar organizational communication behavior.

This study is one of very few extant studies that focus on organizational communication in the Chinese context. This study enriches the literature on Asian organizational communication studies, and contributes to the development of the Asiacentric approach. The correlations among the variables identified by this study build the empirical foundation for future research to further develop communication models that include those variables and which will have significant theoretical and practical implications.

Committee:

Claudia Hale, PhD (Advisor); Andrew Ledbetter, PhD (Committee Member); Anita James, PhD (Committee Member); Gordon Brooks, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Chinese employee; intercultural sensitivity; conflict management; organizational communication satisfaction; technology use; multinationals

Lin, Shiang-YuThe Use of Technology in K-12 Schools: Demystifying the Relationship between Technology Leadership and Technology Use
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, EDU Policy and Leadership
Abstract There is a common belief that technology can help improve learning opportunities for all students (DeBell & Chapman, 2006; U.S. Department of Education, 2010). Although the U.S. government encourages the use of educational technology in K-12 schools through funding technological infrastructure and the development of educational technology applications, the state of technology use in K-12 schools remains vague. Technology leadership, an emerging concept in educational scholarship, has been described as a school characteristic associated with planning, purchasing, and a host of distributed management and leadership practices that lead to meaningful and effective utilization of technology in schools (S. Dexter, 2008; Hew & Brush, 2007). Although there is research establishing a positive relationship between school leadership and student outcomes (Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008; Waters, Marzano, & Mcnulty, 2003), few studies have examine links between technology leadership and technology use by teachers and students. This study was conducted to examine the current state of technology use and technology leadership in K-12 schools. It also examined the relationship between technology leadership and teachers’ technology use for mathematics instruction. Following Anderson and Dexter's (2005) claim that technology leadership functions as a necessary role in the effective use of K-12 school technology use, I hypothesized a positive relationship between technology leadership and technology use for teaching and learning. This dissertation begins with a review of relevant research and policy literature on ways in which school-level technology leadership and technology policies influence technology integration. Next, it describes how data from the 2009 fast-response survey titled "Teachers' Use of Educational Technology in U.S. Public Schools" (FRSS95, 2009) has been analyzed. Descriptive statistics and factor analyses were conducted to characterize K-12 technology use and technology leadership. Next, MANCOVA and a follow-up regression analysis were utilized to examine whether a relationship between technology leadership and technology use existed, and to determine which attributes of technology leadership were significantly associated with technology use. The target population for this study was U.S. public elementary and secondary teachers who were identified to participate in the 2009 fast-response survey titled "Teachers' Use of Educational Technology in U.S. Public Schools" (FRSS95, 2009b). The FRSS nationwide teacher survey sampled 3,159 public school teachers from 1563 public schools (NCES, 2010). The sample consisted of 1784 public elementary teachers, 1286 public secondary teachers, and 89 teachers in public combined schools. Due to a large difference existing in the distribution of main teaching assignment between the participants in elementary schools and those in secondary schools, the elementary sample and the secondary sample were extracted from the total sample to explore the research questions regarding teachers’ and students’ educational technology use, teachers' perceptions of technology leadership, and the relationship between technology leadership and educational technology use in K-12 schools. In the FRSS95 dataset, technology use was characterized by teachers' general technology use for classroom preparation, instruction, and administrative tasks (general use), teachers’ administrative technology use for communicating with parents or students (Admin_comm), teachers’ administrative technology use for viewing or managing student data (Admin_data), and students' technology use during instructional time (student use). Teachers' perceptions of technology leadership were characterized by full-time technology personnel within districts (tech personnel), the quality of professional development for educational technology (PD quality) and equitable access to digital tools and resources (range of access). With these four indicators of technology use and three indicators of technology leadership, analyses examined the relationship between technology use and technology leadership in elementary schools and secondary schools. As expected, PD quality and range of access had statistically significant positive relationships with all four technology use indicators in both samples. Furthermore, technology personnel was a statistically significant predictor across all types of technology use in the elementary sample, but not a significant one across Admin_comm, Admin_data, or student use in the secondary sample. The study findings also showed that the inclusion of technology leadership in the models resulted in a significant increase in the amount of variance explained above and beyond that accounted for by school enrollment size, community type, poverty, minority student population, main teaching assignment and years of teaching experience. In short, regardless of the type of technology use or teachers’ instructional grade level, technology leadership matters. The amount of variance explained for general technology use was the greatest among the four technology use variables in elementary schools, as well as in secondary schools. The amount of variance explained for Admin_comm use was the least among the four technology use variables in elementary schools, as well as in secondary schools. With the exception of student use, the technology leadership indicators in elementary schools explained a greater amount of variance of technology use than that in secondary schools. Even with the limited number of indicators used in this analysis to measure technology leadership and technology use, the study findings confirmed and demonstrated the influence of teacher's perceptions of technology leadership on several meaningful technology-related uses by teachers and students. Although the indicators of technology leadership in this study differed from those conceptual dimensions of technology leadership in Anderson and Dexter's study, both of these studies showed a strong positive relationship between technology leadership and technology use. This implies that technology leadership still serves a necessary role in the effective utilization of educational technology even if technology leadership is not depicted as principals’ behaviors. Moreover, the findings imply the importance of the quality of technology-related professional activities and the equitable access to educational technology. The study suggest future researchers and policy makers should regard technology leadership as a powerful organizational function that positively impacts teachers’ and students’ technology use.

Committee:

Anika B. Anthony (Advisor); Ann O’Connell (Committee Member); Scott Sweetland (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership; Educational Technology

Keywords:

The Use of Technology, K-12 Schools, Relationship between Technology Leadership and Technology Use

Fultz, Daniel D.Style Matters: Worship Preferences of University Students Regarding the use of Music and Technology
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Communication Studies

As a response to increasingly low rates of participation among university aged students, Christian churches across the country are spending increasing amounts of money on music and technology with the assumption that such expenditures will attract that target demographic. Across denominational affiliations, it is a commonly held belief that such practices must be in place in order to attract and retain this demographic, but this belief has no empirical support. Therefore, this research project investigated the worship preferences of professing Christian students at Bluffton University paying particular attention to the utilization of music and technology. Those who have studied related issues have done so with clearly non-academic objectives, most with pre-existing religious affiliations and/or ties to funding from Christian-based organizations.

The participants of this study were traditional-aged undergraduate students who were enrolled full-time at Bluffton University during spring semester, 2009. Bluffton University is affiliated with the Mennonite Church, USA, but represents many Christian denominations with the top three being: Evangelical, Catholic, and Mennonite. This research incorporated survey questionnaires based on the uses and gratifications perspective.

The intent of the instrument was to measure three areas, as each relates to university student preferences toward the use of music and technology in Christian worship: relationship between technology use and current preferences; relationship between past worship experiences and current preferences; and, relationship between the on-campus religious activities of students and their current preferences. An instrument was developed based on the population being studied. The total sample was 123 participants, from ages 18-22, with a mean age of 20.00 (SD = 1.21). Of the participants, 43 were male (35.00%) and 80 were female (65.00%).

This study produced two key findings directly related to the research questions. First, students more involved with on-campus religious activities have stronger preferences toward the use of technology and contemporary music in worship. Second, students who report a higher level of technology use in their daily lives have stronger preferences toward the utilization of technology in their worship services. Additional findings centered on differences between male and female students.

Committee:

Catherine Cassara-Jemai, PhD (Advisor); Peter Vanderhart, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Croucher, PhD (Committee Member); Lara Martin Lengel, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

worship preferences of university students; technology use in Christian worship; music use in Christian worship;