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Oemig, Carmen KayFrequency and Appraisal of Social Support in a Behavioral Weight Loss Program: Relationship to Behavioral and Health Outcomes
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Psychology/Clinical
Involving supportive others in Behavioral Weight Loss Programs (BWLP) is related to improved participant weight loss (e.g., Black, Gleser, & Kooyers, 1990), however little is known of the influence of naturally occurring (external to the intervention situation) support. Similarly overlooked is the role of social support to the numerous behavior changes required for successful weight loss. The current study evaluated the occurrence (i.e., frequency) and experience (i.e., helpfulness appraisal) of naturally occurring support in relation to behavioral and health outcomes. The primary goals were to examine the support – behavior change relationship for evidence of specificity and to evaluate the utility of measuring support appraisals as a tool for identifying resource-need match. Within these objectives, another aim of the study was to identify potentially distinct contributions of different sources of support. Hypothesis testing returned largely null results. Small sample size and low power are important considerations in explaining the null findings. However, attention is also called to other possible factors, including stage of behavior change and the “obesogenicity” of modern environments, which may have contributed to the current null findings and warrant further attention.

Committee:

Robert Carels (Advisor)

Keywords:

Behavioral Weight Loss Program; Social Support; Helpfulness; Appraisal of Social Support; Spousal support; Friend support; Family support; Weight loss; weight loss program; health outcomes; social support and health; functional support

Mazumder, SouvikReliability Based Inspection of Sign, Signal and Luminary Supports in Ohio
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2016, Civil Engineering
This thesis is an initial investigation into developing guidelines and criteria for reliability based inspection of overhead sign supports, bridge mounted sign supports, high light mast supports and signal supports. The desired result of reliability based inspection is to use the support condition and age to determine the inspection interval and depth of inspection to keep the all the supports in the inventory at a desired level of safety while economizing on the resources required to perform inspections. Ohio’s inventory of supports is aging and it is important to safely and economically make decisions about inspection, maintenance and replacement. Currently, the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) routinely performs qualitative ground based inspection of its supports. Per ODOT’s inspection guidelines, overhead sign supports are inspected once every five years; bridge mounted sign supports and signal supports are inspected annually and there is no formal requirement for high light mast support structural inspections. The literature and standards on support inspection were reviewed. No previous work on reliability based inspection of supports was found. Due to the absence of reliability based inspection models for supports, the concepts of reliability based bridge inspection program were adopted to support inspection. In this study, the reliability of ODOT’s ground based inspection and detailed inspection results for a sample of Ohio’s supports were assessed to estimate the probability of failure of the supports and evaluate the probability of detection of the support inspection. Based on this assessment, a cost effective reliability based support inspection model was suggested and a model inspection form was provided. Reliability based inspection depends in large part on the accuracy of the inventory and depth of previous inspections. A limitation of the results of this study is that the available database does not have the temporal data necessary to accurately estimate the rate of deterioration. An accurate inventory and a historical record of inspections of the appropriate level of depth to identify likely failure modes are features of a database required for statistically significant studies of the existing inventory. These features of the inventory are necessary to provide a reliability basis for a support inspection program where the frequency of inspection depends on deterioration rate of the supports. The recommendations address how to obtain more detailed inspection data for more accurate calculation of the reliability of supports. Reliability based inspection has the potential to help ODOT be confident that all the supports are carrying out their design function in a safe way as well as to allocate resource for support inspection in more efficient manner. However, it will require an accurate inventory, good inspection reports and appropriate in depth inspections.

Committee:

Douglas Nims (Advisor); Mark Pickett (Committee Member); Liangbo Hu (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

Reliability based Inspection,Sign and signal support,High mast light support,Bridge mounted support, Overhead sign support,Support inspection,Inspection interval,Probability of failure,Probability of Detection, Inspection database, Recommendation,Ohio

Rivera-Hernandez, MaricruzSelf-Management, Social Support, Religiosity and Self-Rated Health Among Older Mexicans Diagnosed with Diabetes
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2013, Population and Social Gerontology
Diabetes is a major health concern affecting countries around the world. In Mexico, diabetes will be one of the most challenging health problems in coming years. Diabetes is associated with negative health outcomes, including micro and macrovascular complications that can decrease the quality of life and increase the risk of death. Though there is convincing evidence about the benefits of social support, religiosity, and self-management on physical and psychological well-being, there is no systematic examination of the specific interrelationships among these variables and how they predict self-rated health in Hispanics, especially in diabetic Mexicans. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the potentially beneficial effects of social support, religiosity, and self-management on health among Mexican diabetics who are middle-aged and older. A mixed methods approach featuring structural equation modeling and semi-structured key informant interviews was used to address the topic. Data from Mexican Health and Aging Study/Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en Mexico (MHAS/ENASEM), a national representative survey of older Mexicans was used to assess the quantitative relationships. Qualitative interviews with ten religious leaders were conducted to shed light on the role of the Church in promoting health of older Mexicans with diabetes. The results indicated that religiosity and emotional support from spouses/partners was positively associated with self-management, and emotional support from spouses/partners was also associated with health. The major themes from the qualitative interviews emphasized the importance of open communication between church leaders and their parishioners, the role of the church in diabetes programs, and the unique position of religious institutions as a link between physical and spiritual aspects of health. The findings could be used to develop culturally-specific and church-based education programs for this population, evaluate existing programs and services for older adults with diabetes, and to support programs for diabetic older adults and their families.

Committee:

Suzanne Kunkel (Committee Chair); Scott Brown (Committee Co-Chair); Robert Applebaum (Committee Member); Jennifer Bulanda (Committee Member); John Bailer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aging; Behavioral Sciences; Clerical Studies; Gerontology; Health; Health Care; Health Care Management; Health Education; Hispanic American Studies; Hispanic Americans; Individual and Family Studies; Latin American Studies; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Public Health; Public Health Education; Regional Studies; Religion; Religious Education; Sociology; Spirituality

Keywords:

aging; health; diabetes; social support; religiosity; Mexico; self-management; older adults; religious leaders; spirituality; spousal support; gerontology; community support; faith-based organizations; the role of the church; health promotion

Kasperczyk, Megan MSocial Support from Fathers, But Not Mothers, Is Related to the Psychological Distress of Adolescent Latina Mothers
BS, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Psychology
Latina adolescents are at increased risk for developing symptoms of psychological distress. They often face higher levels of poverty and lower education levels than other adolescent groups, in addition to experiencing acculturative stressors. Adolescent Latina mothers experience additional stressors related to parenting at a young age. Social support has been shown to reduce risk for psychological distress; however, there are several factors that influence this relation. The association of perceived social support from adolescent mothers’ mothers and fathers on psychological distress was examined. Familism, a family-centric Latino value, was examined as a potential moderator in the relation between social support and distress, as adolescents who endorse more familistic values may take advantage of support provided by mothers and fathers better than adolescents who endorse fewer values. Preliminary correlations revealed that support from adolescents’ mothers and fathers was associated with lower distress. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for adolescent age, financial stress, and negative life events, mother support was no longer associated with lower distress; father support was still associated with lower distress. Additionally, familism did not moderate the relationship between social support and distress for mother or father support. Findings contribute to the body of research on father support, but further research is needed to examine the quality and importance of support providers to determine why there were differences in distress between those perceiving mother and father support.

Committee:

Josefina Grau, Ph.D. (Advisor); Christopher Flessner, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Angela Neal-Barnett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Rhonda Richardson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

adolescent Latina mothers; familism; perceived social support; psychological distress; mother support; father support

Tabbah, RhondaSelf-Concept in Arab American Adolescents: Implications of Social Support and Experiences in the Schools
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services

Since their immigration to the United States, Arab Americans have faced discrimination and stereotyping, especially through the mainstream media. After the events of September 11, 2001, these stereotypes progressed and reports of discrimination significantly increased. As reported by Ibish (2003), incidences of political injustice and ethnic hate crimes, after 9/11, have resulted in dire consequences for Arab American families, especially for their children in the public schools. Following the attacks, Arab American children and adolescents in the K-12 school system faced discrimination and violence from their classmates, teachers, and other school staff.

The purpose of this study was to investigate multiple domains of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher and classmate social support, and actual teacher-perceptions. Self-concept was measured by using the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (Harter, 1988). Results indicated that half of the sample experienced some form of discrimination, either personal or someone the subjects knew. Experiences of discrimination were significantly related to students’ Scholastic Competence and Physical Appearance. Self-perceived classmate support was significantly related to all domains of self-concept. Teacher related variables, however, deemed less significant, except for behavioral aspects of self-concept. Implications of these results are discussed as well as strategies for how to provide positive relationships with Arab American students and families will be outlined.

Committee:

Antoinette Miranda, PhD (Advisor); Joe Wheaton, PhD (Committee Member); Kisha Radliff, PhD (Committee Member); Jonathan Burgoyne, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Education; Ethnic Studies; Middle Eastern Studies; Multicultural Education; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Social Research

Keywords:

Arab Americans; self-concept; social support; discrimination; classmate support; teacher support

Lyons, Megan LFirst Mothers/Birth Mothers: Social Support and Long-Term Psychological Stress and Growth
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2017, Antioch New England: Clinical Psychology
Adoption has become a growing area of research. While much of the existing research focuses on the adoptees and their adoptive parents, this study aimed to focus on the first mothers/birth mothers and their life experiences related to placing an infant, or infants, for adoption. The aim of this study was to determine areas for future clinical focus and support program development throughout the adoption process. The study worked toward this goal by considering the availability and impact of perceptions of social support on the psychological stress and growth of first mothers/birth mothers post-adoption and sought to: (a) determine the strength of the relationship between a first mother’s/birth mother’s perceptions of social support throughout the adoption process and her long-term psychological wellbeing; and (b) delineate the social supports that first mothers/birth mothers have access to and utilize throughout the adoption process. The study utilized data collected from two samples of first mothers/birth mothers via an online survey. Ongoing feedback about the survey was encouraged via a qualitative question within the survey and an open stance toward email communication from participants. Ongoing feedback obtained from participants in the first sample (N = 162) informed wording changes that were meant to clarify the terms used in and the intent of some questions that were found to be confusing or inaccurate in some way. Upon reposting the survey, another 86 first mothers/birth mothers took part in the study. These responses were treated as a second sample. All data, even when incomplete, were utilized in the analysis. The findings about the impact of perceptions of social support on later psychological stress and growth were variable between samples and social support levels within each sample.

Committee:

Theodore Ellenhorn, PhD (Committee Chair); Martha Straus, PhD (Committee Member); Gina Pasquale, PsyD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology

Keywords:

birth mothers; first mothers; placement for adoption; social support; posttraumatic stress; posttraumatic growth; mental health care; medical care; online support; spiritual support

Courser, Matthew WilliamElite messages and public opinion: the case of the Ohio Supreme Court
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Political Science
The study of support for courts long has been a focus of research by political scientists, and we know much about the levels and correlates of support for the U.S. Supreme Court. However, only recently has scholarly research focused on the question of support for state and local courts and scholars know much less about how support operates for these courts. Research on state and local courts is further hindered by the lack of a theory of support for courts. This research focuses on the concepts of diffuse and specific support for the Ohio Supreme Court. It draws upon two existing theoretical frameworks and creates a new, hybrid framework. The framework is able to explain the importance of support for courts and articulates mechanisms by which judgments of support are formed and changed over time. New survey data is used to provide information on the levels and correlates of diffuse and specific support for courts. A unique survey-based experiment was used to assess the influence of elite messages on diffuse support for the Ohio Supreme Court. This research found that the Ohio Supreme Court enjoys generally high levels of diffuse and specific support, and that the presence of a significant political controversy did not appear to change those levels of support substantially. It identifies a number of significant demographic and attitudinal correlates of support, including political knowledge and educational attainment. The research also found that elite messages could influence support for the court; however, limitations in the research design made it impossible to test the strength and direction of this influence. This research also looked at patterns of support for the Ohio Supreme Court on three separate measures—diffuse support, specific support, and support for the court’s decision in the 2001 DeRolph v. State of Ohio case. Computer simulations were used to provide a measure of effect size for each of the predictors, and simulations revealed that in some cases a substantial change in a single predictor variable could result in a sizeable change in the probabilities of respondents expressing that pattern of support.

Committee:

Lawrence Baum (Advisor)

Subjects:

Political Science, General

Keywords:

diffuse support; specific support; support for courts; Ohio Supreme Court; judicial politics

Wingate, Tiah JAn Examination of Instrumental Support Received by Parents of Children with Special Health Care Needs Throughout the Life Course
MA, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Lifespan Development and Educational Sciences
The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the instrumental support received by parents of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) throughout the life course. The study sample included 489 parents of CSHCN obtained from the Wave III sample and the Refresher sample of the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey. The study provided a description of the sources of unpaid assistance for the parents of CSHCN and yielded significant findings regarding variations in support receipt associated with life course variables. Parents receive significantly more instrumental support from informal sources than from formal sources at each stage of the family life cycle. Additionally, a significant positive relationship exists between the amount of support received from formal sources and the amount of support received from informal sources. The receipt of support from various specific sources also demonstrates a relationship with the receipt of support from other specific sources. Finally, life course variables including religious participation and gender were associated with the receipt of support from formal sources, whereas family life cycle stage was associated with the receipt of support from informal sources. Parents from families with young children reported receiving significantly more unpaid assistance from informal sources than parents from families at all other life cycle stages. These findings help inform service providers as to parents who may potentially need assistance securing instrumental support as well as point to potential areas for future research.

Committee:

Kelly Cichy, PhD (Advisor); Maureen Blankemeyer, PhD (Committee Member); Rhonda Richardson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Families and Family Life; Health Care; Social Research; Social Work

Keywords:

children with special health care needs; parents of CSHCN; social support; instrumental support, parents of children with illness or disability; instrumental support for parents of children with special needs

Little, VIrginia LChanges in Fathers' Physical Health Across the Transition to Parenthood
MA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology
The transition to parenthood is an important developmental milestone and a major life transition for first-time fathers, as it involves significant changes in self-identity and marital relationship dynamics. Additionally, the effects of role transitions on physical health outcomes are important for new fathers; however, most of the literature concerning the transition to parenthood focuses primarily on the psychological and physical health of the mother. The primary aim of this study is to examine the role of social support in men's physical health during the transition to parenthood. I propose that lack of received social support from a partner predicts poor physical health outcomes in the father. As a result of the increased stress of the birth of a new baby and a decrease in spousal support, fathers will utilize the alternative stress response of tend-and-befriend and seek social support from existing social ties, namely family and close friends. Furthermore, I argue that these alternative sources of social support will compensate for the lack of spousal support. The analyses were conducted using cross-sectional and longitudinal data collected from 104 married/cohabitating couples expecting their first child. This study utilized paired t-tests to examine changes in health across four waves of data: pregnancy, 1-month, 4-months and 9-months postpartum. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression was used to analyze main and moderating effects of spousal support and external social support on new fathers' physical health. Results suggest that new fathers experience changes in self-rated health and physical somatic symptoms across the first year after a baby's birth. Second, low levels of spousal support have a direct effect on poor physical health outcomes. Finally, social support from family and friends has health benefits for fathers who receive low spousal support.

Committee:

Kristin Mickelson, Ph.D. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Social Psychology; Sociology

Keywords:

Role transition; parenthood; fatherhood; spousal support; social support; physical health; social network compensation; postpartum health; postnatal health; new fathers health; external social support; somatic symptoms

Baugh, Wonda A.An Autoethnographic Exploration Into Bipolar Depression and Social Support As A Factor Of Resilence
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2015, American Culture Studies
This dissertation is an autoethnographic inquiry into mental illness, social support, and voluntary kinship. I explore relationships with my voluntary kin - people who act as family without biological or legal ties - and the types of supportive relationships in which we engaged that helped me accept the diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BPD). Because of their communication and commitment to me, I learned to thrive while complying with mental health treatment. This document describes the process by which I went from being self-centered to other-centered; from social support receiver to social support provider; and from defining myself as an individual to understanding my role in the collective.

Committee:

Sandra Faulkner (Advisor); Sheri Wells-Jensen (Other); Ellen Berry (Committee Member); Sarah Rainey (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Communication; Gender Studies

Keywords:

social support; autoethnography; chosen kin; social support; bipolar depression

Cummins, Joshua I.Hearts and Minds: US Foreign Policy and Anti-Americanism in the Middle East An Analysis of Public Perceptions from 2002-2011
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2012, International and Comparative Politics
The literature on anti-Americanism in the Middle East suggests that there is a strong relationship between US foreign policy and public attitudes of the United States in the region. This study analyzes Middle Eastern public opinion of the United States from 2002 until 2011, while using quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine whether US foreign policy in the Middle East correlates with approval levels of the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine if US foreign policy measures such as US support for oppressive regimes, US support for Israel, and US intervention in domestic affairs affects the way in which the average Middle Eastern publics view the United States. This study finds that there were quantitative and qualitative correlations between the three independent variables and anti-Americanism levels in the Middle East with the largest drop in approval of the US coming in 2003 after the US invasion of Iraq. The case of Lebanon’s Cedar Revolution also shows an effective policy that can be applied to the regime changes caused by the “Arab Spring”.

Committee:

Vaughn Shannon, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Donna Schlagheck, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Awad Halabi, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

International Relations; Middle Eastern Studies

Keywords:

Middle East; Public Opinion; Anti-Americanism; US Foreign Policy; US Support for Oppressive Regimes; US Support for Israel; US intervention in the Middle East; Quantitative Study; Qualitative Study

Stevenson, Lauren DeMarcoThe Influence of Treatment Motivation, Treatment Status and Social Networks on Perceived Social Support of Women with Substance Use or Co-Occurring Disorders
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2009, Social Welfare

This study examined predictors of perceived social support and support forrecovery of women with substance use disorders or co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. The sample consisted of 136 adult women; 86 women were engaged in inpatient and outpatient substance abuse treatment programs, and 50 women were recruited from a study of mothers with cocaine exposed infants.

The women in the study were predominantly African American (82.4%) and of low income status with 80% of the women reporting an annual family income below $15,000. All of the women had a current substance use disorder and 77 (56.6%) of the women also had a co-occurring mental disorder including: Major Depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Mania, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Hypomania, and Dysthymia. On average, women reported having a social network comprised of 10.73 members.

A significant relationship was found between critical members (those who provide negative support) within women’s social networks and perceived social support, with a higher percent of critical network members predicting lower perceived social support. Perceived social support scores were also significantly lower for women with a co-occurring mental disorder. Indirect relationships were found for women’s perceived social support. The percent of professionals within women’s social networks moderated the relationships between women’s treatment motivation and treatment status with perceived social support. The percent of substance users in women’s networks moderated the relationship between treatment motivation and perceived social support.

A sub sample analysis of 86 women in substance abuse treatment explored predictors of support for recovery. A significant relationship was found between the percent of members who support sobriety and support for recovery. This finding provides construct validity for the support for recovery measure.

Practice implications as well as directions for future research are included in this study. Findings suggest that clinicians should work with social network members and clients on improving communication and eliminating critical support to improve social support. Future research should focus on the impact of social relationships on treatment outcomes.

Committee:

Elizabeth Tracy, PhD (Committee Chair); David Biegel, PhD (Committee Member); Kathryn Adams, PhD (Committee Member); Sonia Minnes, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Research; Social Work

Keywords:

Social Support Networks; Social Support; Substance Use Disorders; Dual Disorders; Co-Occurring Disorders; Treatment Motivation; Social Networks; Substance Abuse; Women

Mackersie, JohnATHLETES’ PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION FROM SPORT INJURY IN RELATION TO THEIR RESTORATION NETWORKS
Master of Science in Sport Studies, Miami University, 2010, Physical Education, Health, and Sport Studies
This paper examines the role of social support and its affect on athletic injury rehabilitation. The study utilized a semi-structured interview structure on six previously injured Division I athletes. Results were analyzed using qualitative methodology looking for emergent themes and sub-themes. It was originally thought a social network of supporting roles was crucial for injured athletes’ recovery. However, with the current results, it is now evident that social networks are but a small fraction of the process. This study concludes with future research directions.

Committee:

Robin Vealey (Advisor); Valeria Freysinger (Committee Chair); Brett Massie (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Psychology; Social Psychology; Sociology; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

social support; restoration networks; social; networks; support; rehabilitation; athletic injury

Storms, MelissaWives Left Behind: Factors that Impact Active Duty Wives' Psychological Well-being while Experiencing Deployment-Related Separation
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Social Work
Current world events have led to increased deployments among military members. While these deployments are a necessary part of military service, separations create changes within the family dynamics and add stress to an already stressful situation. Military wives' psychological well-being is negatively impacted by these increased levels of stress. Specifically, military wives become isolated from their husbands and are required to accept roles previously held by their husbands. These types of circumstances can undermine the quality of the spousal relationship. Furthermore, communication between a wife and her deployed husband is often unpredictable and infrequent, which creates more strain on the marriage and has the potential to continue decreasing military wives' psychological well-being. Ultimately, these decreases in military wives' psychological well-being tax the individual, the family, and the military community, as well as increase the burden on the health care system. This study developed and tested an integrated conceptual model to show how the quality of spousal relationship and frequency of communication with the husband predict military wives' psychological well-being while experiencing separation caused by deployment. This study further examined how informal support networks, formal support networks, wives' satisfaction with employment opportunities, and wives' satisfaction with community moderate the associations between the quality of spousal relationship, frequency of communication with the husband, and wives' psychological well-being. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to analyze the direct relationships between each of these factors and military wives' psychological well-being. Additionally, this study tested the moderating effects of the interactions between the variables. Other contributing factors (i.e., branch of service, paygrade, age, and if a service member's deployment was extended or not) were controlled for in this study to further isolate the effects of the factors of interest. The results show there are several factors that predict military wives' psychological well-being during deployment-induced separation. While all of the factors directly predict military wives' psychological well-being, some of them also moderate the relationships between the quality of spousal relationship, frequency of communication with the husband, and wives' psychological well-being. These findings provide insight into the nature of military wives' psychological well-being and how it is affected by separation. Additionally, the results of this study have implications for policymakers and mental health professionals by highlighting factors that should be focused on when creating and implementing programs designed to prevent and offset the negative impacts of separation caused by military deployments. Precisely, the results show the areas where resources can be focused to enable military wives to overcome the increased stressors present during separations caused by military deployments.

Committee:

Mo Yee Lee, Ph.D. (Advisor); Tom Gregoire, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Cynthia Buettner, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Work

Keywords:

Military wives; deployment; psychological well-being; separation; military families; spousal relationship; informal support; formal support; employment opportunities; community; interaction moderation; structural equation modeling

Schroeder, TiffanyAre you listening to me? An investigation of employee perceptions of listening.
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Organizational Behavior
Modern organizations rely on individuals to speak up with ideas, concerns, and suggestions. In short, they require employees to be proactive not just in the actions that they take, but in their communications as well. An accumulation of evidence from the areas of employee voice, silence, and issue-selling suggests that perceptions of listening are important for the open sharing of thoughts, concerns, and suggestions relating to the ongoing flow of work in organizations. Still, research lags when it comes to understanding the experience of listening and the path to its workplace outcomes. Specifically, there are a multitude of terms used to describe listening whereas there are few rigorous attempts to examine the process and properties from the perspective of the person who speaks up. This dissertation explores listening perceptions from multiple angles. First, drawing from interdependence theory I offer a conceptual explanation for how and why perceptions of listening are formed. Then, I draw on organizational support theory to suggest that listening is a powerful but missing predictor of perceived organizational support. To test the relative strength of perceived listening as a predictor of perceived organizational support I compared it against other well-known predictors using dominance analysis. Results from the analysis of survey data from 120 adults working in various fields suggest that perceived listening is an even more powerful predictor than was expected. Specifically, it completely dominated both leader-member exchange and perceived supervisor support in the prediction of perceived organizational support. Finally, I present the results of a qualitative study of 42 in-depth interviews with bank employees to address the research question `How do employees perceive and engage in workplace listening experiences?’ From these data I build a process model of listening perceptions. This model sheds light on the situations in which employees attend to listening, the people they see as key listeners, and the process through which they construct assessments of listening.

Committee:

Ronald Fry (Committee Chair); Corinne Coen (Committee Member); Avraham Kluger (Committee Member); Melvin Smith (Committee Member); Casey Newmeyer (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Management; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

listening; communications; perceived organizational support; organizational support theory; OCB; well being; interdependence; relationships; perceptions

Pearce, Emily AnnaThe Stress-Buffering Model of Social Support in Post-Acute Brain Injury Rehabilitation
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2016, Antioch New England: Clinical Psychology
Currently, 3.2-5.3 million Americans (1.1-1.7%) live with long-term disability resulting from acquired brain injury (ABI). Despite two to three million more being treated yearly for milder injuries and released without further services, those with enduring problems often require ongoing rehabilitation and support. The immediate and long-term costs of ABI are substantial, as are the burdens associated with lifelong sequelae. A clear understanding of prognostic indicators—only some of which have been identified—could assist in reducing these costs and burdens. Social support, which has been linked with physical health and function in populations across the world, is one likely indicator. Family stress, which may influence the availability of social support and which has been independently linked to functional outcomes in various populations, is another. Somewhat surprisingly, the relationship of either with functional outcomes in ABI has yet to be firmly established. Framed by the Stress-Buffering Model of social support, this study examined the extent to which family stress predicts physical function following ABI and whether and how social support moderates this relationship. Data for this study was obtained from a national brain injury database (OutcomeInfo). OutcomeInfo houses demographic, injury, medical, service, and administrative information, as well as ratings and scores from the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory—Fourth Edition (MPAI-4). The MPAI-4 is a questionnaire designed for use in post-acute rehabilitation and support programs, intended to allow facilities to track outcomes and changes throughout treatment. Bivariate Pearson and partial correlation were used in this study to gather preliminary information about the Stress-Buffering Model’s applicability within these post-acute services. Bivariate Pearson correlations revealed no significant relationships between family stress or friend support and physical function. Partial correlations revealed no significant relationships when controlling for several personal and contextual variables both individually and concurrently. This study had several limitations, and results should not be generalized at this point. Despite the lack of significant results, this study presents a coherent conceptual framework within which to examine these relationships further and provides a research design upon which future investigators may build.

Committee:

George Tremblay, PhD (Committee Chair); William Slammon, PhD (Committee Member); Nicholas Cioe, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology

Keywords:

brain injury; rehabilitation; outcome; family stress; social support; friend support; physical function; Stress-Buffering; Mayo-Portland; MPAI-4

El Rimawi, NidalDevelopment of an Audio Visual Tool for Medical Training at Kennedy Space Center
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2006, Aerospace Medicine
El Rimawi, Nidal. M.D. M.S., Department of Aerospace Medicine, Wright State University, 2006. Development of an Audio-Visual Tool for Medical Training at Kennedy Space Center As part of an effort to improve efficiency of space-flight medical support at Kennedy Space Center, a training video was created to replace a series of lectures given before a launch or landing of the Space Shuttle. The video was designed to familiarize volunteer physicians from around the country with the specific emergency response protocols for a Space Shuttle launch or landing emergency at Kennedy Space Center. The methods used were consistent with standard film making techniques as outlined in several film making texts. The Production was divided into three phases; A pre-production phase wherein the research, screenwriting and production planning took place, a Production phase consisting of the actual filming of the various scenes in the script and finally, a post-production phase during which the video was edited, music was added and the finished video screened and copied. The result was that the video was completed in seven months with the participation of over a hundred people. The final video won several awards for educational and government film and met all expectations of the author and the medical department. It was ultimately given to the Aerospace Medicine Residency program at Wright State University and to the medical staff at Kennedy Space Center.

Committee:

Robin Dodge (Advisor)

Keywords:

Aerospace Medicine; Space Medicine; Medical Education; Audio-Visual Tool; Kennedy Space Center; Space Medical Support; Emergency Medicine; Spaceflight Support; Spaceflight Emergencies; Film Production

Ferrari, LisaAttachment, Personal Resources and Coping in Trait-Anxious Adolescent Girls
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2008, Antioch Seattle: Clinical Psychology

Adolescence is an important transitional time with biological and social changes. During adolescence there is a heightened risk of internalized and externalized problems such as, anxiety, depression, suicide, substance misuse, and conduct disorders. Some will navigate this challenging time with great mastery, while others may experience confusion, self-doubt, and distress. Protective factors or personal resources such as, parent and peer support, social and academic competence, and self-esteem can help navigate the transition with success.

The survey data was gathered from 246 adolescent girls between the ages 14 to16 years old. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of how trait- anxious adolescent girls cope with their problems, and how protective factors mediate the relationship between anxiety and coping. The protective factors in this study that are considered to foster healthy social and emotional outcomes for adolescents are secure parent and peer-attachment, social and academic competence, and extracurricular activities.

Findings from this study demonstrate the complexity of relationships among attachment, coping, and personal resources for trait-anxious girls during adolescence. For instance, trait-anxious girls were significantly more likely to utilize emotion-focused coping strategies: more specifically, they used self-controlling (regulation of feeling and actions) coping, accepting responsibility coping (trying to make things right), and escape-avoidance coping (wishful thinking significantly more than their non-trait-anxious counterparts. They were also more likely to use one of the problem-focused strategies specifically, confrontive coping (aggressive efforts to alter the situation). Furthermore, trait-anxious girls also had significantly less perceived mother and peer-attachment, and lower academic competence, relative to non-trait-anxious girls.

This study tested three hypotheses using a mediation model to indicate that, hypothesis 1 was not supported because trait-anxiety was negatively associated with seeking-support coping. However, as predicted, hypothesis 2 revealed full mediation of perceived insecure mother-attachment on the relationship between trait-anxiety and self controlling coping, one of the emotion-focused coping strategies. Consistent with that hypothesis, perceived insecure mother-attachment also partially mediated the relationship between trait-anxiety and another emotion-focused strategy, escape- avoidance coping. Further, a component of hypothesis 3 was also established where, academic competence partially mediated the relationship between trait-anxiety and accepting responsibility coping which is an emotion-focused strategy. Notably, there was no mediating role of social competence or peer-attachment on the relationship between trait-anxiety and accepting responsibility coping. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Centre, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Molly Reid, Ph.D. ABPP (Committee Chair); Mary Wieneke, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Wendy Rowe, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Behaviorial Sciences; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Social Psychology; Womens Studies

Keywords:

anxiety; stress; coping; attachment; adolescents; adolescent girls; trait-anxiety; protective factors; emotion-focused; parent support; peer support; coping strategies

Kauser, Frederick LSupporting Workplace Learning: Supervisory and Peer Support Effect on Novice Firefighter Informal Learning Engagement
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, EDU Physical Activity and Educational Services
Workplace learning outcomes are linked to reducing workplace injuries and fatalities. Employees acquire the majority of their workplace knowledge from engaging informal workplace learning processes and activities. Workplace learning scholars are interested in promoting this mode of learning by inciting engagement. Socio-cultural factors that influence the frequency that workers engage informal learning have been identified, however, previous research findings lack generalizability. Understanding the degree to which selected variables correlate to the frequency of informal learning engagement by high-risk workers is the focus of this study. This study explored the informal learning engagement practices of 54 novice career metropolitan firefighters. A survey was conducted to determine the extent that variability in the frequency of informal workplace learning engagement is explained by a support climate comprised of supervisory support, psychological safety, knowledge sharing and relationship building. The key findings of this study indicate that supervisory support, knowledge-sharing and relationship-building are positively correlated with the frequency that novice career firefighters engaged informal learning. Results showed that relationship building and knowledge sharing were less important than supervisory support in the final model. Participating in structural firefighting, representing core work tasks, did not mediate the relationship between support climate and engagement. Implications of these findings extend our current understanding of informal workplace learning engagement.

Committee:

David Stein, Dr. (Advisor); Christopher Zirkle, Dr. (Committee Member); Dorinda Gallant , Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Educational Theory; Occupational Safety; Vocational Education

Keywords:

adult education, informal learning, informal learning engagement, learning support, novice firefighters, psychological safety, supervisory support, knowledge sharing, informal learning climate, high reliability

Walker, DonaldSimilarity Determination and Case Retrieval in an Intelligent Decision Support System for Diabetes Management
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2007, Computer Science (Engineering)
This thesis presents a metric for similarity determination and case retrieval for an intelligent decision support system. This system may greatly reduce the burden of diabetes management for both diabetic patients and their physicians through the use of case-based reasoning. Diabetes is a disease which affects over 20 million Americans with almost as many being at high risk of developing the disease. In order to live a healthy life with diabetes, individuals must continuously regulate their blood glucose levels. The current state of the art of diabetes management requires frequent doctor visits, careful measurements of the blood glucose levels, and mathematical calculations of insulin doses by the patient. This research is an intermediate step toward development of a method and system to analyze a patient's current state, recognize problems in blood glucose control and suggest therapy adjustments to remedy those problems.

Committee:

Cynthia Marling (Advisor)

Keywords:

artificial intelligence; AI; case-based reasoning; CBR; decision support; medical decision support; diabetes; glucose management; similarity determination; case retrieval; healthcare

Chaichanawirote, UraiwanQuality of Life of Older Adults: The Influence of Internal and External Factors
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2011, Nursing

Quality of life of older adults is influenced by multiple environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of quality of life and internal environmental factors (physical functioning, and depressive symptoms), and external environmental factors (social support satisfaction and social network density). The study framework was based on the Complexity Theory and the Human Response Model.

A cross-sectional predictive design was used to study the residents of retirement communities or people who attend senior centers in Northeast Ohio. Data collection involved the Short Physical Performance Battery, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule, and the Quality of Life ICECAP index. This study was approved by the Case Western Reserve University’s Human Subjects Review Board.

Total sample size was 95. Data analyses indicated 62% of the sample was female, 78% were white, 90% were non-Hispanic, 86% lived at home, 63% lived alone, 73% were drivers, 89% completed high school or higher, and subject age ranged from 65 to 96, with the average age of 76 years. Descriptive statistics are as follows: physical functioning was high (M =8.95, SD = 2.49); quality of life was high (M = .84, SD =.11); depressive symptoms were low (M = 1.98, SD = 2.42); social support satisfaction was high (M = 35.67, SD = 6.18); and social network density was moderate (M = .53, SD = .33). Physical functioning was significantly higher in participants who completed college or higher than those who complete high school or less, and higher in participants who lived with others than those who lived alone. Depressive symptoms were significantly lower in the drivers than non-drivers/drivers with constraints. Hierarchical regression analysis shows that predictor variables explain 32% of variance in the quality of life of older adults (R2adj = .32, F(11, 83) = 4.95, p < .001). Physical functioning (β = .26, p < .05) and depressive symptoms (β = - .42, p < .001) significantly influence quality of life when controlling for demographic characteristics. Social network analysis was used to produce illustrative sociograms, which helped explain the structure of the participants’ social network interactions.

Committee:

May Wykle, Dean and Marvin E. and Ruth Durr Denekas Professor (Committee Chair); Patricia Higgins, Associate Professor (Committee Member); Elizabeth Madigan, Professor (Committee Member); Elizabeth O'Toole, Professor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Gerontology; Nursing

Keywords:

quality of life; ICECAP; older adults; social network analysis; physical functioning; depressive symptoms; sociogram; social support satisfaction; social network density; egocentric; social support system

Matic, NikolaSURFACE SCIENCE ASPECTS OF ELECTROCATALYSIS
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2014, Chemistry
A multilayer system denoted as Pt/TiN/Ti/Si(111) was created in UHV. Chemical and physical properties of these layers were studied with XPS and ARXPS. Results of the analysis shows that a ca. 1nm thick titanium nitride layer between platinum and silicon was sufficient to stop diffusion of Pt to Si at room temperature. Nature of the interaction of thin layers of Pt on titanium nitride showed that initially deposited monolayer of Pt produced Pt/Ti intermetallic compound while properties of subsequent layers suggested metallic Pt. Relevance and conclusions were discussed in relation to titanium nitride as a catalyst support in PEM fuel cells. Hydroxylamine was successfully deposited in UHV on well characterized clean and oxygen covered Pt(100). RAIRS analysis suggests specific orientation of hydroxylamine molecule on clean Pt(100) and non-specific adsorption in case of oxygen covered Pt(100). Subsequent heating was followed by desorption in case of clean Pt(100) and by chemical reaction in case of oxygen covered Pt(100).Relevance and conclusions were discussed in relation to nitrogen cycle and electrocatalytic denitrification.

Committee:

Daniel Scherson (Advisor); Carlos Crespo (Committee Chair); Alfred Anderson (Committee Member); Gary Chottiner (Committee Member); Frank Ernst (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry; Physical Chemistry; Physics

Keywords:

Artificial photosynthesis; titanium nitride diffusion barrier for silicon and platinum; titanium nitride as a catalyst support; PEM catalyst support; Hydroxylamine adsorption on Pt 100; RAIRS of Hydroxylamine; Hydroxylamine in UHV; Nitrogen cycle

Ghaedi, HamedEvaluation of ODOT Overhead Sign Support Inspection Program
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2014, Civil Engineering
It is the responsibility of The Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) to insure that the supports for overhead sign supports (OSS), signals and high mast lights in Ohio safely perform their design function. Many of these supports have exceeded their design life by 20 years or more. Recent overhead sign support failures in the state of Ohio and nationally have raised the attention to the current inspection procedures. Insuring these supports serve safely, reliably and economically requires systematic inspection program including inventory management and reliability assessment. When the failure of signals or light supports could endanger the traveling public or cause delays, the supports need to be inspected, inventoried and their reliability assessed. Currently, there is no unified state-wide inspection program for OSS, signal or high mast light supports. This thesis presents the results for the evaluation of the current inspection program for OSS in the north and west portions of Ohio. For sign supports, ODOT wished to evaluate the adequacy of the current qualitative ground based inspection with a 5 year maximum inspection interval. Both the adequacy of the inspection method and the reoccurrence period needed to be examined. This research is a part of an overall study of the ODOT inspection program which is conducted by Mistras Group, Inc. for ODOT. This study sought to investigate and assess the adequacy of the current ODOT inspection program for overhead sign supports. This thesis covers ODOT inspection program for a part of state of Ohio including Districts 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 12 in the north and west of the state. The rest of Districts are covered by research team members from Ohio University. As part of this evaluation, a sample of 88 overhead sign supports was inspected in these Districts. A visit to each District was carried out to understand their inventory process, acquire past inspection reports and to become familiar with the way each District implemented ODOT’s inspection program. In order to perform inspections in a systematic and organized manner, a detailed procedure of inspection was developed along with an updated inspection form. In this study, a comparison between ODOT current inspection program and Mistras inspection procedure is provided. In the conclusion, recommendations to improve adequacy and efficiency of ODOT inspection program are provided for ODOT’s consideration.

Committee:

Douglas Nims (Advisor); Liangbo Hu (Committee Member); Brian Randolph (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

sign, support, overhead sign support, inspection, district, Ohio Department of Transportation, traffic signal, high mast light

Barber, Jennifer S.E-Patients and Caregivers Coping with Cystic Fibrosis: The Relationship Between Relational Satisfaction and Attitudes Toward Groups, Loneliness, and Social Support Online
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2008, Communication
This study contributes to the growing focus on online support groups and computer mediated communication by examining a unique population of individuals inflicted with, or caring for someone inflicted with, the genetic disorder of Cystic Fibrosis. Although significant advances have been made in the treatment of this disease over the last 30 years, recent findings have found that face-to-face interactions between individuals with the disease should be avoided. With this understanding, the current study focuses on this population in an online social support group environment. The theoretical framework was drawn from Schutzs' (1966) Interpersonal Needs Theory, as applied to the group setting. The first goal of the study was to determine the relationship between Relational satisfaction, attitudes toward support groups, loneliness, and social support. The second goal of this study was to expand our knowledge by examining these relationships for the first time in an online setting. Results from the study showed a positive relationship between relational satisfaction, attitude toward groups and social support, while the data showed a relationship in a negative manner between relational satisfaction and loneliness. The study adds to the rapidly growing body of research focusing on online support groups and computer mediated communication.

Committee:

Carolyn Anderson, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

Online Support Groups; Cystic Fibrosis; Relational Satisfaction; Attitudes Toward Groups; Loneliness; Social Support

Sisson, RebeccaAssessing and Addressing Family Members' Attitudes and Perceptions of Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Medicine: Genetic Counseling
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) causes lethargy, seizures and coma in children who are otherwise healthy. The condition requires an infectious trigger and has a genetic component as well. Children presenting with ANE start with typical childhood infections and develop flu-like symptoms. Instead of recovering, the children become increasingly lethargic. The symptoms usually lead to seizures and coma within 1 to 3 days. The outcomes of ANE episodes vary but can be devastating; from full recovery, to severe intellectual impairment, to death. Patients are spread all over the world, so there is little opportunity for families to communicate, and little information about ANE is publicly available. The goal of this study was to document the need for an ANE support network, and determine what families want most from a support network. Participants for this study were relatives of participants enrolled in a previous study about the genetics of ANE. An investigator developed, online questionnaire was first sent to physicians of patients who have ANE and then forwarded to families. We received 25 completed questionnaires out of 86 eligible families. Overall, 92% (23/25) of participants reported being interested in an online support network and anticipate using a network at least monthly (75%, 18/25). Participants ranked their interest in information about ANE and ANE research more highly than communication and emotional support. Most participants reported high levels of worry for their children and other family members. Reported levels of worry were significantly higher after experiencing an ANE episode. Worry was ranked on a scale of 1-10 with 10 being the highest level of worry. Participants were most worried about ANE during the winter/flu season (median response=9 (5.5-10)) and when a member of their family has a cold or fever (median response=10 (8.25-10)). Families reported that they have changed their lives and plans for the future after experiencing an ANE episode (median responses were 10 (8-10) and 9.5 (5.5-10)). Based on the impact that ANE has on the lives of families, their level of worry and the high level of interest in an ANE support network, this study shows that this type of network would be very useful for families. However, their preferences indicate that information provided through an online resource would be more important than the social aspect.

Committee:

Derek Neilson, MD (Committee Chair); Cynthia Prows (Committee Member); Lisa Martin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Genetics

Keywords:

Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy;rare genetic diseases;online support networks;patient support;;;

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