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Schmoll, Heidi ChristineAMERICAN STUDY-ABROAD PROGRAMS IN GERMANY AND AUSTRIA: A COMPARISON OF OBJECTIVES AND PERCEIVED LEARNING OUTCOMES
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2007, German
Participation in study-abroad programs has become more and more prevalent in the last fifty years. This increase has created a greater need for research on the effects of study abroad. The objective of this study was to determine participant-perceived learning outcomes of study-abroad programs in Germany or Austria. These outcomes were centered on the social and cultural domain, language acquisition, and career influences. I also analyzed the objectives of the study-abroad programs to determine whether those aims were met. Seven established university programs with similar designs were used for this research. A total of 203 study-abroad alumni completed a carefully designed, online survey instrument. Survey questions asked participants to gauge the impact of the study-abroad experience on their language learning, cultural awareness, and career paths. Program literature from each university was analyzed, and interviews with program administration were conducted to designate the objectives of the programs. Results of the study showed that alumni reported increases in all three learning outcome domains. This perception, however, was strongest within the realm of personal and cultural development. While subjects recognized a degree of language acquisition, a feeling of missed language-learning opportunities emerged. Interestingly, participants did not indicate that gaining job marketability was a main goal for going abroad, and they, consequently, perceived a lower level of job marketability. The three main objectives of the university programs were language acquisition, personal development, and academic immersion. Over 80% of alumni felt a significant increase in their personal development, while 80.3% perceived a great deal of academic immersion, and 72% a significant increase in language acquisition. This study was a first step in objectively verifying the learning outcomes of study abroad. Recommendations for practice and improvement of programs were included as well as suggestions for further research.

Committee:

Christina Guenther (Advisor)

Keywords:

study abroad; study-abroad learning outcomes; Germany; Austria; study-abroad objectives; perceived learning outcomes; American study-abroad programs; effects of study abroad

Williams, Benjamin McKayExpanding perceptions of self and other through study abroad
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Educational Policy and Leadership
This dissertation explored the ways in which White, African American and Biracial American undergraduate and graduate students made meaning of race and other aspects of identity. Using a constructivist grounded methodology this study revealed a new way to conceptualize the processes by which students’ perceptions of self and other were shaped through a course on the culture and society of Southern Africa and by studying abroad on a short-term program to that region: the dynamics of integrating lenses. In the U.S. classroom, students moved from ignorance about the continent of Africa and the region of Southern Africa to an initial understanding. Through the combined course and study abroad program, the White undergraduate students’ unexamined White privilege was surfaced and examined. At the same time, Black students’ pride in being Black and their connection to their histories was deepened. Their assumptions about race and identification with Africa were also broadened. The result of the group cohesiveness and support was that White and Black students who had never had friends of the “other” race expanded their relationships to incorporate new people who they may never have interacted with otherwise. Through personal stories students were exposed to new perspectives and experiences, first, in the U.S. classroom, later in Southern Africa, and also in the comfort and security of the group itself. Through personal relationships with the instructor, the tour guides and fellow students, participants became engaged. Through learning about Southern Africa: its history, the society, and its many cultures, students became invested in the stories and the people who told them. As a result, they felt compelled to confront the reality they were facing. Through reflecting on those experiences in the support of the group, students were able to grapple with the dissonance between their earlier assumptions, perceptions, and beliefs and the new experiences they were having. This led to a greater complexity of thinking around issues of race, community, and globalization, and an expansion of the lenses they used to perceive themselves and others.

Committee:

Ada Demb (Advisor)

Keywords:

study abroad; short-term study abroad; racial identity; Southern Africa/South Africa; constructivist grounded theory; qualitative research; experiential learning

AƱorga, Angel GamalielStudents’ Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Second Language Learning: Experiences in a Short-term Study Abroad
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Literacy and Second Language Studies
Short-term language study abroad programs have continued to capture the attention of college students in recent years. In an effort to measure the impact, language gain from a short-term study abroad program is measured using pre- and post-grammar-based assessments alone. Such practice takes away the essence and richness short sojourns can offer, especially as this type of assessment does not always account for those students considered to be bad test-takers. The process of language learning is, by nature, a complex task. When studying abroad, this process encompasses three main domains: the language learner, the second language, and the immersion setting. The intrinsic permeability among these domains reveals the complexity of the process of language learning abroad, particularly when the sojourn is short term. Every language learner who studies abroad is unique and experiences the language learning process at a different level. Thus, from a self-efficacy theory perspective—and to allow the voices and stories of the participants to be heard—this study implements a phenomenological case study design to gain insights into participants’ self-efficacy perceptions of their language learning abroad. Self-efficacy is identified in the literature as the central phenomenon influencing students’ achievement as well as the determining factor of students’ success during a short-term sojourn. In this study, five cases shared their stories regarding the process of learning Spanish abroad in relation to self-efficacy perceptions and beliefs. Data sources included in-depth three-way interviews, field observations, and student artifacts. Inductive analysis guided the highlight of significant statements and the creation of clusters and themes; cross-case analyses allowed for a thorough analysis and aided the in-depth description of the essence of the phenomenon at hand for each case. Several important findings related to the process of language learning during short-term sojourns emerged through themes and subthemes. Through interactions with the host family and other native speakers, the participants discovered their real language level while abroad. Coming out of their comfort zones while interacting and using Spanish abroad enabled the participants to increase their self-efficacy perceptions. The more they took part in authentic language tasks, the more participants experienced an increase in their beliefs in their abilities to learn Spanish. Future research is needed in the area of self-efficacy in order to elucidate language learners’ beliefs in their capabilities to acquire a second language abroad.

Committee:

Holly Johnson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Emilie M. Camp, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Brenda Refaei, Ed.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Foreign Language; Language; Linguistics

Keywords:

self-efficacys;self-efficacy perceptions of language learning;self-efficacy and language learning abroad;short-term language study abroad;language learning abroad;language gain in short-term language study abroad

Lewis, AbigailEvaluating the Effectiveness of a Short-Term Study Abroad Program for School Psychology Graduate Students
Specialist in Education (Ed.S.), University of Dayton, 2015, School Psychology
The present study investigated the results of a short-term study abroad program for school psychology graduate students. The results of three years of one university’s study abroad program were compared to results of the university’s on-campus multicultural training course. Pre/post test intercultural development assessments were used to assess the growth in intercultural competence of the participating school psychology graduate students in both groups. Findings indicated that the difference in growth in intercultural competence between the two groups was not statistically significant. A supplemental tool was also used to collect qualitative data from some of the study abroad participants. A review of responses suggested that possible change was observed in areas related to knowing oneself as cultural and communications across cultural differences. Implications for school psychology training programs and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Susan Davies (Committee Chair); Amy Anderson (Committee Member); Elana Bernstein (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Education; Educational Psychology; Multicultural Education; Pedagogy; Psychology

Keywords:

intercultural competence, study abroad, school psychology, graduate training, cross cultural, multicultural

Gaines, Nykia D.Exploring the Perceptions of Study Abroad Among Black Undergraduates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Higher Education Administration

International education helps students become more engaged within the United States and abroad. Black undergraduates continue to be underrepresented in study abroad despite two decades of increased enrollment by Black students in higher education in the United States. This study had three purposes: (1) to explore how Black undergraduates attending historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) perceived study abroad programs, (2) to understand how individual and institutional characteristics related to the desire of Black undergraduates at HBCUs to study abroad, and (3) to determine to what degree individual and institutional variables predicted Black undergraduates’ desire to participate in study abroad.

A survey research design was utilized to understand the perceptions and characteristics of Black undergraduates attending four HBCUs. Two hundred ninety-eight students responded to the survey during the spring and summer of 2011. Findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between students who initiated discussion about study abroad with their advisor or professor and their desire to study abroad at their current institution. There was a significant relationship between professors who initiated conversations about study abroad with students outside the classroom and the respondents’ desire to study abroad. There was a significant relationship between professors who discussed study abroad outside the classroom and respondents’ perceptions of study abroad. Students who had interactions with faculty or advisors regarding study abroad were less represented among students who did not desire to study abroad.

Respondents who were born or raised abroad were less likely to desire to study abroad than those that did not report they were born or raised abroad and education majors were more likely to desire to study abroad than those in other majors. Respondents who initiated discussions about study abroad with their professors were more likely to desire study abroad than those who did not discuss study abroad with their professors and respondents whose advisors discussed academic planning for study abroad were less likely to desire to study abroad than those who reported that their advisor did not discuss academic planning for study abroad. Implications for research and practice in higher education and student affairs are discussed.

Committee:

Dafina Stewart, PhD (Committee Chair); Patrick Pauken, PhD (Other); Michael Coomes, EdD (Other); Robert DeBard, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African Americans; Higher Education

Keywords:

education abroad; study abroad; historically Black colleges and universities; HBCUs; international education; Black undergraduates; African Americans; higher education

Gathogo, Mary K.Fostering Intercultural and Global Competence: Potential for Transformational Learning through Short-Term Study Abroad in Africa
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2015, Higher Education (Education)
This study examined the intercultural experiences and learning outcomes of U.S. undergraduates participating in four different short-term study abroad programs in three different African countries. Whereas the design for this study targeted nontraditional destinations in general, it proved difficult to get responses from students from the two institutions who had participated in programs in other nontraditional destinations. Utilizing a constructivist grounded theory methodology in the study design (Charmaz, 2006) qualitative interviews and participant journals /reflective papers were used as data sources. A total of 12 U.S. undergraduate students who had participated in short-term study abroad programs to South Africa, Botswana and Tanzania took part in this study. The study utilized the constant comparative method in the interpretation and analysis of data. From the data analysis, five dimensions of transformational learning in study abroad were identified: (a) positioning as learner, (b) situating the experience, (c) experiencing dissonance (d) resolving conflict and (e) making with other cultures. These dimensions provide insight into the learning processes within culturally disparate contexts that affect perspective change.

Committee:

Peter Mather, PhD (Committee Chair); Laura Harrrison, PhD (Committee Member); Yegan Pillay, PhD (Committee Member); Bruce Martin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

study abroad; transformational learning; intercultural competence; global competence; undergraduates; nontraditional destinations

Shaheen, StephanieThe effect of pre-departure preparation on student intercultural development during study abroad programs
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Educational Policy and Leadership
The question addressed in this project is whether pre-departure preparation can help students to gain intercultural competencies when they study abroad, especially on shorter length programs. Specifically, the following research questions were examined; 1) How does a pre-departure orientation course titled Intercultural Experiential Learning (IS 693) affect the cultural learning for students on study abroad programs? 2) How do the changes in intercultural learning of students on study abroad programs compare with students who studied abroad without the pre-departure orientation course, and with students who did not study abroad, as measured by the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) post-test scores on the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS)? 3) What dynamics or factors influence the nature of student learning about intercultural competence on study abroad programs? A mixed method comparative study using qualitative and quantitative research was conducted with three groups of students. A pre-test/post-test measured change in participant behavior. The IDI and DMIS scores showed change in intercultural development. Both qualitative (interviews and observations) and quantitative (IDI instrument and questionnaires) research methods were used to gain greater insight into the experience of the participants. The statistical analysis showed that students who had the treatment did not have significant increases on their post-test scores over non-treatment students, and no significant difference on post-test scores existed for students who studied abroad when compared with non study abroad students. The statistical analysis also showed that two different conditions increased the likelihood that students would have a significant increase in sensitivity: 1) having parents who have had overseas experiences and 2) being non-minority students (racial and ethnic minorities as well as international students). The qualitative data analysis illuminated other factors that encouraged intercultural growth including: 1) significant intercultural interactions with international peers, 2) not having prolonged negative experiences with international people, 3) having the goal of gaining cultural understanding and students seeing an applicable use in their future career for their experience, 4) the chance to speak with international peers in English on a variety of cultural topics, and finally, 5) being members of the majority race and ethnic groups in the U.S.

Committee:

Ada Demb (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Higher

Keywords:

study abroad; intercultural sensitivity; international education

Ivory, Brian ThomasA phenomenological inquiry into the spiritual qualities and transformational themes associated with a self-styled rite of passage into adulthood
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Educational Policy and Leadership
Western cultures have largely abandoned rituals that recognize and facilitate the transition into adulthood. This cultural indifference prompts some undergraduates—i.e., those with a felt-need for initiation-like experience—to seek out available forms of ritualization (e.g., an outdoor adventure challenge). Some college students may attempt to meet this need by creating their own ritual activities. Potential forms of alternative initiations include “self-styled rites of passage.” This type of “ritual intervention” is understood as voluntary, time-intensive sojourns into differentiating contexts with the intention of realizing transitional, transformational and/or spiritual outcomes. In this investigation, I explore the spiritual and transformational outcomes associated with a self-styled rite of passage into adulthood. The subject matter (i.e., lived experience) in this autobiographical case study involves my 1985 foreign study experience in Newfoundland and Labrador. The phenomenological data used include: primary material generated as the experience was lived (e.g., journals), and secondary data collected specifically for this investigation (e.g., interviews). Consistent with my research methodology (i.e., hermeneutic phenomenology), a lived experience narrative was (re)constructed for the purposes of animating the primary research question: What is it like to experience a self-styled rite of passage? An interpretation of this phenomenological description explicates the “spiritual qualities” and “transformational themes” associated with my lived experience. The “phenomenological insights” offered at the end of this study constitute my re-conceptualization of this study topic. “Recommendations for improved practice” are provided based on several conclusions regarding self-styled rites of passage: (1) This researcher sees no great harm in “framing” lived experiences as a self-styled rite of passage. Such conscious framing can help college students language, structure, and interpret ritual interventions; (2) Self-styled rites of passage will be more effective when attention is given to non-Western values, and to the social, communal, and/or spiritual contexts in which ritual interventions occur; (3) With regard to structuring self-styled rites of passage, undergraduates are strongly advised to participate in ritual interventions coordinated by experiential education programs (e.g., Outward Bound); and (4) College students should actively ritualize before (i.e., ritual preparation) and after (i.e., ritual integration) participating in experiential education programs (i.e., ritual intervention).

Committee:

Robert Rodgers (Advisor)

Keywords:

rites of passage,; initiation into adulthood,; experiential education,; study abroad,; spirituality,; transformation,; autobiographical case study; hermeneutic phenomenology

Fuller, Roger JasonThreads in a Tapestry: An Ethnographic Evaluation of Milken Community High School’s Tiferet Fellowship Program
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2010, Leadership and Change

This study explored an essential question, "What does the lived experience of students in the Tiferet program mean for them and others?" By exploring the background, implementation, and lived-experiences of two academic-year sophomore cohorts from Milken Community High School in Los Angeles as they lived and participated in a semester study abroad program at the Alexander Muss Institute of Israel Education in Hod HaSharon, Israel, the study shows the impact-of that experience on the students in the program and the school culture at large. The study engaged in a description of the program’s development and evaluation of the lived-experiences as they were reported by students and parents through surveys and video interviews and observed by the researchers. By using a mixed-genre approach and a media-enhanced web site, this study created a sense of the experience of living in Israel for one semester of the sophomore year.

The electronic version of this dissertation is accessible through the Ohiolink ETD Center at http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/ The web link for the original and evolving dissertation is available through http://khronosreview.com/ The dissertation is best viewed by going to this site. Features are present in the web/blog based version which are not present in the print edition. These features include interactivity and dynamic content. It is best read, viewed and explored via the web/blog experience.

Committee:

Carolyn Kenny, PhD (Committee Chair); Laurien Alexandre, PhD (Committee Member); Alan Guskin, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Zeldin, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Evaluation; Educational Theory; Multicultural Education; School Administration; Secondary Education; Teaching; Technology

Keywords:

Study Abroad; Semester Programs; Israel Education; Ethnography; Secondary Education; Web-Based Dissertations; Multimedia; Video; Mixed-Genre; High Schools; Student Leadership; Program Development; Progam Evaluation

Tohyama, NatsukoReverse Culture Shock and Romantic Relationships in College Students Reentering After Study Abroad
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2008, College Student Personnel
This purpose of this study was to examine if there were significant differences in reverse culture shock levels experienced by study abroad returnees who remained together with their romantic partners through the reentry experience and those who separated from partners, by male and female returnees, and by returnees with short-term, mid-term, or long-term study abroad experiences. To measure reverse culture shock levels, the study used a modified version of the Homecomer Culture Shock Scales (HCSS) questionnaire by J. S. Fray (1988), which has four subscales: Cultural Distance (CD), Interpersonal Distance (ID), Grief (G), and Moral Distance (MD). It included an open-ended question about readjustment experiences of participants. The survey was distributed to past study abroad students at Bowling Green State University, yielding 85 participants. Quantitative data were analyzed using two-way analyses of variance and post-hoc tests. The significance level for all tests was set at .05. Qualitative data from the open-ended question were analyzed categorically and thematically. There were no main effects of gender or interaction effects of study abroad duration and relationship change for any of the scales. Participants who broke up with their romantic partners demonstrated significantly higher levels of reverse culture shock overall and Cultural Distance and Moral Distance compared to participants who did not break up. Women who experienced break up reported significantly higher levels of Interpersonal Distance only. Returnees from long-term study abroad scored higher on the HCSS and the Grief subscale compared to returnees from short-term experiences only. Responses to the open-ended question about readjustment were classified as predominantly positive (14), predominantly negative (32), mixed positive and negative (31), and neither positive nor negative (7). Themes found were structural readjustment, readjustment to way of life in the US, comparisons of American and study abroad location cultures, boredom at lack of adventure, homesickness for study abroad location, being misunderstood by others, confronting changes at home and in relationships, happiness at returning to the familiar, and challenge and growth. The results indicate that students must often renegotiate romantic relationships upon reentry and this readjustment process can be problematic. Study abroad and international student services offices should address romantic relationships and close relationships in general in reentry assistance.

Committee:

Michael Coomes, PhD (Committee Chair); Patricia Kubow, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Dannells, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

study abroad; culture shock; cultural adjustment; reentry; reverse culture shock; readjustment; romantic relationship

Turos, Jessica M.EMPLOYMENT RECRUITERS’ DIFFERENTIATION OF CANDIDATE CHARACTERISTICS: DOES STUDY ABROAD MAKE A DIFFERENCE?
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Higher Education Administration

With the need for college graduates to be competitive in a global economy, it is both critical and timely to gain insight into what employers want and what might characterize a successful candidate who is prepared for the current job market. This study investigated recruiters’ selection of candidates for employment, with an eye toward whether the experience of study abroad advantages them in the process of being evaluated for positions in business, education, or government/non-profit/social service organizations.

This dissertation employed an analogue design in which study abroad length and location, along with internship experience, were rotated systematically through a series of profiles, evoking recruiter-generated ratings and rankings for each pseudo-candidate as to the likelihood of being invited for a subsequent interview. Independent variables included candidate profile factors and characteristics related to recruiter gender, study abroad experience, position level, and organizational type. Quantitative data were examined through frequencies, chi-squares, and two-way analyses of variance for effects of the independent variables on candidate evaluations submitted. Additionally, recruiters’ comments about factors influencing their decisions were solicited and categorized for thematic patterns and insights.

Among the findings were two principal outcomes. First, candidate profiles featuring study abroad experiences, in addition to relevant internships, were rated and ranked the highest among peers in recruiters’ evaluations, with preference being given to long-term, Western experiences. Second, however, some variation in these evaluations was related to differences in the study abroad experience itself, as well as recruiter characteristics. Overall, the effect of study abroad on recruiters’ evaluations of candidates was simply one part of a complex of other considerations.

Students have a number of options for increasing their marketability to potential employers, among them - pursuing an opportunity for study abroad. However, results of the present study suggest that such an experience has only an additive rather than compensatory effect, when considered in light of other criteria, such as relevant internship experience. Nevertheless, completion of an international encounter is clearly an important factor in a candidate’s evaluation, but only one among others of equal if not higher value in determining who is selected eventually for a subsequent interview.

Committee:

C. Carney Strange, PhD (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

study abroad; international education; higher education; recruitment; candidate selection; recruiter decision making process; selection process; analogue research

Shannon-Baker, Peggy AMicroaggressions, Self-Segregation, and Performing Gender: Exploring Undergraduate Students’ Culture Shock in a Study Abroad Program
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2015, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Educational Studies
Institutions of higher education are increasingly utilizing international education programs (Institute of International Education, 2014), also known as “study abroad” in the USA, especially as a mechanism for increasing students’ cross-cultural awareness (e.g., Marx & Moss, 2011; Salisbury, 2011). The literature on and implementation of such programs does not fully consider two critical issues: the socio-emotional impact of study abroad on participants (i.e., the culture shock they experience), and the relation of cultural identities, such as race, gender, and class, to students’ experiences while abroad. To address this issue, I investigated the ways in which students’ experiences of culture shock were connected to their identity related to race, gender, and class. I used a concurrent mixed methods research design that entailed collecting and analyzing three sets of data: arts-based (self-portraits and students’ reflections on their portraits), qualitative (observations, interviews, and students’ reflections), and quantitative (Revised Cultural Distance Index, a self-rating for culture shock, and demographic information). I collected the data from a sample of students (n =14) who participated in the Ecuador: Immersed in Culture and Education program, which was a short-term program where students taught in indigenous primary schools in Ecuador after a semester-long course. I found that students experienced a range of amounts of culture shock, that it manifested differently for students across race, gender, and class, and that students enacted varying strategies to cope with their culture shock (and the culture shock of others) while on the trip. Whereas students of color were cognizant of how they portrayed themselves and their culture shock to others from the beginning, white students became more conscious of their self-images after being in Ecuador due in part to feeling like a minority for the first time. For white students from affluent backgrounds, their culture shock tended to be more intense and manifested in complaints and repeated use of words such as “small” to describe themselves in their self-portraits. Students of color and working class white students generally experienced less culture shock quantitatively, but experienced their own culture shock in witnessing their white affluent peers’ complaints. As a result, these students chose to segregate themselves. All of the students sought out like-peers across race and class to find comfort and manage their culture shock. I also found that two students made intentional choices about their gender performance as a strategy to manage their culture shock in relation to their interactions with Ecuadorians. Finally, I found that students’ limited understanding of culture shock and gender impacted how they quantified their culture shock and analyzed their experiences based on gender. As a result of these findings, I argue for a more expansive view of culture shock that gives more emphasis to the impact of cross-cultural relationships among students while they are abroad. For the students in this study, their manifestations and strategies to adapt to culture shock were intertwined with their perceptions of others across race, gender, and class. I also conclude that international programs must critically engage with cross-cultural issues both in terms of the content of pre-departure training/coursework as well as in terms of the relationships between students in the program. I also argue for training leaders and students in how to identify and manage culture shock. I also discuss some methodological implications for this research, my positionality, and future research.

Committee:

Holly Johnson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Vicki Daiello, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Vicki Plano Clark, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Culture shock;Study abroad;Race;Gender;Socioeconomic class;Mixed methods

Spann, Sammy J.Examining the Impact of Service-Learning on College Students in an Inclusive Camp Setting
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2009, Curriculum and Instruction: Special Education

This study examined the impact of a service-learning program on college students in an inclusive camp environment. Participants in the study completed a pre-post questionnaire to determine the impact of service-learning on the students' self concept, personal growth, and understanding of diversity as it relates to working with children with special needs. Participants were placed in Okinawa and mainland Japan during the summer of 2009 as part of their involvement in Camp Adventure. The study found that there was a significant impact in service-learning on the students' self concept, personal growth, and understanding of diversity.

Data from this survey (Appendix A: Survey Pretest, pg. 85 and Appendix B: Survey Posttest, pg. 89) are discussed in light of an extensive study of the history of special education, service-learning, and student development.

Participants reported an increase in self concept, personal growth, and understanding of diversity. It appears that people who have a service-learning experience as described in this study develop competence in the three areas investigated in this study. Results from the study have implications for work in curriculum development and the formation for public policy concerning the design and implementation of service-learning activities.

Committee:

Dr. Sakui Malakpa (Committee Chair); Dr. Edward Cancio (Committee Member); Dr. Patricia Devlin (Committee Member); Dr. Frank Kohler (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Higher Education; Special Education

Keywords:

higher education; special education; inclusion; study abroad

Clemens, Jacob EdwardStudying Abroad: An Opportunity for Growth in Spirituality
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Higher Education Administration
The purpose of this collective case study was to explore how six college students described the influence of their study abroad experience on their spirituality. I situated this study in a constructivist research paradigm because the inquiry focused on how the participants constructed meaning about and understood the influence of study abroad on their spirituality. I utilized a staged, semi-structured interview protocol consisting of up to three separate interviews. Interviews took place before participants departed for their study abroad experience, while they were abroad, and after returning home from studying abroad. Students studied abroad for at least eight weeks during the summer of 2012. Through a better understanding of their described experience, I gained insight into the impact of study abroad, how study abroad affected specific spiritual practices, and which specific elements of study abroad ignited spiritual development. From the data, six major themes emerged to indicate how students described the influence of studying abroad on their spirituality. Students became more aware of their own and others' spirituality. Spiritual coping was utilized by many participants in reaction to feeling isolated, uncomfortable, and homesick. Participants enacted spiritual and religious practices while abroad to help cope with being abroad or to enact their spirituality. Participants engaged in dialogue about spirituality and spiritual questions. Finally, participants expressed that, after studying abroad, their spiritual identity was strengthened.

Committee:

Dafina-Lazarus Stewart, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ellen Broido, D.Ed. (Committee Member); Stefan Fritsch, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken, Ph.D., J.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Religion; Spirituality

Keywords:

study abroad; student; spirituality; faith; higher education; college; international; religion; spiritual; global; spiritual coping; coping; meaning; purpose; spiritual conversations; spiritual dialogue; studying abroad; character; character development

Cornelius, Crista LynnLanguage Socialization through Performance Watch in a Chinese Study Abroad Context
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, East Asian Languages and Literatures
Study abroad experiences play a key role in the language socialization process of second language learners. Yet there is a need for more empirical studies on how to bridge the gap between classroom and community learning environments in the study abroad context. This thesis examines the question of what reporting on a weekly Performance Watch during a Chinese study abroad program reveals about students' language socialization processes. A Performance Watch consists of observing and analyzing a culturally-situated communicative event in terms of how contextual factors such as time, place, and the social roles of speakers and audience contribute to the meaning that is established by the verbal and non-verbal communication. This study establishes a theoretical framework for Performance Watch based on Galal Walker and Mari Noda's model of second-culture worldview construction, Elinor Ochs' Indexicality Principle and David Kolb's experiential learning cycle. The study also analyzes empirical data drawn from the incorporation of Performance Watch into a Chinese study abroad program and on the basis of these results makes specific suggestions regarding the future implementation of Performance Watch. This study examines 21 video-recorded oral Performance Watch reports presented by ten advanced-level students during an eight-week Chinese study abroad program for evidence of language socialization. Data was also collected from student surveys and teacher interviews from this and one other smaller study abroad program using the same curriculum. The results of the study show that reporting on a weekly Performance Watch creates opportunities for language learners to be socialized by native speakers with regard to native indexical practices and that Performance Watch facilitates deep learning by taking learners through all four stages of an experiential learning cycle. Results from the study also indicate that there may be a correlation between students' ability to identify connections between form and context and their ability to recognize speakers' intentions; however, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this finding. The pedagogical implications of this study indicate that in order to more fully realize the benefit of Performance Watch with regard to language socialization and the development of narrative skills classroom activities should involve students talking about the stories from their Performance Watch observations in a conversational format as opposed to an oral report format. In addition both teachers and students would benefit from a more precise framework for generating analytical questions about a Performance Watch. Performance Watch, which was originally developed by Mari Noda as a teacher training tool, has more recently been applied to study abroad contexts but the theoretical basis for the concept has not been established in published literature nor have any empirical studies been conducted on its effect on second language socialization. This study fills this gap by establishing a theoretical framework for Performance Watch, analyzing the results of applying Performance Watch in two Chinese study abroad programs, and pointing the way toward more effective implementation of Performance Watch in study abroad contexts.

Committee:

Galal Walker (Advisor); Mari Noda (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Foreign Language

Keywords:

Performance Watch; study abroad; language socialization; Chinese as a foreign language; experiential learning; indexicality

Steele, Clarissa R.THE EFFECT OF STUDY ABROAD ON THE ACQUISITION OF PRAGMATICS: A COMPARISON OF REQUESTS MADE BY L2 SPANISH GRADUATE STUDENTS
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Spanish
This study investigates the effects of study abroad on the acquisition of the pragmatics, specifically, the speech act of requests, by advanced second language learners. The participants included seven graduate students that completed their first year of a master’s program in Spanish in Mexico or Spain and who were compared to six native Spanish speakers. The participants completed a Language Contact Profile (Freed, Dewey, Segalowitz & Halter, 2004) to gather data about their language experiences while studying abroad and a Discourse Completion Task Questionnaire containing ten situations to which the respondents wrote requests. The investigation focused on six aspects of these requests: speaker- or hearer-orientation, pronouns of address, the use of the courtesy marker por favor, verbal forms, requestive verbs, and the number of words in the speech act. The results found that although advanced learners of Spanish in general make requests in a native-like manner, errors still exist in their use of particular linguistic aspects of the language. The learners tend to underutilize the hearer orientation, the predominate orientation in Spanish, in some situations and overuse it in others. Learners who studied in Spain also tend to overuse the informal pronoun tú while the students who studied in Mexico overuse the formal pronoun usted. The advanced learners do not use the courtesy marker in most requests, although some situations led to its use when native speakers did not utilize por favor in the speech act. Those who studied in Spain tend to overuse the present tenses and those who studied in Mexico use the conditional and the present in non-native-like patterns. All learners use poder, ser posible, and tener in their requests more than natives, who use a variety of verbs such as importar, hacer el favor, and necesitar, absent in speech acts by the non-native speakers. Finally, in nearly all of the situations, the learners use significantly fewer words than the natives. These findings may help improve study abroad programs and language classes by demonstrating the need for explicit pragmatic teaching, even for advanced students. Furthermore, for the field of Second Language Acquisition, these results add to the knowledge about advanced learners and how they acquire pragmatic competence while studying abroad.

Committee:

Lynn Pearson (Advisor)

Keywords:

linguistics; pragmatics; second language acquisition; study abroad; advanced learner; Spanish; request

Miller, Nicole AnnIndividual and Cultural Factors Affecting Students' Anxiety During Language Study Abroad
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2009, Communication
Submersing oneself in a foreign culture for an extended amount of time is a complex process, and students who study abroad experience varying degrees of anxiety while doing so. The present study uses Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory and Communication Accommodation Theory to identify certain factors related to this anxiety. Quantitative data in Phase One measured students’ uses of idiomatic expressions in the homestay, ability to tolerate ambiguity, time spent with the host family and proficiency levels to find them all significantly related to anxiety at moderate levels. Phase Two expanded to look at cultural factors associated with anxiety. Students from individualistic cultures experienced significantly lower levels of anxiety while studying a second language in a classroom than students who identify as more collectivistic. Finally, as more time passed, individualistic students displayed higher frequencies of upward convergence behaviors toward individuals from the collectivistic culture.

Committee:

Teresa L. Thompson, PhD (Advisor); James D. Robinson, PhD (Committee Member); Jeffrey L. Griffin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Language

Keywords:

study abroad; anxiety; homestay; communication accommodation; cultural identity; AUM Theory; L2 acquisition

Scott, Camille R“Outside People”: Treatment, Language Acquisition, Identity, and the Foreign Student Experience in Japan
Bachelor of Arts (BA), Ohio University, 2014, Anthropology
In recent years, an increasing number of foreign students have been engaging in language and cultural immersion programs in Japan, raising issues of cross-cultural contact and exchange. Japan's enduring cultural nationalism produces an ethnocentric valuation of homogeneity, thereby affecting the ways in which Japanese natives engage with and respond to these students. This paper draws on two months of ethnographic research at two Japanese universities to examine how everyday, culturally embedded nationalism affects the experience, identity, and language instruction of western nonnative learners of Japanese with regards to the institution, the instructors, and the community around them. This discourse on issues surrounding the presence of foreign youth in a nationalistic society has application for discrimination reforms on the international level.

Committee:

Haley Duschinski (Advisor)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Cultural Anthropology; Educational Sociology; Foreign Language; Language; Linguistics; Pacific Rim Studies; Social Structure; Sociolinguistics; Sociology

Keywords:

anthropology; linguistic anthropology; ethnography; linguistics; Japan; nationalism; language acquisition; Japanese nationalism; study abroad; SLA; language immersion programs; international education; foreigner students; foreigners; discrimination

Chen, MeirenExploring East Asian Undergraduate Students Perceptions about the Effectiveness of Their Preparation for Study Abroad for Academic Success in U.S. Universities
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Cross-Cultural, International Education
This study used grounded theory as a framework to explore how the preparation for studying abroad would affect the academic success of East Asian undergraduate students in American universities. To understand how East Asian students previous educational experience would influence their current study in the U.S., 12 East Asian undergraduate students who had various educational experience before they began their undergraduate studies in the U.S. were interviewed. Three research questions were examined in this study, including: 1) how did East Asian students prepare to study in American universities; 2) how did their preparation affect their academic success in American universities; 3) what are challenges they are still facing in American universities? Twelve participants from China, South Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong were selected on purpose from five universities in order to recruit participants with diverse background. Interviews were conducted individually with each participant. This findings show how East Asian students English learning experiences in their homelands, their preparation experiences, and their success and challenges in U.S. universities. The knowledge of English language and American culture is the core category which is highly involved with their preparation for study abroad and their undergraduate study in the U.S. The study concludes that East Asian students can benefit from all the preparation programs which are held either in their homelands or the host countries. However, the barriers in language and culture are difficult for East Asian student to overcome in college. This findings of this study not only help future East Asian students who interested in studying in the United States be better prepared before going abroad but also help American institutions to better understand their international students from East Asia and provide better on-campus support for them.

Committee:

Hyeyoung Bang (Advisor); Christopher Frey (Committee Member); Kimberly Spallinger (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Education

Keywords:

East Asian students; study abroad preparation; American universities; grounded theory

Ahwireng, DoreenInternationalization of Higher Education: A Comparative Case Study of Two U.S Universities
Doctor of Education (EdD), Ohio University, 2016, Educational Administration (Education)
The purpose of the study was to understand best practices for internationalizing higher education. Despite the growing recognition of the importance of internationalization to student learning in higher educational institutions, majority of students continue to exhibit deficiency in international skills and competencies required to function effectively in this present world. These deficiencies have raised concerns leading to the development of a working internationalization approach framework for higher education internationalization, including the activity, competence, ethos, and process approaches. However, there is little understanding of how the approaches have been implemented to infuse international and cross-cultural knowledge and capacity into the core functions of institutions of higher academic learning, because of a dearth of empirical research on how the approaches have been implemented for the purpose of internationalization. Moreover, little is known about students’ experiences and competencies acquired from internationalizing universities and the role of faculty in internationalizing institutions of higher academic learning. In general, little agreement exists among educators and administrators on best practices for internationalizing universities and colleges. A total of twenty-six research participants including six directors, sixteen students, and four faculty were sampled for this study. Equal numbers of participants were recruited from two U.S. universities—Midwest University (MWU) and East-coast University (ECU). Purposeful and snowball sampling strategies were adopted to identify participants for the study. Data were gathered through face-to-face semi-structured interviews and document reviews. Constant comparative method was employed to analyze the data. Results of the study indicated that organizational culture theories adopted to internationalize higher education comprised integration into university family, community relationship, buffering, symbols, communication, shared values and beliefs, and steering. Both universities engaged faculty in internationalization through study abroad programs, accreditation, international roles, international partnership, international faculty hires, admission of international students, monetary investment in faculty, self-motivation, formal and informal communication channels, rewards and recognition, academic activities, and co-curricular activities. Students benefited from internationalization as they acquired bilingual or multilingual abilities, firsthand cultural knowledge, sampled food, global knowledge, cultural nuances critical to showing respect to people from different cultures and geographical backgrounds, friendship and networking, personal growth, and high tendency to develop empathy. Finally, with respect to approaches for internationalizing higher education, the international offices at both institutions worked in synergy with other units and support from senior administrative leaders to provide services to inbound and outbound students and international faculty. Leadership support was apparent in the provision of infrastructure and human resources. To sustain internationalization initiatives and efforts, the process approach for internationalizing both universities, were guided by strategic plans built on leadership support. Students’ competencies were developed through on-going internationalized curricular and co-curricular activities, and international faculty hires. Similarly, staff participated in conferences and subscribed to journals. Equally, faculty were provided with financial support to attend international conferences and internal faculty seminars with internationalization at the center stage. Activity Approach carried out to internationalize both campuses included recruitment of international students, retention of international students, existence of international student organization, inter-cultural activities, students/faculty/staff exchange, foreign languages, study abroad, memorandum of understanding, curriculum internationalization, Area Studies, and International Programs. Findings of this study provide implications for policy and practice. Findings of this study can inform decisions of policy makers and administrators at institutions of higher education to develop and implement policies to create a learning environment to imbue international perspectives into students.

Committee:

Pillay Yegan , Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Dwan Robinson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Francis Godwyll, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Arthur Hughes, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Comparative; Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Foreign Language; Higher Education; International Relations; Multicultural Education; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Internationalization; institutional approaches; organizational culture; faculty engagement; buffering; broad-based leadership; study abroad; benefit; foreign languages; intercultural; international students

Tu, Ching-HsinStudent teaching overseas: Outcomes and persistence of the student teaching abroad experience
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2013, College of Education
Student teaching abroad programs provide American students who major in teacher education an opportunity to complete their student teaching internship either partially, or wholly, abroad. This is an important professional opportunity for American student teachers who would like to build their global teaching experiences, especially as the issue of diversity becomes increasingly important for the United States. In this study, I interpret the experiences of former participants of a student teaching abroad program through participant interviews. This study helps to unearth how the effects of these teachers' international experiences cognitively and professionally persist or dissipate once they return to the U.S. and begin their teaching careers. Based on the findings, I discuss the most significant ways that student teaching abroad impacts individual teachers as professionals and its impact on the teaching profession as a whole.

Committee:

Carla Edlefson, PhD (Committee Chair); Herb Broda, PhD (Committee Member); Rosaire Ifedi, EdD (Committee Member); Donna Villareal, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Multicultural Education

Keywords:

student teaching abroad; globalization; diversity; culture; multicultural education; study abroad

Learman, Megan A.Through a Different Lens: Student Perspectives on the Impact of Study Abroad
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Communication Studies

While many studies exist on the effects or benefits of studying abroad, few studies seek to examine study abroad from a student point-of-view. Based on previous studies of the outcomes of study abroad programs, this thesis examined the student perspective of the impact of participation in a study abroad program. The research drew on her participation in several different study abroad programs and experience as a study abroad advisor/coordinator in order to bring a unique and personal appreciation of the inner workings of various study abroad programs to the inquiry. This study used grounded theory to examine data collected from student questionnaires, focus group sessions, and personal interviews to gauge the experience of ten university students, 18 years and older, who participated in a study abroad/education abroad program of any length while enrolled as a student at a mid-sized midwestern university.

The overarching query guiding this study sought to examine students' perspective on the impact of participation in a study abroad program. In order to unearth a response to that guiding theme, five specific research questions were posed: (1) What sort of impact does participation in a study abroad program have on its student participants? (2) How are students' perceptions of the impacts of study abroad similar or different to the effects found or predicted by other scholarly studies? (3) Why do individuals choose to study abroad? (4) Do students think they experienced culture shock? (5) If yes, how does culture shock influence a student's study abroad experience?

Seven themes pertaining to students' perspective of their study abroad experiences emerged from the data collected from the group of students who participated in this study. These themes, in no particular order of significance, included topics relating to study abroad as goal fulfillment, culture shock and the study abroad experience, perceived influences of studying abroad, learning culture, returning home, the role of social support in study abroad, and student reflections on the study abroad experience. Information was drawn from each of the seven themes to answer the research questions, make further observations, and work toward building theory grounded in the data.

Committee:

Lara Martin Lengel, Ph.D. (Advisor); Stephen Croucher, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Bruce Edwards, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

study abroad; culture; culture shock; international programs; social support; grounded theory; student perspectives; goal fulfillment; re-entry shock; reentry shock; reverse culture shock

Yamaguchi, MisatoThe Role of International Cross-Cultural Experiential Knowledge in Enhancement of Students’ World-Mindedness
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, EDU Teaching and Learning

Today, global interconnectedness is not simply a dream of the future, but is a present fact of our lives. With the increasing complexity of a global society, there is a good reason for schools to take an active role in developing students’ competence to be effective players in the increasingly pluralistic, interdependent, and changing world in which they live (Kniep, 1986; Case, 1993; Merryfield, 2001).

Respected scholars generally agree that the primary purpose of global education is to prepare young people to live effectively and responsibly in a global society (Anderson, 1990; Lamy, 1991, Selby & Pike, 2000). In order to maximize the potential of global education and to fulfill its purpose, there is a need to branch out from the trend of global education research that investigates how teachers infuse global perspectives in K-12 classroom subject teaching or how higher education’s use of single destination or short term study abroad programs as a way to assist students in gaining a better understanding about the world, and investigate the process of students’ learning about it as well as development of world-mindedness beyond the classroom especially through international cross-cultural experiential learning (Barnett, 1998; Taylor, 2000).

I conducted a qualitative study to investigate the ways in which students retrospectively understand their transformation toward world-mindedness during their participation in an educational global voyage program. The purpose of this study is to gain better insights and understanding about the changing perspectives students have about the world and their relationship to it as a result of international cross-cultural experiential learning. For the purposes of this study, world-mindedness is defined as the ability to perceive the world as a whole and to see one’s own position on a continuum of time and interconnected spaces (Alger & Harf, 1986; Case, 1993).

I used a qualitative inquiry method mainly for its naturalistic approach, attention to process and changes in informants’ experiences, and descriptive nature (Somken & Lewin, 2005). Furthermore, I employed purposeful sampling that used a pre-set criteria and snowball strategy to determine a program to study participants from whom I could gain the most useful information. In order to gain in-depth personal stories, data were mainly collected through three rounds of semi-structured, open-ended interviews with participants using videoconference (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).

The findings from the study revealed that the international cross-cultural experiential learning through a global voyage academic program, The Friend Ship, helped the study participants to learn through firsthand experience and enrich their world-mindedness in the following ways: a) Building strategies to deal with difference by encouraging open mindedness and critical self-reflection; b) Heightening the importance of intercultural friendships and relationships in bringing the world alive; c) Combining theoretical knowledge and experiential knowledge to better understand the culturally diverse world; d) Complicating the way people interpret the world and envision its future through international cross-cultural experiential knowledge; and e) Life after the voyage: Practicing world-mindedness in everyday life by giving back and initiating change.

Committee:

Merry Merryfield (Advisor); Binya Subedi (Committee Member); Andrienne Dixson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

World-mindedness; Cross-cultural Experiential Learning; Global Education; Intercultural Communication; Multicultural Education; Study Abroad; Higher Education

Doughty, Jeremy R."The other side": A narrative study of south African community members' experiences with an international service-learning program
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Higher Education Administration
The purpose of my narrative study was to hear stories about how community members are affected by international service-learning programs. At a time when universities and colleges in the United States emphasize internationalization efforts and the civic purpose of higher education, more institutions are designing and delivering international service-learning programs. More questions must be raised regarding how these programs affect communities. Despite the centrality of reciprocity in the service-learning paradigm, the extant literature primarily focuses on the effects of international service-learning programs on students. I spent two weeks collecting data at a primary school in Ithemba, a predominantly Black African, Xhosa-speaking township in South Africa characterized by one of my participants as “the other side.” Three participants at Korhaan School—Bhejile (the principal), Dunyiswa (the deputy principal), and Peline (a teacher)—engaged in two semi-structured interviews and one focus group. To mask the identity of my participants, I selected pseudonyms for the two universities, the primary school, and the community where the primary school is situated, and I use the names selected by my participants throughout the manuscript. Three key findings emerged from the data. First, my participants’ stories underscored the interconnectedness of the community and the community-based organization. Second, the students who participate in the international service-learning program bring a myriad of benefits to Korhaan School, and the students’ actions align with ubuntu, a cultural framework that shapes an individual’s engagement with others. Third, areas for improvement exist for the international service-learning program. A number of implications for higher education professionals are presented as a result of the findings. First, faculty members and practitioners must involve community members as co-educators in the long-term life cycle of an international service-learning program. Second, U.S. higher education professionals must learn from international models of service. Third, faculty members and practitioners who design international service-learning programs must restructure pre-departure programming to include domestic service opportunities, academic preparation beyond surface-level knowledge, and the postcolonial perspective. These strategies will help higher education professionals construct meaningful partnerships with community-based organizations that are characterized by thick reciprocity—partnerships that are more inclusive, just, and reciprocal.

Committee:

Maureen Wilson, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ksenija Glusac, Ph.D. (Other); Christina Lunceford, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Dafina-Lazarus Stewart, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

international service-learning; service-learning; study abroad; South Africa; international education; community; community engagement; reciprocity; higher education; student affairs; narrative inquiry

Sipes, AmandaReconstructing Identity: Sociocultural and Psychological Factors Affecting U.S. College Students' Reentry Adjustment after Studying Abroad in Africa
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Cross-Cultural, International Education
This phenomenological study of six U.S. undergraduate students sought to capture the psychological and sociocultural experiences of reentry adjustment upon return from studying abroad in Africa and its relationship with identity. Emphasis was also placed upon understanding the value of the African study abroad experience. This study analyzed the reentry experiences of the participants from one public, Midwestern university who had returned from studying abroad for two to six weeks in either Burkina-Faso or South Africa. Findings illustrated the unexpected difficulties participants faced as they adjusted back to U.S. culture upon return. Participants reported feeling isolated and misunderstood by their family and friends and guilty for their own material items. A critical view of the U.S. media and values of materialism and consumerism were also reported. Cultural, ethnic, and American identities were all modified as a result of the study abroad experience. Appreciation for the host cultures’ higher values for human relationships was also addressed. Thus, this study found that the participants experienced various degrees of personal growth and identity transformation while in Africa and it was the reentry process that made the participants aware of these newfound internal changes. As such, the reentry adjustment process illustrates the participants’ psychological and sociocultural reactions to their awareness of these changes and often sparks a sense of identity conflict as the individuals attempt to navigate their way between their identities adopted in the host culture and readjustment back into the home culture.

Committee:

Patricia Kubow, PhD (Committee Chair); Mark Earley, PhD (Committee Member); Paul Hofmann, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Studies; Multicultural Education; Multilingual Education; Psychology; Sub Saharan Africa Studies

Keywords:

study abroad; reentry adjustment; Africa; college students; cultural identity; American identity; ethnic identity

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