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Shideler, David W.Individual social captial: an analysis of factors influencing investment
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics
This dissertation provides insights into the process of social capital formation by extending a model of individual social capital investment and empirically identifying factors that affect an individual’s social capital behavior. Social capital is defined as those social interactions that generate externalities in which either the interaction or the external benefit persists in time. I extend the neoclassical social capital investment model developed by Glaeser, Laibson and Sacerdote (2002) by introducing instantaneous returns to social interaction as distinct from the stream of future benefits derived from social capital and by redefining the social multiplier to include community institutions and characteristics. The parameters of the social capital investment model are estimated using computational techniques. The estimated parameter values are then used to simulate changes in a representative agent’s behavior due to perturbations in the model parameters, individual characteristics or community characteristics. I use survey data collected from homeowners in Franklin County, Ohio, and community characteristics from secondary sources to generate the parameter estimates and simulate investment behavior. There are four important results from this research. First, social capital investment is positively related to educational attainment and negatively related to wages, as has been suggested by others. Second, social capital investment appears to happen without concern for future benefits. Third, personal characteristics affect both the level of investment as well as the volatility in investment over the lifecycle. Fourth, the presence of formal institutions positively affects investment behavior, while community social capital stocks do not affect social capital investment. This research makes significant theoretical and empirical contributions to the social capital literature. The theoretical model provides a framework useful for analyzing social capital formation. The empirical results demonstrate a method of analyzing social capital formation and provide evidence of factors that influence the formation process.

Committee:

David Kraybill (Advisor)

Keywords:

social capital; social capital formation; social capital investment; individual social capital; social capital theory; estimation of social capital investment; social interactions

Hawkins, DeAnnaEducating the Current and Future Nursing Workforce on Principles of Health Equity: A Standardized Social Determinants of Health Screening Tool and Education Module
Doctor of Nursing Practice Degree Program in Population Health Leadership DNP, Xavier University, 2018, Nursing
Background: National healthcare has focused on diagnosis and treatment; while current evidence attributes population health and individual well-being largely to social determinants of health (SDH). Social determinants of health factors such as food insecurity, insufficient housing conditions, inadequate education services, safety, and limited access to medical care are associated with poor pediatric health outcomes. Problem: Nurses are uniquely positioned to address SDH in healthcare and have a professional obligation to screen for SDH when providing healthcare. However, nursing education has traditionally focused on acute care with minimal population health relevancy. The lack of association between nursing assessment of SDH and health outcomes impedes the advancement of population health and prevention. Global Aim: Promote population health and health equity by identifying and addressing SDH to improve the health and well-being. Objective aims include: (1) increase nurses’ knowledge of SDH; (2) screen at least 50% of all admissions for core social determinants of health; and (3) appropriately refer 80% of patients who screened positive for SDH factors. Methods: Create an evidence based SDH education module and screening tool based on core SDH recommended by the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). After completing education, nurses will utilize the screening tool to efficiently identify unmet core SDH needs and make appropriate referrals. Results: Implementation of module significantly increased nursing knowledge and SDH screenings were completed on 47% of all admitted patients and families to the pilot unit. Additionally, nurses gave appropriate referrals to 85% of patients who screened positive for one or more unmet core SDH factor.

Committee:

Debbie Van Kuiken, PhD, RN, AHN-BC (Committee Chair); Susan Allen, PhD, RN (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Nursing; Public Health

Keywords:

social determinants of health; social determinants of health screening; nurse knowledge of social determinants of health; population health; nurse education of social determinants of health; pediatric social determinants of health

Heron, Jason AndrewThe Analogia Communitatis: Leo XIII and the Modern Quest for Fraternity
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Dayton, 2016, Theology
This dissertation examines the social magisterium of Pope Leo XIII as it is developed in the aftermath of the French Revolution and during the nationalizing process of the liberal Italian state. The thesis of the dissertation is that Leo XIII provides Catholic social teaching with a proper vision of human relationship as a mode of analogical participation in the Lord’s goodness. In his own historical context, Leo’s analogical vision of social relations is developed in tension with the nation-state’s proposal of political citizenship as the social relation that relativizes every other relation – most especially one’s ecclesial relation. In our own context, Leo’s analogical vision of social relations stands in tension with the late-modern proposal of consumerism as the social reality that relativizes every other relation – including one’s matrimonial, familial, social, and ecclesial relations.

Committee:

Kelly Johnson, Ph.D. (Advisor); Russell Hittinger, Ph.D. (Committee Member); William Portier, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jana Bennett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michael Carter, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Philosophy; Religious History; Social Structure; Theology

Keywords:

Catholic Social Teaching; social theory; political theory; citizenship; nationalism; consumerism; 19th century Catholicism; social Catholicism; Leo XIII; modern papal teaching; Catholic social magisterium; theological anthropology; social anthropology

Smith, Marisa A“Dark-Skinned People Be Like”: How Colorism-Promoting Internet Memes and Audience Feedback Influence African Americans’ Intragroup Attitude and Perception of Skin – Tone Bias
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, Communication
This study aimed to understand the role of positive and negative feedback on attitude, behavioral intention and shared reality. Through the lens of the social cognitive theory (SCT), grounding theory, social identity theory (SIT) and social identity model of deindividualization effects (SIDE), the study focused on memes that portrayed colorism (i.e., intragroup discrimination). African American participants viewed a meme portraying dark-skinned Blacks as poor on Twitter that received negative or positive feedback through comments and emoticons. Overall, participants who viewed memes receiving positive feedback reported more negative attitudes towards sharing the meme. Furthermore, when the meme received positive feedback, participants reported less identification with the commenter. Although the study provided a glimpse into colorism within social media, skewed data hinder external validity. Future research will address this issue.

Committee:

Roselyn Lee-Won (Advisor); Osei Appiah (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

Memes; colorism; skin-tone bias; social influence; social media; social networking sites; twitter; attitude; behavioral intention; social reality; grounding theory; intragroup discrimination; social cognitive theory

Kalakay, Jerrid P.“JUST” Business and Often Personal: An Exploration Into the Incidents Social Entrepreneurs Identify as Critical to Leading Their Enterprises
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2015, Leadership and Change
As the number of social issues around the world increases, the need for well-prepared social entrepreneurs to solve and improve those issues also increases. Social entrepreneurs with determination and courage may very well succeed in bringing sustainable social change where others have previously failed. The entrepreneurs who choose to lead social enterprises are distinctly committed to improving society through the creation of social value in addition to wealth creation. The purpose of this study was to explore the incidents social entrepreneurs identify as critical to leading their enterprises. Nineteen United States Ashoka Fellows were interviewed. Participants reflected on the most impactful incidents they experienced in leading their social enterprises and the corresponding antecedents to and outcomes of those incidents. Critical incident technique research method and an emergent coding approach with a constant comparative method of analysis were employed to gain and analyze the data. Nine critical areas emerged from the social entrepreneur data. The critical areas are: Experiencing Beneficial Relationships, Experiencing Difficult Relationships, Founding of Enterprise, Leadership Transition, Experience of Losing Funding, Experience of Obtaining Funding, Recalibration of Enterprise, Recognition, and the Social Entrepreneurial Mindset. This study draws from literature in the following domains: social entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurial values, relational leadership, social change leadership, strategic leadership, and social value creation. The combination of these literatures with the findings of this study, provide a deep understanding of the critical incidents that social entrepreneurs experience in leading their enterprises. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA, http://aura.antioch.edu/and OhioLink ETD Center, https://etd.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Mitchell Kusy, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Holloway, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Harriet Schwartz, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mary Conway Dato-on, Ph.D. (Committee Member); G. Thomas Lumpkin, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Business Administration; Business Education; Entrepreneurship; Management; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Critical Incident Technique;Social Entrepreneurs;Social Enterprises;Strategic Leadership;Social Value Creation;Social Change;Social Entrepreneurship

Park, Sung ChoonTeachers' Perceptions of Teaching for Social Justice
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Teaching and Learning

Social justice discourses have been approached in two distinctive ways. One is the logocentric approach that begins deductively with an ideal concept of social justice, and the other is the grounded approach that focuses inductively on concrete examples of social injustice. Accordingly, when researchers and educators deal with social justice issues, they are inevitably engaged in a cacophony of onto-epistemological issues between the reality of social injustice and the orientation to social justice. Although there is an increasing body of research on social justice education, it is important to note that few researchers have conducted research on how teachers understand social justice and how it is related to their pedagogical practices.

I conducted a qualitative study to investigate how teachers understood social injustice and constructed a concept of social justice and how it was related to their pedagogical practices for social justice. In order to conduct a study in a socially just way I made consistent efforts to bring social justice issues into methodology. My study is based on an assumption that research is trustworthy when it authorizes the power of participants who bring knowledge into the study (Foucault, 1984). I also paid special attentions to my writing as an ethical re-presentation of what I learned about and from social justice educators. In this study, I presented the findings both in their individual and collective voices.

My participants consisted of eight community-nominated teachers in K-12 educational settings. The process of community nomination was not only to limit my power as a researcher, but also to authorize the community in selecting participants. My role as a researcher was not to take "the imperialist position" (Smith and Deemer, 2000, p. 890), but to build a new community of social justice educators. I was then able to "walk into" the community and "work with" the participants. Data collected from each teacher consisted of 5 semi-structured 25-55 minute-long interivews, 8-11 classroom observations, 1-2 school or community observations, and my reflective journals for a period of 15 weeks. I made an inductive, constant, and comparative data analysis until patterns emerged (Merriam, 1998).

The primary findings from the study revealed that teachers constructed a dialectical concept of social justice by prioritizing experiential and empathic knowledge over a logocentric idea of social justice. In addition, their pedagogical practices revealed that teachers centered on empirical knowledge of social injustice, understood teaching as social action for challenging social injustice, and implemented community-based projects by enhancing students' critical consciousness, empathic awareness, and the sense of social agency. This study implies that teachers' understanding of social injustice is essential in teaching for social justice.

Committee:

Cynthia Tyson (Committee Chair); Merry Merryfield (Committee Member); Antoinette Errante (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curricula; Education; Multicultural Education; Secondary Education; Social Studies Education; Teacher Education

Keywords:

Teaching for social justice; social justice education; social justice; social (in)justice; socially just research;

Brooks, Brandon A.Socioeconomic Status Updates: College Students, Family SES, and Emergent Social Capital in Facebook Networks
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2010, Sociology (Arts and Sciences)
Family SES has the potential to shape the opportunities, resources and life trajectory of college students. This study examines the effects of SES on college students‟ social capital through an online survey and innovative Facebook application measuring students‟ social networks. Participants were recruited through class visits and emails. Regression analyses measured the effects of SES on three measures of students‟ social capital, operationalized using online network data: general social capital (network size), bridging social capital (number of clusters), and bonding social capital (average degree). Students that had higher SES had larger networks with more ties per actor within the individual‟s network (average degree). Students from lower SES backgrounds had smaller networks with fewer ties per actor within ego‟s network. The effects of SES on social capital have never been studied in an online setting, and this study provides good evidence that more substantial research in the online environment can and should take place in the future.

Committee:

Howard T. Welser, PhD (Committee Chair); Robert Shelly, PhD (Committee Member); Joseph De Angelis, PhD (Committee Member); Scott Titsworth, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

SES; socioeconomic status; social capital; online social capital; social network sites; SNS; social networks

Knechtges, Cynthia ADefining a Process for the Work of Social Justice Leaders in Social Change Organizations
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2017, Educational Theory and Social Foundations
The focus of this dissertation is on the work processes and activities that social justice leaders engage in while creating, managing, and leading social justice organizations. I argue that it is possible to create an overarching process of work processes and activities from the successful experiences of social justice leaders that have created, managed, and led successful social change organizations. This overarching process provides current and future leaders, particularly those leaders new to creating SCOs, a road map for the work processes and activities required to be successful.

Committee:

Lynne Hamer (Committee Chair); Cynthia Beekley (Committee Member); Mary Ellen Edwards (Committee Member); Dale Snauwaert (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Sociology

Keywords:

social justice; social justice leadership; social change organizations; organizational change management; appreciative inquiry; work of social justice leaders

Mendoza Abarca, Karla IvettEssays on Social Venture Antecedents, Consequences, and Strategies
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing
Social ventures are organizations created to exploit opportunities for social value creation (Lumpkin et al., 2011; Zahra et al., 2009). In fact, scholars argue that the main distinction between commercial and social entrepreneurship lies in the relative priority given to social wealth creation versus economic wealth creation (Mair & Marti, 2006). Given the increasing importance of social ventures, understanding the internal and external dynamics of such organizations would be beneficial for research and practice. The following three essays explore antecedents, consequences, and strategies of social ventures. Essay 1. This essay addresses the need for research concerning environmental influences on social entrepreneurship by specifically focusing on the environmental conditions that affect social venture creation rates. Though some scholars have suggested that entrepreneurs respond to certain socioeconomic conditions by engaging in social venturing activity (e.g. Weerawardena & Sullivan Mort, 2006), compelling empirical evidence is still lacking. A prevalent explanation of social venture creation is the market failure perspective. This perspective holds that social ventures are created to address social issues that the market and the government have failed to deal with effectively (Austin et al., 2006). In this essay, I delve into the market failure perspective to explain social venture creation rates and provide an empirical test at the macro-level. The results in this essay support the market failure perspective by suggesting that social venture creation rates increase with suboptimal economic conditions and high levels of government failure in dealing with social issues. Essay 2. Research investigating how social entrepreneurship influences commercial entrepreneurship remains scarce in the social entrepreneurship literature. Following an ecological perspective (Hannan & Freeman, 1977), Essay 2 predicts that social venture creation exerts a negative influence on commercial venture creation, as social and commercial ventures compete for similar resources at the time of founding. Previous research has also suggested that a positive relationship exists, but it has failed to account for the mechanism through which a positive influence may occur. Following the social entrepreneurship and new venture creation literatures, it is proposed that such mechanism is social value creation. That is, social ventures create better environments in which commercial ventures can be created. This effect, in turn, diminishes the negative influence suggested by population ecology. The results strongly support the hypothesized competitive relationship between social and commercial ventures. Similarly, the results suggest that social ventures, in fact, create social value that improves the wellbeing of the region in which they operate. Essay 3. Social entrepreneurship scholars have called for research that addresses factors that may lead or prevent failure among social ventures (e.g. Haugh, 2005). Essay 3 examines a series of factors that affect social ventures’ failure at different levels of analysis, specifically at the firm- and environmental-levels. Following both Resource Dependence Theory (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978) and the Resource Based View (Barney, 1991), I propose that nonprofit social ventures engage in strategic actions to ensure the continuous flow of resources. Such actions, in turn, reduce the probability of organizational failure. The results suggested a U-shape relationship between earned income and the probability of nonprofit failure. This relationship holds when the nonprofit social venture generates high proportions of income from unrelated business activities, but becomes an inverted-U when the proportions of unrelated business income are smaller. The availability of financial capital had a similar effect on the relationship. Some concerns are raised regarding one of the definitions of entrepreneurialism in the nonprofit sector. That is, the requirement that nonprofits generate a good proportion of their income from commercial activities. The results suggest that earned income generation is a good strategy to prevent failure among nonprofits, as long as these organizations do not over rely on this source of revenue.

Committee:

Sergey Anokhin (Committee Chair); Jennifer Wiggins Johnson (Committee Member); Guiffrida Alfred (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Entrepreneurship

Keywords:

social entrepreneurship; nonprofit entrepreneurship; market failure; population ecology; social value creation; resource dependence theory; social venture creation; social venture failure

Chaichanawirote, UraiwanQuality of Life of Older Adults: The Influence of Internal and External Factors
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2011, Nursing

Quality of life of older adults is influenced by multiple environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of quality of life and internal environmental factors (physical functioning, and depressive symptoms), and external environmental factors (social support satisfaction and social network density). The study framework was based on the Complexity Theory and the Human Response Model.

A cross-sectional predictive design was used to study the residents of retirement communities or people who attend senior centers in Northeast Ohio. Data collection involved the Short Physical Performance Battery, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule, and the Quality of Life ICECAP index. This study was approved by the Case Western Reserve University’s Human Subjects Review Board.

Total sample size was 95. Data analyses indicated 62% of the sample was female, 78% were white, 90% were non-Hispanic, 86% lived at home, 63% lived alone, 73% were drivers, 89% completed high school or higher, and subject age ranged from 65 to 96, with the average age of 76 years. Descriptive statistics are as follows: physical functioning was high (M =8.95, SD = 2.49); quality of life was high (M = .84, SD =.11); depressive symptoms were low (M = 1.98, SD = 2.42); social support satisfaction was high (M = 35.67, SD = 6.18); and social network density was moderate (M = .53, SD = .33). Physical functioning was significantly higher in participants who completed college or higher than those who complete high school or less, and higher in participants who lived with others than those who lived alone. Depressive symptoms were significantly lower in the drivers than non-drivers/drivers with constraints. Hierarchical regression analysis shows that predictor variables explain 32% of variance in the quality of life of older adults (R2adj = .32, F(11, 83) = 4.95, p < .001). Physical functioning (β = .26, p < .05) and depressive symptoms (β = - .42, p < .001) significantly influence quality of life when controlling for demographic characteristics. Social network analysis was used to produce illustrative sociograms, which helped explain the structure of the participants’ social network interactions.

Committee:

May Wykle, Dean and Marvin E. and Ruth Durr Denekas Professor (Committee Chair); Patricia Higgins, Associate Professor (Committee Member); Elizabeth Madigan, Professor (Committee Member); Elizabeth O'Toole, Professor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Gerontology; Nursing

Keywords:

quality of life; ICECAP; older adults; social network analysis; physical functioning; depressive symptoms; sociogram; social support satisfaction; social network density; egocentric; social support system

Lacayo, VirginiaCommunicating Complexity: A Complexity Science Approach to Communication for Social Change.
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Mass Communication (Communication)
This study aims to contribute to the theoretical development and the effective practice of Communication for Social Change by exploring the application of the principles and ideas of Complexity Science to Communication for Social Change endeavors. The study provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of Communication for Social Change initiatives and presents guidelines for organizations, including both practitioner organizations and donor agencies, interested in using Complexity Science principles and ideas to inform their Communication for Social Change strategies. The study employs an interpretive approach and an instrumental case study method of inquiry. Five principles distilled from the literature on Complexity Science are used to identify examples from the work of Puntos de Encuentro, a feminist, non-profit organization working in Communication for Social Change in Central America, in order to illustrate how Complexity Science principles can be applied to Communication for Social Change strategies and to explore possible challenges and implications, for organizations working in the field of Communication for Social Change, of applying these principles in their work. The major conclusions and insights of the study are, first, that Complexity Science can provide social change organizations, development agencies, donors, scholars and policy makers with a useful framework for addressing complex social issues and it may make Communication for Social Change strategies more effective at creating social change, and second, that Communication for Social Change strategies need to be supported by organizational cultures that guarantee a shared vision and directions and promote power decentralization, self-organizing and innovation as this is what provides organizations with the level of flexibility and adaptability required by a continuously changing environment. The study concludes with a set of recommendations that aim to serve as guidelines for Communication for Social Change practitioners and donors when approaching complex social issues, as well as suggestions for future research.

Committee:

Rafael Obregón (Committee Chair); Josep Rota (Committee Member); Arvind Singhal (Committee Member); Lynn Harter (Committee Member); Steve Howard (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Entrepreneurship; Evolution and Development; Mass Communications; Multimedia Communications; Organizational Behavior; Systems Science

Keywords:

Communication for Social Change; Social Change; Complexity Science; Communication for Development; Communication Strategies for Social Justice; Social Change in Nicaragua, Communication Strategies and NGO; Complexity and International Development

Salley, Christina G.SOCIAL COGNITION AMONG CHILDREN WITH CANCER AND COMPARISON PEERS
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2009, Psychology
The experience of cancer during childhood is marked by significant challenges. In addition to the broader danger of a life threatening illness, children undergo demanding treatment protocols that disrupt daily routines and create a range of side effects that may cause both physical and emotional discomfort. While managing the demands and physical side effects of treatment, children must try to continue normal development. It is commonly suggested that children return to school while still undergoing active treatment in order to maintain academic progress and peer relationships. Nevertheless, a prolonged initial absence after diagnosis is common, and there is often concern that children will experience social difficulties when returning to school due to peer reactions to the physical side effects of treatment. This has led to suggestions that services to facilitate school reintegration should include training in social skills to help children manage illness-related social stressors. Unfortunately, there is little empirical data to guide the content or even support the need for social skills interventions at this time. In fact, there is growing evidence that many children with cancer experience quite positive social outcomes after returning to school. Specific areas of social functioning typically targeted by social skills interventions, such as social goals, knowledge of social strategies, self-efficacy for assertive social interaction, have not been examined in this population. The current study examined areas of social information processing often targeted by social skills programs in order to understand the degree to which these proposed programs may be necessary for children with cancer. Children ages 8 to 15 were recruited upon returning to school while on treatment for cancer. Data were collected in the child’s classroom and home. School data collection included peer ratings of the child’s social behavior and acceptance, while home data collection included child self-report measures of social problem solving strategy generation, social goals, and social self-efficacy. Classmates matched for age, race, and gender were recruited as a comparison group. We expected that children with cancer would be viewed by peers as less aggressive and better liked than comparison children. We hypothesized that children with cancer would generate fewer aggressive social strategies that would be judged to be more prosocial. We predicted that children with cancer would be less likely to endorce goals reflecting revenge or dominance and more goals reflecting affiliations. We also predicted that children with cancer would report lower social self-efficacy than comparison children. Children with cancer were viewed as less aggressive and were better liked by classmates than comparison children. Social strategies did not differ with respect to their quantity, content, or extent to which they were prosocial between groups. Children with cancer had less self-efficacy for non-conflict situations and were more likely to endorse goals reflecting revenge and less likely to endorse goals reflecting affiliation. Overall, few group differences in social cognition were found; however, children with cancer may benefit from social skills interventions designed specifically to target self-efficacy for entering social situations. Study limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Kathryn Vannatta, Ph.D. (Advisor); Cynthia Gerhardt, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Steven Beck, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jennifer Cheavens, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

social information processing; cancer; child; social cognition; social skills; self-efficacy; social goals; pediatric

Hartl Majcher, JessicaSocial justice and citizen participation on Tumblr: Examining the changing landscape of social activism in the digital era
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Psychology/Clinical
The present study explored the nature of social justice discussions on the social networking site Tumblr using publicly available data from Tumblr posts generated between March 16, 2016 and March 30, 2016. Posts were self-identified by users with at least one of five common hashtags related to social justice identified in a pilot study on Tumblr. These hashtags were #Black Lives Matter, #Feminism, #Racism, #Social Justice, and #SJW, an abbreviation for “social justice warrior” a phrase used to label individuals who engage in social justice discussions online. Findings indicated that posts about social justice are common on Tumblr with 15,160 public posts created by 8,794 users across the two weeks. However, not all posts reflect a positive attitude toward social justice with 8.6% of posts expressing disagreement or even hostility toward movements promoting equality. Data from the present study were compared to data collected in the pilot study to describe consistency and differences in results using the same methodology at two different time points for two different lengths of time. Implications of study findings for clinical and research purposes are discussed.

Committee:

Catherine Stein, Ph.D. (Advisor); Dale Klopfer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Carolyn Tompsett, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

digital activism; citizen participation; social justice; social media; community psychology; tumblr social justice; social justice warrior;

Creech, Ryan SSocial Media, Social Exclusion, and Narcissism
Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Xavier University, 2015, Psychology
Social acceptance and exclusion are integral aspects of using Social Network Sites (SNS). The current study investigated two main questions: 1) do prior findings concerning affective and behavioral responses to acceptance/exclusion obtained in real-world contexts generalize to the virtual world? and 2) what influence does trait narcissism have on the response to acceptance or exclusion within a virtual context? Using a psychology department participant pool, 209 participants (87 men; mean age = 20.19) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: acceptance, exclusion, and control. Treatment condition was one independent variable (IV). The second IV was high vs low trait narcissism (based on NPI score median split). Dependent variables (DV) were negative affect and displaced aggression. A single 3 x 2 MANOVA was conducted to determine the main and interaction effects of the two IV's and two DV's. Main effects for condition emerged for negative affect and displaced aggression, F(2, 203) = 8.09, p < .001; F(2, 203) = 5.12, p = .01, respectively. Participants led to believe they had been socially excluded showed significantly more negative affect compared to participants in the accepted condition, p = .001, and were significantly less likely to display displaced aggression compared to participants in the accepted condition, p = .006. Trait narcissism was not related to outcome, Wilks's lambda = .98, F(4, 404) = 1.03, p = .39, partial eta-squared = .01. The findings are inconsistent with past real-world research linking social exclusion with a neutral or numbed affective response and an aggressive behavioral response. Future research should investigate if the interpersonal distance provided by SNS can account for the differential affective outcomes, as well as if exposure to social media attenuates aggressive responding, while facilitating a more affiliative response.

Committee:

Susan Kenford, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Janet Schultz, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Karl Stukenberg, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Experiments; Social Psychology; Web Studies

Keywords:

social exclusion; social acceptance; exclusion; acceptance; social networking; social media; narcissism; Facebook; affect; aggression; MANOVA; experimental design

Kaloga, Marissa Elaine PrinzThe Role of Social Capital in Cooperative Groups: A Mixed-Methods Study of Women’s Collective Savings Groups in Conakry, Guinea
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Social Work
Financial inclusion programs have seen remarkable growth throughout the last two decades, with continued annual growth of up to 15% predicted for micro-credit along in the Sub-Saharan African region over the next three years. However, as private investment funds begin to dominate microfinance funding streams, there is debate about the benefits of microcredit for the population most targeted with these funds: women in the Global South. One aspect of this debate concerns the need for social capital, resources embedded in social networks, for the success of microcredit lending. While its necessity is acknowledged, the way that social capital is created, structured, and employed in women’s groups is not adequately understood. By better understanding these aspects of social capital, microcredit programs can be better designed, and the ethical implications of expanding microfinance services can be better understood. Employing a mixed methodology of qualitative interviewing and social network analysis, this study explores the phenomenon of social capital across a diverse sample of 12 women’s collective financial groups, including both informal savings clubs and micro-credit groups located in the West African urban capital of Conakry, Guinea. A multi-dimensional model of social capital developed by the World Bank was modified for use with this research population and included six domains: Access to Resources, Trust, Communication, Cooperation, Social Cohesion, and Empowerment. In depth qualitative interviews with 84 members of collective finance groups were analyzed to answer the question: What are Guinean women’s experiences as members of collective financial groups? Upon developing an understanding of the groups, this study then asked: How is social capital structured in the groups, and how do the social capital networks of collective financial groups function? Sociometric network analysis examined a global measure of social capital as well as analysis of each of six domains in the multidimensional model. A third phase of analysis combined characteristic features of the social capital networks with the qualitative transcripts to answer the question: How do the experiences of participants at characteristic structural locations within a social capital network differ? Qualitative analysis yielded a typology of collaborative financial groups as well as a set of principles in groups that supported solidarity. Djamakourou, a Guinean concept related to the promotion of social relationships, emerged as foundational to participants’ ability to create and sustain the groups. Results of social network analyses show that social capital in Guinean women’s groups is built from the inside out, relying on strong relationships between a core set of group members. Characteristic positions and accompanying perspectives within social capital networks were produced from combined qualitative and social network analysis. These results provide a contextualized perspective of individual members, illustrating the heterogeneity of experiences within the groups. This study provides new insights into the way social capital is created and used in women’s collaborative financial groups, and can inform future microfinance interventions as well as address the ethical implications of expanding these services across Sub-Saharan Africa.

Committee:

Mo Yee Lee, PhD (Committee Chair); Sharvari Karandikar, PhD (Committee Member); Keith Warren, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Studies; Social Work; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Financial Inclusion; Africa; Guinea; ROSCA; Social Capital; Djamakourou; Social Network Analysis; Qualitative Interviewing; Mixed Methods; Microcredit; Microfinance; Women; Gender; Feminism; Social Development; Social Work

Siracuse, Kimberly S.Engendered & Endangered: A Phenomenological Study of the Lives of Twelve Female Social Studies Teachers
Doctor of Education, Ashland University, 2011, College of Education
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the lives of twelve female social studies teachers. Specifically, through a phenomenological approach, the lived experiences, personal thoughts and professional journeys of the twelve participants were examined in order to identify those experiences that are unique to being a female social studies teacher. The themes that emerged were: (a) treatment of participants as a result of gender; (b) the role of the Catholic Church and Catholic schools in the lives of the participants; (c) the appeal of social studies education to the participants; (d) the benefits and contributions of female social studies teachers; (e) the participants' journeys in to the field of social studies education; (f) the lack of representation of females in social studies education; (g) the devaluing of social studies education; (h) the importance of social studies education; (i) the characteristics of a successful female social studies teacher; and (j) the coachification effect in social studies education.

Committee:

Jane Piirto, PhD (Committee Chair); Ann Shelly, PhD (Committee Member); Alinde Moore, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Gender Studies; Secondary Education; Social Studies Education; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Roman Catholicism; citizenship education; women in social studies education; devaluing of social studies; coachification effect; liberal feminism; gender based treatment of social studies teachers; student success in social studies education

Stevenson, Lauren DeMarcoThe Influence of Treatment Motivation, Treatment Status and Social Networks on Perceived Social Support of Women with Substance Use or Co-Occurring Disorders
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2009, Social Welfare

This study examined predictors of perceived social support and support forrecovery of women with substance use disorders or co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. The sample consisted of 136 adult women; 86 women were engaged in inpatient and outpatient substance abuse treatment programs, and 50 women were recruited from a study of mothers with cocaine exposed infants.

The women in the study were predominantly African American (82.4%) and of low income status with 80% of the women reporting an annual family income below $15,000. All of the women had a current substance use disorder and 77 (56.6%) of the women also had a co-occurring mental disorder including: Major Depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Mania, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Hypomania, and Dysthymia. On average, women reported having a social network comprised of 10.73 members.

A significant relationship was found between critical members (those who provide negative support) within women’s social networks and perceived social support, with a higher percent of critical network members predicting lower perceived social support. Perceived social support scores were also significantly lower for women with a co-occurring mental disorder. Indirect relationships were found for women’s perceived social support. The percent of professionals within women’s social networks moderated the relationships between women’s treatment motivation and treatment status with perceived social support. The percent of substance users in women’s networks moderated the relationship between treatment motivation and perceived social support.

A sub sample analysis of 86 women in substance abuse treatment explored predictors of support for recovery. A significant relationship was found between the percent of members who support sobriety and support for recovery. This finding provides construct validity for the support for recovery measure.

Practice implications as well as directions for future research are included in this study. Findings suggest that clinicians should work with social network members and clients on improving communication and eliminating critical support to improve social support. Future research should focus on the impact of social relationships on treatment outcomes.

Committee:

Elizabeth Tracy, PhD (Committee Chair); David Biegel, PhD (Committee Member); Kathryn Adams, PhD (Committee Member); Sonia Minnes, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Research; Social Work

Keywords:

Social Support Networks; Social Support; Substance Use Disorders; Dual Disorders; Co-Occurring Disorders; Treatment Motivation; Social Networks; Substance Abuse; Women

Song, HyunjinA Dynamic Longitudinal Examination of Social Networks and Political Behavior: The Moderating Effect of Local Network Properties and Its Implication for Social Influence Processes
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Communication
One of the fundamental regularities of human behavior is the interdependency of attributes, attitudes, and actions. Focusing on informal political discussion networks and their roles in shaping one’s political preferences, the purpose of this dissertation is to uncover complex mutual interdependencies and the dynamic processes of which individuals’ political attributes and political discussion networks simultaneously evolve over time. Motivated by a number of recent advancements in studies of dynamic co-evolution of one’s attributes and social networks, the current study proposes and tests comprehensive theoretical accounts of social selection and social influence processes. First, longitudinal dynamics of social selections are examined in terms of demographic and political homophily, political interest and knowledge, availability and intimacy of dyadic relationships, and higher-order network endogenous effects. Second, possible mechanisms of normative and informational social influence and their relationships with dyadic differences of political interest and knowledge, with some graph-theoretical properties of political discussion networks, were examined. Using the Temporal Exponential Random Graph Models and the Generalized Estimating Equations, a series of whole network panel data from a number of large U.S Midwestern universities were used to test the proposed hypotheses. Findings suggest that political preference homophily is not likely to drive the structuring individuals’ political discussion, but rather political discussion networks were largely driven by one’s exogenous social relationships and network-endogenous processes. The impact of political preference homophily was generally limited, but individuals are more likely to form political discussion ties with those who are more interested in politics. Concerning the possible mechanisms of social network influence, none of the expected interaction effects were found although significant unconditional effects of an alter’s political preferences on an ego’s were observed. A series of supplementary analyses suggested that the other types of social ties – close friends and time-spent together networks – were indeed capable of inducing similarities in political preferences between an ego and alters without explicit political interactions. Moreover, the results suggested that, coupled with more “visible” attributes (smoking and happiness), an ego’s highly interconnected, closure-like local network were more likely to amplify alters’ influence on the ego, therefore suggesting that normative influence is likely within the social influence processes. Implications for the coevolution of social networks and one’s attributes, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Willam Eveland, Jr. (Advisor); Michael Neblo (Committee Member); Neha Gondal (Committee Member); Robert Bond (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Political Science; Sociology

Keywords:

Social networks; political discussion; political behavior; political attitudes; social selection; social influence; Temporal Exponential Random Graph Models; Generalized Estimating Equations

Little, VIrginia LChanges in Fathers' Physical Health Across the Transition to Parenthood
MA, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology
The transition to parenthood is an important developmental milestone and a major life transition for first-time fathers, as it involves significant changes in self-identity and marital relationship dynamics. Additionally, the effects of role transitions on physical health outcomes are important for new fathers; however, most of the literature concerning the transition to parenthood focuses primarily on the psychological and physical health of the mother. The primary aim of this study is to examine the role of social support in men's physical health during the transition to parenthood. I propose that lack of received social support from a partner predicts poor physical health outcomes in the father. As a result of the increased stress of the birth of a new baby and a decrease in spousal support, fathers will utilize the alternative stress response of tend-and-befriend and seek social support from existing social ties, namely family and close friends. Furthermore, I argue that these alternative sources of social support will compensate for the lack of spousal support. The analyses were conducted using cross-sectional and longitudinal data collected from 104 married/cohabitating couples expecting their first child. This study utilized paired t-tests to examine changes in health across four waves of data: pregnancy, 1-month, 4-months and 9-months postpartum. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression was used to analyze main and moderating effects of spousal support and external social support on new fathers' physical health. Results suggest that new fathers experience changes in self-rated health and physical somatic symptoms across the first year after a baby's birth. Second, low levels of spousal support have a direct effect on poor physical health outcomes. Finally, social support from family and friends has health benefits for fathers who receive low spousal support.

Committee:

Kristin Mickelson, Ph.D. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Social Psychology; Sociology

Keywords:

Role transition; parenthood; fatherhood; spousal support; social support; physical health; social network compensation; postpartum health; postnatal health; new fathers health; external social support; somatic symptoms

Becker, Stephen PSocial Information Processing, Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms, and Peer Isolation among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Psychology
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience co-occurring mental health symptoms as well as peer impairment. This study tested the hypothesis that social information processing (SIP), and attribution biases in particular, may be important for understanding the presence of comorbid disruptive behavior disorder or anxiety symptoms among children with ADHD. Specifically, it was hypothesized that negative internal or external attribution biases would be differentially associated with co-occurring anxious or oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) symptoms, respectively. It was also hypothesized that the pathway from negative external attribution biases to ODD/CD symptoms would be associated with peer exclusion but not peer withdrawal, whereas the pathway from negative internal attribution biases to anxiety symptoms was hypothesized to be associated with both peer exclusion and withdrawal. Participants were 112 children (73 boys; ages 7-12; 76% non-Hispanic white) diagnosed with either ADHD Inattentive Type (49%) or ADHD Combined Type (51%). Results supported the hypothesis that negative internal attribution bias was positively associated with parent/child-rated anxiety symptoms among children with ADHD, although negative external attribution bias was not found to be associated with parent/teacher-reported ODD/CD symptoms. However, negative external attribution bias was related to children's self-reported aggressive behavior. In terms of comorbid mental health symptoms and peer isolation domains, ODD/CD symptoms were found to be uniquely related to teacher-rated peer exclusion, whereas anxiety symptoms were unrelated to either peer exclusion or withdrawal. However, more support was found when only child-report measures were used, as anxiety symptoms were positively associated with child-rated loneliness and negatively associated with child-rated social acceptance. This study furthers the extant literature by providing preliminary evidence for a negative internal attribution bias to contribute to the anxiety symptoms commonly experienced by children with ADHD. Interventions may need to target these cognitive deficits when targeting comorbid anxiety. Given the detrimental outcomes associated with both comorbidity and peer impairment among children with ADHD, future research will need to further explore the interrelations of social cognition, comorbidity, and social adjustment in order to refine theoretical models of the developmental psychopathology of ADHD that may in turn point to new or targeted areas for intervention.

Committee:

Aaron Luebbe, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Joshua Langberg, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Carl Paternite, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Vaishali Raval, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Burke, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

ADHD; Aggression; Anxiety; Comorbidity; Conduct Problems; Depression; Hostile Attribution Bias; Loneliness; Oppositional Behavior; Peers; Positive Illusory Bias; Social Functioning; Social Cognition; Social Competence

Allen, SarahNarratives of Women Who Suffered Social Exclusion in Elementary School
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2014, Antioch New England: Clinical Psychology
Social aggression among children in schools is an old problem that has received some attention in recent years. The long-term influence of early experiences of social exclusion for women is underrepresented in the literature. In this qualitative study, a narrative, autobiographical approach is used to explore the life narratives of five adult women who experienced peer rejection, social exclusion, and/or harassment during elementary school. Literature related to social exclusion and narrative identity is reviewed. Autobiographical narratives were collected using life history interviews with a narrative methodology. The women interviewed self-identified as having experienced social exclusion in childhood and provided accounts of their life stories through in-person interviews. The process of interpretation in this inquiry rests on a narrative, social constructivist foundation that guides and informs methodology and analysis. When adults tell of their childhood experiences, emergent events and themes are influenced by how and with whom the stories are told. Interpretations of past experiences exist in light of their subsequent experiences. The story of the investigator is relevant to provide context and transparency to the interpretive process. Among these five diverse stories, wanting to belong, internal repercussions of victimization such as shame, adults failing to protect, and identifying and utilizing internal resources for progress emerge as common themes among the narratives. Findings suggest that these painful early experiences contribute to long-term vulnerability for the reemergence of low self-esteem during sufficiently stressful episodes in life. These results are discussed.

Committee:

Victor Pantesco, EdD (Committee Chair); Amanda Hitchings, PsyD (Committee Member); Barbara Belcher-Timme, PsyD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology

Keywords:

Narrative; Life Story Interviews; Gender; Social Exclusion; Peer Relationships; Elementary School; Social Rejection; Social Aggression; Bullying; Women

Stachowicz, Tamara LMelungeon Portraits: Lived Experience and Identity
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2013, Leadership and Change
The desire to claim an ethnicity may be in response to an institutional and systemic political movement towards multiculturalism where ethnic difference is something to be recognized and celebrated (Jimenez, 2010; Tatum, 1997). Those who were a member of a dominant or advantaged group took that element of their identity for granted (Tatum, 1997). Identity work has included reflections and congruence between how individuals see themselves and how they perceive others to see them, including Optimal Distinctiveness Theory where one determines the optimal amount of individual distinctiveness needed to feel a healthy group and personal identity (Brewer, 2012). When most of the people one is surrounded by can verify and support an accepted identity construction, the process is less complicated, and attention is not drawn to the differences because there are very few, if any. As the dominant culture becomes increasingly bombarded with the celebratory aspects of an ethnic identity, it is likely that one will begin searching for one's own (Jimenez, 2010; Tatum, 1997). This study will present portraits of individuals who are considering an ethnic identity as they are searching for belonging and inclusion from the group with which they desire to identify. In short, through the use of portraiture, I intend to privilege the voices and experiences of several co-researchers as they describe their lives, explain whether or not they have accepted or rejected a Melungeon identity, how they came to that decision, and what it means in their lived experience. This dissertation is accompanied by the author's MP4 video introduction, as well as 15 MP4 videos of the coresearchers who participated in this study (see the List of Supplemental Media Files). The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Carolyn Kenny, PhD (Committee Chair); Lize Booysen, DBL (Committee Member); Katherine Vande Brake, PhD (Committee Member); Dara Culhane, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

American Studies; Cognitive Psychology; Cultural Anthropology; Developmental Psychology; Epistemology; Ethnic Studies; Families and Family Life; Individual and Family Studies; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Psychology; Social Psychology; Social Research; Sociology

Keywords:

portraiture; phenomenology; identity; social identity; collective identity; ethnic identity; Appalachia; Melungeon; tri-racial; mountaineer; social movements; identity movement; social identity theory; leadership

Ibarra, Cristina A.A Rumination on the Internet as a Developing Medium on Subjects Affecting Societal Norms
M.A. (Master of Arts in Liberal Studies), Ohio Dominican University, 2012, Liberal Studies
Written in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Arts: Liberal Studies.

Committee:

John Grant, Ph.D. (Advisor); R. W. Carstens, Ph.D. (Other)

Keywords:

Internet -- Social Aspects; Social Media; Social Norms

McCloud, Laura SummerFinanced Mobility: Parents' Consumer Credit Histories and Young Adult Outcomes
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Sociology
The democratization of credit introduced consumer loans, particularly in the form of credit cards, to an increasing number of American households. Despite the salience of this financial resource, stratification researchers have yet to explore whether or not households use consumer credit as a financial resource to aid their children’s status attainment. The prevailing assumption about consumer credit is that it is a liability that subtracts from a household’s ability to accumulate resources. In this dissertation, I instead conceptualize consumer debt as a valuable financial resource that allows parents an additional means of investment in their young adult children. Because I expect resources to create cumulative advantage, I measure parents’ consumer credit use over a 30-year span to understand how their histories of indebtedness influence their ability to invest in their children during young adulthood. I argue that parents’ consumer credit use allows parents provide financial support for their young adult children which extends their adolescence and protects them from financial hardship during early adulthood. During this extended adolescence, young adults whose parents use consumer debt, I argue, will be more likely to pursue a college education and graduate with a Bachelor’s degree. I find that parents’ consumer debt meaningfully influences their young adult children similar to my expectations. When parents use consumer debt over time, they are more likely to financially provide for their young adult children. The advantages their children see from this financial investment also makes them more likely to enroll in college and graduate with a Bachelor’s degree. Moreover, when parents have a history of not carrying consumer debt over time or historically carry low balances, I find their children are significantly less likely to receive help with educational expenses, are less likely to enroll in or graduate from college, and are more likely to experience financial hardships during young adulthood. I additionally find that parents’ consumer credit histories influence the debt behaviors of their young adult children. I find that young adults whose parents have histories of low consumer debt are less likely to have education or consumer debt and carry less consumer debt when they do have loans. These young adults also have histories of carrying lower balances throughout their early adulthood. Young adults with high debt parents, on the other hand, are more likely then their peers whose parents have different debt experiences to carry education and consumer loans; they also carry higher balances on both forms of debt. I also find that young adults with high-debt parents are more likely than their peers to have histories of carrying high consumer loans during young adulthood. My findings suggest that parents’ consumer debt use benefits their young adult children by using debt to extend their adolescence, making it more likely that their children enroll in and graduate from college. However, by normalizing debt use, parents who carry high consumer balances over time also raise young adult children that are increasingly likely to become debtors themselves. Therefore, while the advantages of parents’ debt to young adults during early adulthood seem undeniable, the later impact of having to pay these debts may jeopardize young adults’ early status attainment.

Committee:

Rachel E. Dwyer, PhD (Advisor); Robert L. Kaufman, PhD (Advisor); Claudia Buchmann, PhD (Committee Member); Zhenchao Qian, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

social stratification; consumer debt; intergenerational mobility; social inequalities; sociology; social class

Pastor, Christina L.A study of social work students' response to licensure (Bill Number 205)
Master of Social Work, The Ohio State University, 1986, Social Work

Committee:

John Behling (Advisor)

Keywords:

LICENSURE; SOCIAL WORK; SOCIAL; profession of social work; work profession; Profession; NASW

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