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Nelson, LIsa V.International Service Learning: Program Elements Linked to Learning Outcomes, and Six Participant Motivation Factors Revealed
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2015, Higher Education (Education)
Qualitative research that involved the study of participants on a two-week international service learning (ISL) program in Honduras identified six foundational elements (guided critical processing, international border crossing, reciprocal connections and personalizing, group dynamic, non-service activities, and related service project), and found significant connections between those elements and particular learning outcomes and impacts on participants. These findings provided the theoretical basis for a new International Service Learning Group Model for practitioners. Also, findings revealed six factors (leader qualities, service oriented, faculty mentoring, financial assistance, peer recommendation, and connection to area of study) that contributed to students choosing to participate on the ISL program.

Committee:

Pete Mather, Dr. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

African American Studies; Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Ethnic Studies; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Latin American Studies; Recreation; School Administration; Social Research; Teacher Education

Keywords:

international service learning; service learning; foundational elements; group dynamic; diversity; personalizing; diversity outcomes; ISL; model international service learning; program model; recruitment; recruiting; motivation; qualitative; connections

Gibbons, Hailee M.Linking Lives: Improving Intergenerational Relations Through Service-Learning
Bachelor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2008, School Of Interdisciplinary Studies - Interdisciplinary Studies
By implementing a service-learning experience in an introductory gerontology course, this project explored intergenerational service-learning as a potential way to address current issues in intergenerational relationships, specifically by improving attitudes toward aging and older adults. It found positive outcomes for the younger and older adult participants. Students exhibited more positive or balanced views of aging and older adults, and felt that the experience contributed to their education. Residents in an assisted living community enjoyed the interactions with the students and expressed that the experience contributed to their lives. While the study had several significant limitations, it provided numerous significant suggestions for future service-learning initiatives. Intergenerational service-learning has a promising future as a contact intervention and as a pedagogical practice. Although further research is needed, it has been shown to contribute to students' learning and educational experience, positively impact their attitudes toward aging and older adults, and add to older adults'quality of life. As society prepares for the significant cultural and societal changes that the aging population will bring, it is essential that intergenerational relationships are encouraged, supported, and utilized in order to fulfill psychological, social, and cultural needs. Intergenerational service-learning can potentially improve intergenerational relations while resulting in other positive outcomes, such as promoting meaningful learning experiences and meeting community needs.

Committee:

Dr. Chris Wolfe, PhD (Advisor); Dr. Jennifer Kinney, PhD (Advisor); Dr. Elise Radina, PhD (Advisor); Monica Ways (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education; Gerontology; Psychology; Sociology

Keywords:

intergenerational; intergenerational relationships; service-learning; attitudes toward aging; intergenerational service-learning

Doughty, Jeremy R."The other side": A narrative study of south African community members' experiences with an international service-learning program
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Higher Education Administration
The purpose of my narrative study was to hear stories about how community members are affected by international service-learning programs. At a time when universities and colleges in the United States emphasize internationalization efforts and the civic purpose of higher education, more institutions are designing and delivering international service-learning programs. More questions must be raised regarding how these programs affect communities. Despite the centrality of reciprocity in the service-learning paradigm, the extant literature primarily focuses on the effects of international service-learning programs on students. I spent two weeks collecting data at a primary school in Ithemba, a predominantly Black African, Xhosa-speaking township in South Africa characterized by one of my participants as “the other side.” Three participants at Korhaan School—Bhejile (the principal), Dunyiswa (the deputy principal), and Peline (a teacher)—engaged in two semi-structured interviews and one focus group. To mask the identity of my participants, I selected pseudonyms for the two universities, the primary school, and the community where the primary school is situated, and I use the names selected by my participants throughout the manuscript. Three key findings emerged from the data. First, my participants’ stories underscored the interconnectedness of the community and the community-based organization. Second, the students who participate in the international service-learning program bring a myriad of benefits to Korhaan School, and the students’ actions align with ubuntu, a cultural framework that shapes an individual’s engagement with others. Third, areas for improvement exist for the international service-learning program. A number of implications for higher education professionals are presented as a result of the findings. First, faculty members and practitioners must involve community members as co-educators in the long-term life cycle of an international service-learning program. Second, U.S. higher education professionals must learn from international models of service. Third, faculty members and practitioners who design international service-learning programs must restructure pre-departure programming to include domestic service opportunities, academic preparation beyond surface-level knowledge, and the postcolonial perspective. These strategies will help higher education professionals construct meaningful partnerships with community-based organizations that are characterized by thick reciprocity—partnerships that are more inclusive, just, and reciprocal.

Committee:

Maureen Wilson, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ksenija Glusac, Ph.D. (Other); Christina Lunceford, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Dafina-Lazarus Stewart, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

international service-learning; service-learning; study abroad; South Africa; international education; community; community engagement; reciprocity; higher education; student affairs; narrative inquiry

Farmer, Christine N. Critical Reflection Seals the DEAL: An Experiment Examining the Effects of Different Reflection Methods on Civic-Related Outcomes of Service-Learning
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2015, Psychology, Clinical
The present study examined student outcomes across a semester of service-learning participation. The study examined two hypotheses: (1) students engaged in service-learning will have significant changes in community service self-efficacy (an in the related civic action construct) and in endorsement of myths and social stigma towards homelessness; and (2) the pre-to-post semester improvements will be greater for students engaged in structured DEAL Model reflection compared to students engaged in the less structured routine reflection. Undergraduate students (N= 30) were randomly assigned to either the DEAL Model reflection or routine reflection condition. Over the course of the semester, students were required to complete four reflections exercises, which differed in structure based on condition. While there were a number of nonsignificant findings, there was partial support for the hypotheses. Specifically, students’ endorsement of myths and social stigma significantly decreased from pre-to-post assessment. Further results indicated that the DEAL Model reflection group had a significant decrease in endorsement of myths and social stigma, while the routine reflection did not have this significant decrease. Additionally, the DEAL Model reflection group had a significant increase in civic action from pre-to-post semester assessment. High pre-semester scores on community service self-efficacy measures may have created a ceiling effect that precluded an adequate assessment of pre- to post-semester changes in that construct. However, a retrospective measure of this same construct indicated that students strongly endorsed the notion that participation in the service-learning project substantially contributed to their perceptions of strong community service self-efficacy. The results are interpreted within the context of past theory and research. Recommendations for future research are provided, including future examination of qualitative data (i.e., written reflection assignments), which will be available for research purposes.

Committee:

Roger Reeb, Dr. (Advisor); Ronald Katsuyama, Dr. (Committee Member); Theophile Majka, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Psychology

Keywords:

DEAL Model Reflection; Community Service Self-Efficacy; Civic Action; service-learning; behavioral activation; self-efficacy; homelessness; experiment; critical reflection; service-learning outcomes; civic-minded graduate

Nemeth, Emily Annette“Because I Live in this Community”: Literacy, Learning, and Participation in Critical Service-Learning Projects
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Teaching and Learning
Over the last decade, service-learning researchers have documented a lack of attention paid to the dynamic nature of student learning in service-learning projects (Butin, 2003/2010) and a lack of attention paid to learning over time (Melchior & Bailis, 2002; Yamauchi, et al., 2006). In light of these gaps in the literature, this dissertation study used New Literacy Studies (e.g., Barton & Hamilton, 1998; Street, 1984) and communities of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991) to explore situated literacies and learning of four focal students participating in two critical service-learning projects at a traditional urban public high school in a mid-size city. Specifically, I explored the following three research questions: 1. What happens when students and their teacher participate in a critical service-learning project; 2. What learning opportunities and forms of participation emerge in a critical service-learning project and how are they taken up by the students; and 3. What is the role of literacy in these learning opportunities and forms of participation? Using an ethnographic case study design, I collected data over the course of an academic school year to include fieldnotes, artifacts, and transcripts. I analyzed these data using an iterative data analysis process. I concluded the study by offering implications for classroom practice, education policy, and service-learning research.

Committee:

Valerie Kinloch (Advisor); Caroline Clark (Advisor); Mollie Blackburn (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Theory; Literacy

Keywords:

Critical service-learning; service-learning; literacy; communities of practice; situated learning; sociocultural; high school; adolescents; participation; literacy practices; equity; community relevant literature; community

Stevens, Margaret CarnesThe Impact of Service Learning on Students in a First-Year Seminar
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2007, Education : Curriculum and Instruction
Both service learning programs and first-year experience programs have had positive effects on a number of factors including: student retention, course satisfaction, academic performance, and engagement on and around the university campuses. This study examined what happens when the two are combined, in order to create a pedagogy of support and engagement for students in a first-year seminar. This study was a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group study, which relied on quantitative pre and post-test analysis of students in a first-year seminar. Students in the experimental group participated in service learning activities as part of their required course work and were compared to students in a control group who followed the same curriculum without any service learning activities. In addition, qualitative data was collected from students in the service learning courses through written course reflections and post-course interviews in order to gain a deeper insight into their experiences. While the literature suggested that the service learning students would demonstrate higher levels of engagement, retention, course satisfaction and academic performance, this was not necessarily the case. The findings showed that in most cases there were not significant differences between the service learning students and the non-service learning students in the first-year seminar. An explanation for the lack of differences between the groups and implications for practice and for further research are presented in the following pages.

Committee:

Dr. Regina Sapona (Advisor)

Keywords:

first year; first-year; service learning; service-learning; freshman; freshman seminar; first-year seminar; community based learning; student success

Tullier, Sophie M“It Was More About the Functional Area”: Pursuing and Persisting in Student Affairs Community Engagement Positions
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2013, EDU Policy and Leadership
The purpose of this constructivist narrative study was to explore the prior experiences that have influenced new student affairs professionals to pursue positions focused on promoting community engagement as well as factors that contribute to their desire to leave or persist in this functional area. The research questions guiding this study were: 1) What are the prior life experiences of new student affairs professionals that have influenced their decision to hold a position focused on engaging students with the local community through co-curricular volunteerism, community service, or service-learning? 2) What factors influence individuals’ desire to leave or persist in these positions? Data collection occurred through three separate interviews with four participants, each focusing on a separate timeframe of the new professionals life experiences. Additional data was collected through document analysis, including participants’ position descriptions, resumes, and cover letters. Data was analyzed using the content-categorical method of narrative analysis to identify commons themes and experiences. Findings from this study indicate the influence of service involvement and related leadership experiences during students’ undergraduate education, when decisions were made regarding specialization within the field, as well as socialization to the functional area.

Committee:

Susan R. Jones (Advisor); Tatiana Suspitsyna (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

student affairs; career decision-making; community engagement; service-learning; community service; higher education

Davis, Kevin R.An Exploration of the Impact Service Learning has on Students who Engage with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Phenomenological Study
Doctor of Education (EdD), Ohio University, 2017, Educational Administration (Education)
Service learning as an educational pedagogy has demonstrated the ability to impact positively a student’s identity development, inter-cultural maturity, and self-authorship skills. In this qualitative phenomenological research study, the researcher examined the lived experiences of college students who participated in service learning opportunities with individuals who have developmental disabilities. The emphasis of this study was the impact the experience had on the college students and on their identity development, inter-cultural maturity, and self-authorship skills. The participants in this phenomenological research study indicate an overall positive experience. Participants reported a transformational experience which increased their learning, ability to address social problems, and a better understanding of people with developmental disabilities. An increase in identity development (understanding and appreciation of community), inter-cultural maturity (sensitivity to others), and self-authorship (ability to define and direct one’s self) was indicated in all the study participants. The negative issues of oppression and disablism (a set of assumptions and practices that promote the differential or unequal treatment of people with disabilities) were also indicated by the study participants in limited amounts.

Committee:

Charles Lowery (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership

Keywords:

service learning

Baginski, Jessie GuidryThe Hurricane Katrina Volunteer Experience: Inclusion into the Life Narratives of Young Adults
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2011, College of Education and Human Services

Hurricane Katrina left in her wake one of America’s oldest and greatest cities in shambles. In 2011, five years after the storm, New Orleans remains in a state of recovery. Statistics reveal many disaster-related facts attributable to the storm. Life stories, however, can open the windows to the soul, inviting us to better understand the human element of this tragedy.

Employing a narrative case study methodology, this study delved into the life stories of three young adults who attended to residents only three weeks after they returned to their homes. Through a series of three interviews with each participant, it explored how their education, social and cultural capital, and family lives prepared them for – and were transformed by their experiences as Hurricane Katrina relief volunteers. Engaging in life narrative method provided understanding of how the crisis volunteer experience was incorporated into the identity of these young adults and how it continues to affect their sense of agency in being active and engaged citizens. The study concludes that mandatory community service and service-learning programs that incorporate education, engagement, and critical reflection, provide foundational learning in civic engagement and foster volunteerism in young adults. The study raises critical questions regarding the role of institutional systems in ensuring equity and access for civic engagement for young adults.

Committee:

Elice Rogers, Ed.D. (Committee Chair); Catherine Hansman, Ed.D. (Committee Member); Brian Harper, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Anne Galletta, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Dwayne Wright, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Research

Keywords:

volunteer; service learning; Hurricane Katrina; New Orleans; narrative; young adults; crisis volunteer; urban education

Meixner, CaraEvolving Learning: Educators’ Inner Experiences of Engaging in Service-Learning with Undergraduates
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2008, Leadership and Change
Evolving Learning: Educators’ Inner Experiences of Engaging in Service-Learning with Undergraduates is an exploratory, qualitative study of faculty members’ learning, growth, and development in service-learning contexts. Through two, interwoven forms of constructivist grounded theory – situational mapping and dimensional analysis – this dissertation brought voice to a once ‘private’ perspective, making explicit what all is happening as participants make meaning of their experiences engaging in service-learning with college students. A three-phased series of recursive, comparative interviews and concurrent analysis resulted in the development of a grounded theory best captured by a core, organizing perspective – evolving learning. This perspective is comprised of five intersecting dimensions: (1) bearing witness, (2) navigating, (3) reconciling expectations, (4) resolving and reorienting, and (5) locating self in humanity. Both novel and exploratory, this dissertation adds extensively to extant literature, contributing significantly to our understanding of how educators adapt, transform, or make meaning of their own engagement. Also, the study unveils a number of opportunities for qualitative and mixed methods inquiry on faculty teaching, learning, engagement, and development.

Committee:

Alan E. Guskin, PhD (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Holloway, PhD (Committee Member); Eugene Rice, PhD (Committee Member); Devorah Lieberman, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Education; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Sociology; Teaching

Keywords:

service-learning; faculty development; higher education; undergraduate education; teaching; grounded theory; situational analysis; dimensional analysis; educational leadership; transformative learning; faculty experience

Shultz, Karen E.The Impact of Student Characteristics on Students' Perceptions of Service-Learning
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2007, College Student Personnel
Service-learning college students were surveyed to examine their perceptions of service as either charity or social justice. Demographic information about the students and the people they served at the service site were used to investigate if students' similarities and disssimilarities to the people they served related to differences in views about service as charity or social justice. Additionally, student demographic differences were analyzed for differences among subgroup populations within the sample participant group. MANOVA and ANOVA statistical analyses were performed on the data. Statistically significant differences were found for within group differences among the sample and perceived social class differences between students and the people they served.

Committee:

Dafina Stewart (Advisor)

Keywords:

service-learning; college student; charity; social justice; perspective tranformation

Nelson, Meaghan BradyHow Social Consciousness and the Development of Social Responsibility Can Grow Through the Meaning-Making Processes of Collaboration and Artmaking 
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Art Education
The primary question that framed this study was “How can social consciousness and the development of social responsibility grow through the meaning-making processes of collaboration and artmaking?” This source of inquiry was investigated through the practices of arts-based service-learning and participatory action research and was grounded in social interdependence theory. As an artist, teacher and researcher, the author set out to better understand how the processes of collaboration and artmaking could aid in the growth of social consciousness and the development of social responsibility. Working in cooperative learning groups, students from The Ohio State University and Graham Expeditionary Middle School collaboratively created digital art in a joined community space. Through investigations of the big ideas of community and identity, participants worked cooperatively to create meaning in the processes of artmaking and reflection. The results of this study provide a discourse that uncovers many important issues relevant to social consciousness and social responsibility, the practices of service-learning and participatory action research and the theory of social interdependence. It also raises several questions that will inspire numerous new inquiries that continue this reflexive spiral of meaning-making.

Committee:

Karen Hutzel, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Christine Ballengee-Morris, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Vesta Daniel, PhD (Committee Member); Sydney Walker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art Education

Keywords:

social consciousness;social responsibility;collaboration;artmaking;big ideas;service-learning;participatory action research;social interdependence theory;meaning-making;race;educational equity;socio-economic status;privilege;gender;age

Gallagher, Martha SThe Impact of an International Healthcare Mission on Participating Healthcare Professional Students
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2004, Health Education
Demographic changes in the US influence the delivery of healthcare and health education. To provide the best care and education, healthcare professionals need to increase cultural sensitivity. Educators from different disciplines increasingly recognize the importance of addressing the issue of culture. Participating in an international healthcare mission is one method to increase cultural awareness. Although changing demographics have altered how healthcare professionals practice, there is little research on the different methods to prepare future healthcare professionals to be culturally sensitive. Published research on the impact of an International Healthcare Mission (IHM) on participating healthcare professional students is notably sparse. The purpose of this research was to explore the perceived effects of an IHM on participating healthcare professional students. Thirty-two students from U.S. healthcare professional schools participated. None took coursework to prepare them for an international mission. This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods, also known as methodological triangulation. Semi-structured interviews of IHM student participants (n = 9) provided qualitative data. A survey framed by Wilson’s Impact of an International Experience model provided complementary and supportive quantitative information to themes that surfaced from interviews. Within the survey, several questions explored the impact of the mission on the student’s professional and cultural self-efficacy. These later questions validated cognitive, affective, and selection processes as regulators and mastery experiences as a source of self-efficacy within Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy. Triangulated methodology provided an enhanced picture of the phenomenon researched. Students reported gains in substantive knowledge, perceptual understanding, growth as an individual, improved interpersonal connections, as well as enhanced self-confidence. The information discovered from this research support both Wilson’s model and Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy. Further, this research highlights the value of an international healthcare mission to enhance student awareness, understanding, respect and sensitivity to people from other countries, cultures, and economic situations. Additionally, participants indicated that IHM experiences enhanced their provider-patient interactions, multicultural teamwork, and increased their knowledge of factors impacting a client’s health status and reception of healthcare services. Recommendations include 1) study replication, 2) modifications of selected survey items, and 3) development of a course with an IHM service-learning component.

Committee:

Debra Boardley (Advisor)

Keywords:

medical mission; healthcare mission; Wilson's Impact of an International; Experience; Bandura's Theory of Self-Efficacy; self-efficacy; service learning; experiential learning; International healthcare mission; cultural sensitivity; cultural competence

Jagger, Carla BethUndergraduate Students’ Cultural Proficiency Education in Career and Citizenship Preparation
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Agricultural and Extension Education
Society is becoming more diverse, creating a need for cultural proficiency and critical consciousness. Therefore, attention has been given to studying current areas of growth in education and employability in preparation for 21st century, global, living, learning, and working environments. The need for cultural proficiency and critical consciousness is imperative for progressive societies. Both, cultural proficiency and critical consciousness have the ability to strengthen 21st century, global skills in the next generation of citizens. In preparing a 21st century, global, citizenry, understanding one’s own culture and the cultures around him/her is critical. Living, learning, and working environments continue to become more diverse. Consequently, cultural proficiency, in all citizens, is important to create positive and affirming relationships between individuals with differing cultures. In this series of studies, the researcher used qualitative methodologies to begin describing how understanding one’s own culture, continuous immersion and reflection experiences, and culturally responsive teaching techniques lead to a culturally responsive citizenry. To begin, the researcher sought to describe undergraduate students’ movement along Cross’s Cultural Proficiency Continuum (CPC), using evidence provided through service-learning experiences, weekly journal entries, and in-class written reflection essays associated with a 14-week general education course. By conducting this study, the researcher was able to identify evidence of participants’ positive movement along Cross’s CPC in a short amount of time. Thus, it was concluded that through purposeful, intensive, engagement activities, students are able to develop cultural proficiency skills that will lead them to culturally responsive citizenship. In the second study, the researcher sought to describe student perceptions of the immersion model for pre-service teacher preparation currently being utilized as part of the professional pre-service block experience. Pre-service teachers engage in the block experience the semester prior to student teaching in the Agriscience Education degree program at The Ohio State University. In this study, participants completed pre- and post- reflections for each teaching immersion experience, in addition to group and individual interviews. Through the findings, the researcher concluded that the current immersion model currently used increases pre-service teachers’ comfort levels when engaged in each immersion experience. However, more thorough information needs provided to future pre-service teachers in all settings of the immersion model to ease feelings of stress. Finally, in the third study of the series, the researcher sought to describe pre-service, secondary, public school, agriscience teachers’ perceptions of their preparation to teach diverse underrepresented populations. The study consisted of a self-contained focus group protocol, in which participants identified diversity immersion programming they participated in as students at The Ohio State University. In addition, students provided perceptions related to diverse underrepresented populations and their preparation to work with these populations in the future. The researcher concluded that students did not perceive themselves to be adequately prepared for working with diverse underrepresented populations. Pre-service agriscience teachers interviewed focused primarily on racial differences when discussing diversity and underrepresented populations. Their responses indicated that more awareness related to these concepts need emphasized in pre-service programs, to prepare teachers for culturally responsive teaching.

Committee:

M. Susie Whittington (Advisor); Jamie Cano (Committee Member); Graham Cochran (Committee Member); Chris Zirkle (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Education; Multicultural Education

Keywords:

culturally responsive citizenry, culturally responsive teaching, cultural proficiency, cultural critical consciousness, immersion experiences, self-reflection, underrepresented populations, service-learning, agriscience, pre-service teachers

Frendo, Molly ElizabethGENERATIONAL FEMINISM AND ACTIVISM: USING BGSU AS A CASE STUDY
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2006, American Culture Studies/English
This study seeks to understand how the institutionalization of feminism through Women's Studies (WS) programs has affected the education and development of new feminists. The generational debate must be understood when forming/revising a curriculum in WS programs in order to promote feminist activism in the third wave. The first section focuses on how definitions of activism and perceptions of what counts as activism differ at both a generational and local level. The second section looks at how Women’s Studies students are educated to be activists. It focuses specifically on service learning as the primary method of engaging students in activist projects. The third and final section seeks to move beyond service learning as our primary method of educating young feminists to become activists. Through further developing existing activities already put into place by many WS instructors, I have created an alternative to service learning that I call “solution-based reading.”

Committee:

Ellen Berry (Advisor)

Keywords:

generational conflict; third wave feminism; activism; service learning; ethnography

Wang, YanSocial responsibility and intellectual development as outcomes of service-learning courses
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Educational Policy and Leadership
This study focuses the following: (1) the development of social responsibility and intellectual complexity as outcomes of service-learning courses, (2) the relationship between these two outcomes, (3) whether different course designs have differential effect, and (4) whether student characteristics results in differential outcomes. Development of social responsibility is a major motivation for those who theorize about or design community service and service-learning. The development of intellectual complexity is one of the goals of most higher education institutions. The possible relationship between development of social responsibility and intellectual complexity also needs to be studied. Course designs which emphasize and do not emphasize social justice need to be investigated in order to learn if they have different outcomes on development of social responsibility and intellectual complexity. Finally, students’ characteristics such as previous levels of volunteer involvement and reasons for taking service-learning courses were examined because they may have influence on students’ development of social responsibility. In this study, the development of social responsibility is measured by the Scale of Service Learning Involvement (Olney & Grande, 1995), and students’ intellectual development is measured by the Measure of Epistemological Reflection (Baxter Mogalda & Porterfield, 1985). Courses with strong, moderate, and minimal social justice content were compared on the two outcomes. Students with occasional and consistent volunteer history were compared as well as students who are required to take service-learning courses and students who freely elect to take service-learning courses. The major outcomes are as follows: (1) Service-learning courses, especially the ones with strong social justice designs have positive influence on students’ development of social responsibility and intellectual complexity. (2) Students who had previous volunteer involvement and who took the courses as free electives had not only higher level of social responsibility development at the beginning of the courses but also developed more after taking service-learning courses than those who did not participate in volunteer work consistently and those who took the courses as required for their majors or as general education requirement. (3) Levels of social responsibility have a positive relationship with levels of intellectual ability. The development of social responsibility may presuppose intellectual development. There were exceptions, however. Some students in lower position of intellectual development also scored high in development of social responsibility. This issue needs further study.

Committee:

Robert Rodgers (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Higher

Keywords:

Service-learning; Social responsibility; Intellectual development

Watson, Ashley M.Exploring Service within Campus Organizations: A Model for Service Learning in First-Year Composition
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2010, English
My thesis describes a research-based analysis of a service learning model I implemented into my first-year composition course. The model addresses three common issues faced by instructors when implementing service learning into first-year composition: (1) the role of “service” may overshadow the department’s objectives for first-year composition classrooms, (2) first-year students are not prepared rhetorically for service learning writing, and (3) service learning in a semester-long course compromises chances for sustainable relationships with the community because the relationship lasts one semester. The model challenged students to interrogate the concept of “service” by participating in service organizations. By using campus organizations instead of direct community partnerships, there was no risk in creating an unsustainable partnership with the community. Further, the service component was less time consuming, allowing sufficient time to reach academic goals. Using student writings and interviews, along with my own experience, my thesis explores the effectiveness of the model.

Committee:

Heidi McKee, PhD (Committee Chair); John Tassoni, PhD (Committee Member); Michele Simmons, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Composition; Curricula; Rhetoric; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

First-Year Composition; Service Learning; Critical Pedagogy

Gilbride-Brown, Jennifer Kara(E)racing service-learning as critical pedagogy: Race matters
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, ED Policy and Leadership

Service-learning is an experiential pedagogy connecting academic learning objectives with active engagement in work addressing community needs and issues. In the current moment, rationales for its use and growth center around 20+ years of societal frustration with poor academic performance and perceived irrelevance of educational institutions throughout the K-16 system (Boyer, 1996). Service-learning as an educational pedagogy and a tool for advancing civic engagement has flourished in this historical and social context. Its literature and research teem with stories and promises of personal, and sometimes, institutional transformation. Despite the wealth of information on program growth and positive student outcomes, service-learning has not been subjected to much theoretical critique (Butin, 2007). A “victory narrative” has resulted and has obscured other important issues in our collective understanding of this “transformative” pedagogy. One such issue is the silence that exists within this narrative about the experiences of people of color who are both underrepresented in service-learning’s program and research participation rates (Butin, 2005a; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Swaminathian, 2007). Race and class have received some amount of attention but are constructs typically examined through the lenses of white students and white researchers (Green, 2001, 2003). A troubling lack of critique alongside complicated outcomes benefiting individual, largely white students and little understanding of larger communal and societal benefit as evidenced by an ever-widening wealth gap suggests that the claims offered by victory narratives around service-learning are insufficient.

The purposes of this critical qualitative research was to explore the ways in which racially underrepresented college student “mentors” at a predominantly white institution and their African-American, urban high school “mentees” from struggling socioeconomic backgrounds are impacted by their service-learning experiences. Specifically, I am interested in how discourse shapes the ways in which “impact” within service-learning is experienced and articulated. Multiple methodologies, instrumental case study, critical race, and Foucauldian discourse were used to collect data through in-depth interviews of college and high school students, document analysis of reflective writing, and participant observation notes. This data was analyzed three times using three distinct methodologies to elicit three “reads” of the data. The results were three very different stories that illuminate the vested interests and competing discourses operating in this service-learning experience.

The results speak against a “neat” read of the ways these students of color experienced service-learning as a critical pedagogy. There was some evidence to suggest that this service-learning experience described as working “within” community, was an important reason for the college and high school students to academically persist. The course was racially and socioeconomically homogeneous in its demographic makeup and provided the college students of color a safe release space from the stressors and pressures operating at their predominantly white campus. However, the students were very reluctant to join “service” activities or even consider this course and experience “service-learning” because of the ways in which they perceived community service as a “white, do-gooder” thing, giving some insight into why these students had not participated in other service-learning courses or programs on campus. Finally, discourses were analyzed in order to interrogate the ways the college students performed themselves in the service-learning and mentoring contexts. Characterized as “disengaged” in the classroom and as mentors, this discourse analysis worked to discern the complex issues working in the lives of these college students of color that were completely untouched by service-learning leading to questions about whether and how critical service-learning lives up to its transformational promises.

This study offers a glimpse into the complexity of a pedagogy that is too often treated as a “good thing” in and of itself. Through the candor and generosity of the participants in this study, highly conflicting understandings of service-learning emerge that speak against the neat and tidy packaging of service-learning in both the research and in the pedagogical design of service-learning. The goal of this study was never to simply dismiss service-learning but to delve into the complexities and honor the participants’ wisdom. It is my hope that this study achieves this end and speaks with a conflicted though hopeful voice about service-learning and its potential.

Committee:

Patricia Lather (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Minority and Ethnic Groups

Keywords:

service learning; race; critical pedagogy

Berry, John M.An examination of partnership development between community service agencies and an institution of higher education: Implications for service learning
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, ED Policy and Leadership

This study focuses on the nature of the partnership development between three community service agencies and an institution of higher education for the delivery of service-learning experiences. The specific partnerships are between agency members of The United Way Chapter of Licking County, State of Ohio, the American Red Cross Licking County Ohio Chapter, Sharon Glyn Senior Apartments and faculty members of the Newark campus of The Ohio State University. In addition to interviewing the Director of the service agencies in each of these three settings, interviews were conducted with service agency supervisors, and the three faculty members from the Newark campus who designed service learning based experiences within their respective courses. An extensive overview of the research concerning civic engagement and the role and basic concepts of service-learning on the college and university campus, building a service-learning partnership, and partnership development theories and processes is included.

From the point of view of service agencies and higher education faculty members, this study has seven primary foci: 1) To develop an understanding of the nature of service-learning partnerships with a regional (branch) campus located in a small rural town as understood by three participating community services organizations, and three participating higher education faculty members, 2) To develop an understanding of how service-learning partnerships are established/formulated, 3) To develop an understanding of how service-learning partnerships are maintained, 4) To develop an understanding of how service-learning partnerships are renewed, 5) To develop an understanding of how service-learning partnerships are changed, 6) To develop and understanding of the impact(s) service-learning partnerships have on the participating community service agencies staff/employees, physical facilities and services provided, and 7) To understand potential differences made on each of the six previous questions by the type and variation of service provided within the service-learning partnership. Qualitative inquiry is utilized to understand the patterns of meaning of these foci from the point of the faculty participants as well as the service agency and their staffs across three kinds of agencies.

Committee:

Robert F. Rodgers, PhD (Advisor); Len Baird, PhD (Committee Member); Scott Sweetland, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Higher Education

Keywords:

partnership development; service learning

Amstutz, Leah R.Determining the Benefits of Implementing a Service Learning Project in an Agriscience II Classroom
Master of Arts in Education, Defiance College, 2009, Education
Eight students enrolled in an Agriscience II classroom in a rural town located Midwest state participated in the study. The purpose of this study was to determine if students' perception of his/her role in the community changed as a result of participating in a service learning project in an Agriscience II instructional class in an agricultural education program. The study was conducted with the students' everyday over a two week period in mid May of the 2008-2009 school year. The data collection tools that were used to assess the change in students' perception were a Likert scale, a pre-intervention writing prompt, and a post service learning reflection. The results of the study suggested that students' perception of their role in the community might have changed due to the intervention.

Committee:

Jo Ann Burkhardt (Advisor)

Subjects:

Agricultural Education

Keywords:

agricultural education; service learning; community role; student perception

Hirsh, Marissa B.Beyond the Four Walls of a College Classroom: Connecting Personal Experiences, Self-Reflection, and Teacher Education
Bachelor of Science in Education, Miami University, 2008, School of Education and Allied Professions - Early Childhood Education
This paper is about one student's undergraduate experience at Miami University as an early childhood education major: the opportunities she had, the questions she raised, and the answers she found. Through auto-ethnography, narrative inquiry, and scholarly research, the author explores the meaning behind her experiences. The author talks about her transformation from a first year student, who wanted to be a classroom teacher, to a graduating senior, who no longer planned on entering the teaching profession. Throughout the process, she used her ongoing experiences, both in the college classroom and outside the four walls, to question the purpose of education. Her answers came as she explored new places, cultures, and ideas. Throughout her developmental process, social justice was an important value of the author as well as a recurring organizing theme. Given that context, the core of this work explores the following questions: What is the purpose of education? What is social justice? What is the place of social justice in education? What does educating for social justice mean to pre-service teachers? What questions does this raise for teacher education programs? Within those answers, all of which are explored in the paper, the author found that working for and teaching for social justice is necessary in order to break down oppressive systemic barriers in society. The author's conclusion is that there is a world of education outside of a four-walled classroom. Discovering it, questioning it, and taking action to change it, will make the world a more just place.

Committee:

Barbara Heuberger Rose, PhD (Advisor); Raymond Terrell, PhD (Other); Karen Montgomery, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Teacher Education; Service Learning; Social Justice; Social Justice Education

Swarts, Gabriel PrasadBECOMING SERVANTS: EXPERIENCING DIFFERENCE WHILE FORMING COMMUNITY, SERVANT, & CIVIC IDENTITIES IN A SERVICE-LEARNING CLASSROOM
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
This qualitative study addressed the formation of student identity (servant and civic) as well as how students formed community through experiencing difference in a service-learning classroom. An interpretive qualitative study of five high school students was conducted in a service-learning program at Willow Falls High School, a public high school in Ohio. Interviews, journals, observations, student photographs, and contextual artifacts were collected and analyzed with a critically oriented, interpretivist researcher lens. The findings included: 1) Participants’ experiences in a service-learning program contributed to shifts in how they viewed themselves and their classmates as well as their relationship as servants to those they served. 2) Aiming for “buy-in,” teachers challenged participants through program specific-aims to think about their position and context and were encouraged to push out of their comfort zones in order to do so. 3) Participants were purposefully challenged to accept exposure to difference in a variety of capacities and internalized these challenges. 4) Participants found a variety of outlets for community-making in their service-learning experiences; in group/out group distinctions, class sections, site experiences, and bonding activities. 5) Citizenship and democracy were linked with service work in an uneven fashion, with some participants making direct connections while others made partial or nascent links. 6) Personal growth and community change for participants were incomplete. Teachers and students recognized that there were barriers to fully achieving program goals. The findings of the study offer implications for future research in service-learning as well as for teachers, administrators, and, stakeholders interested in implementing service-learning programs in their schools. Through service-learning and experiences with difference, students formed servant and civic identities and wrestled with community formation and democratic thinking.

Committee:

Alicia Crowe, PhD (Advisor); Tricia Niesz, PhD (Committee Member); Ken Cushner, EDD (Committee Member); Elizabeth Kenyon, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Secondary Education; Social Studies Education

Keywords:

Service-learning; high school; civic identity; servant identity; intercultural learning; identity formation; adolescents

Adeyeri, Oluwadamilare S.Intrinsic Motivation and Human Agency of Faculty Engaged In Service-Learning: A Qualitative Interpretive Study of a U.S. Mid-western Public University
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Cross-Cultural, International Education

This qualitative interpretative study explored the factors that contribute to the intrinsic motivation of faculty engaged in service-learning and how they promote such learning at a mid-western public university. Intrinsic motivation, which focuses on the internal and psychological satisfactions individuals derive from an activity, is important for faculty engaged in service-learning. Such motivation, however, can be catalyzed by conditions that allow its expression. Human agency, a core concept of social cognitive theory, is the theoretical framework for the study, which posits that as an agent of change, one exerts influence over one’s environment.

Seven faculty members who were members of the university’s Service-Learning Faculty Learning Community and had taught a service-learning course participated in this study. Findings of the study revealed that educational discontent; relationship, collaboration, and communal support; goodness; and gratification and advancement contribute to the intrinsic motivation of these faculty members. Participants promote service-learning through direct personal agency, proxy agency, and collective agency, and these faculty members who teach service-learning courses are theorized as change agents. This study adds to the literature on faculty motivation for service-learning, informs educational stakeholders on service-learning promotion, and opens up pathways for more research.

Service-learning is a credit-bearing pedagogy, which incorporates community service projects that are effectively connected to the curriculum and where students reflect on such activities for a deeper understanding of the academic content and to develop enhanced personal and professional skills. Despite its acclaimed benefits, this pedagogy is currently not fully accepted as a core part of higher education. As a teaching and learning method, faculty adoption and promotion is essential to the acceptance of service-learning because of faculty members’ role in course development, curriculum coordination, and higher education administration.

Committee:

Patricia K. Kubow, PhD (Committee Chair); Christopher J. Frey, PhD (Committee Member); Ewart C. Skinner, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curricula; Curriculum Development; Education; Education Philosophy; Education Policy; Educational Evaluation; Educational Leadership; Educational Psychology; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Pedagogy; Teachi

Keywords:

Education; Service-Learning; Faculty; Intrinsic Motivation; Human Agency; U.S. Mid-western Public University

Mukuria, Valentine WanguiCivic Engagement In Kenya: Developing Student Leadership Through Service Learning
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, ED Policy and Leadership

The purpose of this research study is to develop an approach to research on civic engagement and service learning in Kenya which examines the role of Kenyan Universities in preparing students for civic engagement, active citizenship and leadership. The research seeks to explore historical, political and cultural events, beliefs, attitudes, and policies that have shaped the mission of higher education in Kenya and describes how these influence the perception of role of Kenyan Universities in preparing students for civic engagement, citizenship and leadership through community service. This research is aimed at contributing to knowledge based on the gap identified in the literature review which is characterized by (1) inadequate access to or dissemination of research that addresses concepts of the civic, community service and student leadership in Kenya; (2) limited discourse on the current role of Kenyan Universities in society and (3) limited research on “Kenyan-centric” solutions to social issues.

This research thus takes into consideration multiple perspectives of varying University stakeholders and provides an innovative research design to that values the ’voice’ of the marginalized and other stakeholders who are to varying extents affected by the functions of the University but are often not consulted in the process of evaluating the role and relevance of the University.

The conceptual framework provides a reflective analysis on anthropological and socio-cultural perspectives, theories of knowledge, curriculum theories and service-learning theories and how these shape the focus of this research informed by literature review. The methodological justification underlying the research study is based on grounded theory which serve to shape the thinking about the research as well as determine ways in which sense will be made of the data during and after its collection.

The major findings were (1) phenomena such as the ethnic violence that erupted as a result of the electoral process influenced the participants’ perceptions of community, civic engagement, citizenship and leadership, (2) concepts were defined differently depending on the political climate and socio-cultural assumptions underlying the period of this study.

Committee:

Tatiana Suspitsyna, PhD (Advisor); Antoinette Errante, PhD (Committee Member); Helen Marks, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Civic engagement; Service Learning; Leadership; Citizenship

Creighton, Sean JCommunity Partner Indicators of Engagement: An Action Research Study on Campus-Community Partnership
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2006, Leadership and Change
The central purpose of this research study was to develop common indicators of engagement for civic initiatives between institutions of higher education and their community organization partners. The unique aspect of this study was that the indicators were generated by the community organizations participating as stakeholders in campus-community partnerships. Using an action research methodology that involved eleven community organization participants from the health and wellness sector, the study advocated for research that provided a deeper understanding of the perspectives of community organizations. Findings suggested that significant divides existed in core civic areas dealing with service-learning, relevance of academic research, and equitable treatment of community partners. The study produced a formal set of community partner indicators of engagement that were developed by the participants in the study and disseminated to higher education leaders. The indicators illustrated the expectations of community partners that engaged in civic partnerships with higher education. Additionally, the study provided an analysis of the literature on civic engagement, identifying a lack of empirical research concerned with the perspectives of community organization partners. The electronic version of the dissertation is accessible at the OhioLINK ETD center http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/.

Committee:

Jon Wergin (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Higher

Keywords:

service learning; community involvement; civic engagement; partnership; higher education; action research

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