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Cheng, Fan-TienComputer simulation of the dynamics and control of an energy-efficient robot leg
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 1982, Electrical Engineering

Committee:

David Orin (Advisor)

Keywords:

Reverse Kinematics; Inverse Plant; KINEMATIC; LEG; ROBOT LEG; ENERGY-EFFICIENT ROBOT; ENERGY-EFFICIENT ROBOT LEG

Choi, JongungLOCOMOTION CONTROL EXPERIMENTS IN COCKROACH ROBOT WITH ARTIFICIAL MUSCLES
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2005, Mechanical Engineering
This dissertation describes experimental efforts to improve the control and mechanical designs of a biologically-inspired hexapod robot. Robot V is modeled after the Blaberus discoidalis cockroach. It uses Festo pneumatic muscle actuators with two-way solenoid valves activated by Pulse-Width-Modulation. Robot 5 is capable of rudimentary walking without sensors, but walking with style requires proprioceptors to measure joint angles and load. Control circuits are described in this thesis that coordinate the robot’s joints and legs using sensor data. The Modified Moore Penrose method is used to solve the inverse kinematics problem for each of the robot’s legs at a number of foot positions within the legs’ workspaces. These solutions are used to train neural networks that then are used to solve the inverse kinematics problems on line as the robot moves. A Cruse controller is used to coordinate the legs into insect gaits. These controllers are tested in a dynamic simulation that models the robot’s dynamics, actuators and valves. The simulated Robot V walks successfully. The control strategies were then implemented and tested in Robot V. The robot was shown to move its legs in insect gaits while it was supported in the air such that its feet could not touch the ground. Load feedback must be implemented before it will walk well on the ground. The robot’s design was compared to Robot III and a number of problems with Robot V’s design were discovered during experimentation.

Committee:

Roger Quinn (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

Bio-inspired robot; Walking robot; Hexapod robot; Locomotion control

Oturkar, Siddharth A.Push Recovery of Humanoid Robot Using Thruster and Acceleration Compensation
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2012, Electrical and Computer Engineering
This thesis is concerned with a problem of balancing the humanoid robot after an external impact. Dynamic model of the humanoid robot is derived using Lagrangian dynamic formulation. Use of the maximum joint accelerations to reject disturbance is studied. In our approach, we propose the use of non-natural force like thruster on the torso of the humanoid robot for balance recovery. Mathematical simulation of derived dynamic model is performed using MATLAB. Plotted results prove the validity and usefulness of the proposed approach. We also show that, acceleration compensation and using thruster are complementary to each other. We prove that both techniques can be used together to reject large disturbances in minimum time.

Committee:

Dr. Yuan Zheng (Advisor); Dr. Hooshang Hemami (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

Robot; Humanoid Robot; Push Recovery; Thruster; Maximum Joint Acceleration; Acceleration Compensation; Dynamic Equation; Euler-Lagrange; New Push Recovery Approach; 3-Link Model; Three Link Model;

Nyzen, Ronald A.Spherically-actuated platform manipulator with passive prismatic joints
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2002, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering)

This thesis focuses on the 2-SPU platform manipulator robot. A six degree of freedom platform manipulator, the 2-SPU design employs two parallel serial chains. Each serial chain consists of an actuated spherical joint with passive prismatic and universal joints. The hardware used to develop the platform manipulator is presented. Pose kinematics analysis including singularity analysis is given. Forward and inverse pose kinematic solutions utilize the iterative Newton-Raphson method for evaluation due to complexities resulting from the hardware using actuators that are not truly spherical. Controller design is covered and a full Cartesian controller is defined using independent joint control. The implementation of that controller and the results collected from operation of the hardware with it are presented.

The appendices list additional information that could be useful for operating or recreating the hardware. CAD drawings are given which could be used to recreate the hardware used in this work. All of the code used for analysis of the robot is presented as well as a full listing of all kinematic terms. The beginnings of a closed-form kinematic solution are presented. Also some information on the wiring of the electronics and operating procedures is documented.

Committee:

Robert Williams, II (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

2-SPU Platform Robot; Manipulator Robot; Pose Kinematics; Iterative Newton-Raphson Method; Cartesian Controller; Closed-Form solution; Kinematic Solution

Zhang, YanLow-Cost, Real-Time Face Detection, Tracking and Recognition for Human-Robot Interactions
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2011, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
This dissertation presents various vision-based algorithms for human-robot interactive applications, such as sociable robots. Our vision-based methodologies include accelerated AdaBoost classifier based face detection, self-learning face tracking and adptive PCA-based facial recognition. By using a resizing technique and skin tone filter, we only apply the AdaBoost classifier to a small region and thus, compared to applying it to the whole image, require much less processing time. In order to track a detected face precisely and efficiently while also recognizing the detected face, a hybrid face tracking approach is applied based on an adaptive skin color mode and a potential window. A novel adaptive face recognition method is implemented by automatically upgrading the set of sample faces of a “known” person and collecting information of “unknown” people for enhanced recognition performance. Some additional effort has been made on speech recognition system, voice system and behavior system. These algorithms are well suited for embedded systems because of their cost and time efficiency and little pre-training required for reliable performance. All of the above algorithms have been tested on a sociable robot named “Philos” developed in the Distributed Intelligence and Robotics Laboratory at Case Western Reserve University.

Committee:

Kiju Lee, PhD (Advisor); Roger Quinn, PhD (Committee Member); Cenk Cavusoglu, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

face recognition; human-robot interaction; sociable robot

Sun, LingchenA comparative study of the workspace and kinematics analysis for free-floating robots
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1995, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering)

A comparative study of the workspace and kinematics analysis for free-floating robots

Committee:

S. Agrawal (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

Kinematic; Free-Floating Space Robot; Fixed-Base Robot

Mamrak, JustinMARK II - A Biologically-Inspired Walking Robot
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2008, Electrical Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
The MARK II is a biologically inspired walking robot utilizing modern hardware. The purpose of the project is to create a robotic platform that is capable of mimicking the motion of various biological organisms such as insects, lizards, and other biologics. With a quadruped platform (4 degrees of freedom per leg) detailed experiments can be run regarding motion behavior of biological systems in a controlled environment without the use of biological organisms. Advances in biorobotic walkers will provide insight into biological animal behavior, fluid robotic motion and system wide control design and implementation.

Committee:

Maarten Uijt de Haag, Dr. (Advisor); Robert Williams II, Dr. (Committee Member); Zhu Zhen, Dr. (Committee Member); Scott Hooper, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Computer Science; Electrical Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Robots

Keywords:

biorobotic; MARKII; biologically-inspired robot; insect robot; insect robotics; controls; kinematics; degrees of freedom; d.o.f.; dof

Kingsley, Daniel AA COCKROACH INSPIRED ROBOT WITH ARTIFICIAL MUSCLES
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2004, Mechanical Engineering
A robot was developed for the purpose of research into legged locomotion. Legged robots are complex mechanisms, and their development can be greatly aided by insights into the mechanisms—both physical and control—by which animals locomote. This text presents the design methodology used for the development of the fifth such biologically inspired robot at Case: Robot V. The robot is based on the deathhead cockroach, Blaberus discoidalis. It has twenty-four degrees of freedom (DOF) distributed amongst task oriented legs; five DOF in the front legs, four DOF in the middle, and three DOF in the rear. Previous research has shown that this joint configuration can closely approximate that of the cockroach, while not being too complex from and engineering standpoint. Actuation is by braided pneumatic actuators, and coupled with a valve system that allows air to be trapped within the actuators, numerous beneficial muscle-like properties were produced. Most importantly, this system enabled rapid response to perturbation, much like “preflexes” exhibited by animals, affording the system a level of passive stability. The robot is controlled by a hierarchical control system, and the operation of the interleg coordination mechanism, a variant of the distributed network of the responsible for stick insect interleg coordination proposed by Cruse, is discussed in detail. The robot has demonstrated open loop passive stability and locomotion. With the addition of joint angle and actuator pressure sensors, the robot has been able to perform “air walking” motions while suspended from a gantry as well as walking on a treadmill while its weight is partially supported. Closed loop walking has been accomplished, but further development of its locomotion controllers is called for.

Committee:

Roger Quinn (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

biomimetic; biologically inspired; robot; muscle-like actuators; walking robot; passive stability

Kreinar, Edward JFilter-Based Slip Detection for a Complete-Coverage Robot
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2013, EECS - Electrical Engineering
Complete-coverage robots, such as a lawnmower or snowplow, require a centimeter-level localization solution in order to navigate reliably. Unmodeled wheel slip or other odometry errors may cause localization to diverge beyond the bounds of uncertainty. Specifically in the case of a robot snowplow, errors due to wheel slip may be significant. This thesis uses the CWRU Cutter autonomous robot as a test platform to address the dual issues of (1) robust localization and (2) odometry error handling. Both an Extended Kalman Filter and an Adaptive Monte Carlo Localization procedure are derived and implemented specifically on the CWRU Cutter robot. Finally, a new augmented Extended Kalman Filter with general-purpose wheel-velocity error states is derived. The augmented EKF is shown to fully estimate the robot state and the wheel velocity error due to wheel slip during logged data from the 2013 Institute of Navigation's Autonomous Snowplow Competition.

Committee:

Roger Quinn, Dr. (Advisor); Francis Merat, Dr. (Committee Member); M. Cenk Cavusoglu, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Electrical Engineering; Robotics

Keywords:

localization; odometry error; wheel slip; Extended Kalman Filter; Augmented Kalman Filter; Monte Carlo Localization; differential drive; robot lawnmower; robot snowplow

Needler, Noah J.Design of an Algae Harvesting Cable Robot, Including a Novel Solution to the Forward Pose Kinematics Problem
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2013, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
A cable robot system is proposed for implementation as an algae harvesting tool. The proposed system consists of four cables that run from four winches, up and over four adjustable towers, and meet at a point on the robot’s end-effector. The robot is to be controlled by a PID controller that controls all cables independently, but simultaneously. The research consists of robot kinematics/dynamics analyses, MATLAB simulation, and design. In addition to providing a simplified method of solving the forward pose kinematics problem, this research shows that to minimize cable tension, the towers should be at least 1.5 times the maximum height of the end effector, which can be set by the operator. This result is verified by a simulation in which the tower heights are varied, showing a rapid decrease in tension as tower height increases. In addition, cable parameters are determined and four possible end effectors designs are proposed.

Committee:

Robert Williams, II (Advisor); Hajrudin Pasic (Committee Member); David Bayless (Committee Member); Morgan Vis-Chiasson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

cable robot; cable; algae; harvest; algae harvest; robot

Oberhauser, Joseph Q.Design, Construction, Control, and Analysis of Linear Delta Robot
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2016, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
Linear Delta Robots are a technology that are primarily used for 3D printing. The technology is still in its infancy and there are many improvements which can be made. This thesis involves the design and construction of a new linear Delta Robot design with several advantages over previous models. This thesis also describes a new method of controlling a linear Delta Robot via 5th order polynomial trajectory generation. This new method of control is an improvement over traditional methods because it prevents the occurrence of infinite jerk spikes, a problem that occurs with traditional robot and 3D printer control. The physical capabilities of the robot are obtained and reported theoretically and experimentally.

Committee:

Robert Williams, II (Advisor); John Cotton (Committee Member); Timothy Cyders (Committee Member); Mark Franz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

Trajectory; 5th order polynomial; Delta Robot; Infinite Jerk; Arduino; Robot; Control; GUI; Finite Jerk; 3D Print; Analysis; C; Encoder; Serial;

Kothandaraman, KaameshMotion Planning and Control of Differential Drive Robot
Master of Science in Engineering (MSEgr), Wright State University, 2016, Electrical Engineering
Motion planning and control of a differential drive robot in a supervised environment is presented in this thesis. Differential drive robot is a mobile robot with two driving wheels in which the overall velocity is split between left and right wheels. Kinematic equations are derived and implemented in Simulink to observe the theoretical working principle of the robot. A proportional controller is designed to control the motion of the robot, which is later implemented on a physical robot. Combination of linear velocity and orientation generates individual wheel velocities which are sent to the robot by wireless communication for its motion. Point to point motion and shapes, such as square and circle, are performed to implement and test the robustness of the controller designed. Others tasks such as leader-follower, pursuer-evader and obstacle detection and avoidance are carried out using multiple robots. For flexibility of the robot, a GUI software is developed for waypoint assignment for the robots to follow through. Different systems such as Vicon Camera, Matlab-Simulink, Xbees, QUARC and robots were integrated via software and hardware in the UAV lab at Wright State University. The camera system used throughout this thesis helps to understand the functioning of a GPS. QUARC, Matlab-Simulink, XBees are used in processing and communication of data from cameras to the robot.

Committee:

Kuldip Rattan, Ph.D. (Advisor); Marian Kazimierczuk, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Xiaodong Zhang, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

mobile robot; differential drive; robot; control; motion planning

Passmore, Catherine M3D Printed Mini-Whegs Robot Design and Vibration Analysis
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2017, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
A Mini-Whegs vehicle was designed, fabricated, and assembled consisting predominantly of 3D printed parts. 3DP Mini-Whegs is a fully functional, Bluetooth controlled, mobile quadruped approximately 6 ½ inches long. It’s a member of the Whegs family of robots, which all utilize rotating, spoked appendages, called wheel-legs. The unique geometry of these appendages introduces considerable vibrations to the system, making it difficult to integrate vibration sensitive equipment, such as cameras or sensors. A vibration analysis model was developed to simulate vibrations in the moving robot. Three wheel-leg designs were developed and analyzed to determine that stiffer spokes provide less vertical displacement and less stiff ones offer less angular displacements, and that four spoked wheel-legs are considerably more stable than three. Different front-to-back wheel-leg phase angles vary the vibrations but an optimal angle depends on application. Experiments investigated the validity of the simulation and verified the difference in stiffness of compared wheel-legs.

Committee:

Roger Quinn (Advisor); Richard Bachmann (Advisor); Clare Rimnac (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Design; Mechanical Engineering; Mechanics; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

Whegs; Mini-Whegs; vibration; vibration analysis; mobile robot; robot; 3D printing; wheel-leg; vibration

Dick, Andrew B.Development Feasibility of a Universal Industrial Robot/Automation Equipment Controller
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2006, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering)

This thesis defines the general components of a Universal Controller capable of interfacing with most industrial robots and automation equipment. A Universal Controller Simulator is built and tested. We perform a critical evaluation of existing robot equipment from three vendors with respect to the “Open Architecture” concept. The thesis describes the system-level components in detail. We evaluate the current concepts of Plug-n-Play and Universal Plug-n-Play for their relevance to the industrial automation equipment market. We develop a Universal Controller Simulator using Matlab and an open-source Robot Toolbox. The inverse kinematics routine is verified using the analytical solution of a four degree-of-freedom SCARA-type arm. The recursive Newton-Euler algorithm for the inverse dynamics is verified using a PUMA-style arm and a separate recursive Newton-Euler algorithm. We conclude with the limitations and tradeoffs concerning the development effort of a Universal Controller.

Committee:

Robert Williams (Advisor)

Keywords:

Industrial Robot Controller; Industrial Robot Simulator; Denavit Hartenberg; Inverse Kinematics; Inverse Dynamics

Dentler, Donald RichardDesign, Control, and Implementation of a Three Link Articulated Robot Arm
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2008, Mechanical Engineering

Robots have become commonplace in the manufacturing environment, allowing tasks ranging from the most repetitive to the most complex to be automated. As technology advances, robotics evolves to be both more precise and practical.

The purpose of this research is to study the behavior of a robotic system through the use of a three link articulated robotic arm. An in depth description of the various actuators, controllers, and drivers is included. The arm will be designed following the physical principals governing static and dynamic requirements of motion. The design process includes both examining structural requirements and control implementation. Component selection must be optimized for the design in terms of performance and physical properties. Using the robot arm and simulated motion programs, both forward and inverse coordinate transformation solutions are presented.

Committee:

Yueh-Jaw Lin, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Robots

Keywords:

¿¿¿¿1; MOTOR; ROBOT; TORQUE; lc2; ROBOT ARM

Venator, Edward StephenA Low-cost Mobile Manipulator for Industrial and Research Applications
Master of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 2013, EECS - System and Control Engineering
ABBY is a mobile industrial manipulator, a mobile robot equipped with an industrial robotic arm. The goal in creating this robot was to demonstrate that a robust research platform for mobile industrial manipulation can be created quickly at low cost. This goal was achieved by leveraging commercially-available mass produced hardware and open source software. The resulting mobile manipulator incorporates a suite of commercially-available sensors and processing hardware to enable the robot to operate as an intelligent agent alongside humans. The robot demonstrated its abilities by performing simple navigation and manipulation tasks in a laboratory setting, and will soon be employed in research on autonomous kitting in industrial environments.

Committee:

Gregory Lee, PhD (Advisor); Murat Cavusoglu, PhD (Committee Member); Roger Quinn, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Industrial Engineering; Robotics; Systems Design

Keywords:

robot; robotics; industrial robot; mobile manipulator; mobile manipulation; industrial manipulator; robotic arm; industrial robotic arm; kitting; ROS; ROS Industrial

Snyder, Benjamin M.SEVEN-DOF CABLE-SUSPENDED ROBOT WITH INDEPENDENT SIX-DOF METROLOGY
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2006, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering)

Traditional automated machining and material deposition systems are not easily scalable and can be expensive. This thesis presents a less expensive, scalable alternative – a seven degree-of-freedom (DOF) cable-suspended robot (CSR) for use in 3D sculpting, with further applications in automated machining, rapid prototyping, and construction. Two important novelties are a passive pose metrology system independent of the active drive system, and a simple yet non-traditional method of cable tensioning utilizing a spring mounted inline on the seventh active cable. This thesis presented the final design, construction, and controller implementation using a classical joint-level PID real-time control architecture, and the novel implementation of a 3D digitizer, called MicroScribe, as a master input device. The control system was applied to a full-scale robot at NIST where a scaled 3D duplication was performed using a MicroScribe to trace a maquette while the CSR cut an enlarged duplicate out of polystyrene in real-time.

Committee:

Robert Williams (Advisor)

Keywords:

robot; robotics; cable-suspended robots; cable-driven robots; cable-robots; cable robots; metrology; robot control; 3D duplication; 3D sculpting; maquette-enlarging; automated machining; automated sculpting

Hughes, Bradley EvanA Navigation Subsystem for an Autonomous Robot Lawn Mower
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2011, EECS - Electrical Engineering
This thesis describes a cost effective, accurate, and precise electronic navigation system which is suitable for outdoor commercial mobile robots. The hardware design of the system incorporates commercial off the shelf Global Positioning System receiver modules and support electronics. The software design of the system makes use of an open source positioning library to enable Real Time Kinematic satellite positioning. The designed navigation system has been integrated with a preexisting mobile robot platform, an autonomous robot lawn mower, which includes a set of reference sensors to provide accurate robot pose information. The reference platform is used to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the new cost effective system. A degradation factor of 1.7 in terms of positional accuracy is traded off in favor of achieving a cost savings factor of about thirty.

Committee:

Roger Quinn, PhD (Advisor); Roger Quinn, PhD (Committee Chair); Marc Buchner, PhD (Committee Member); Francis Merat, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Electrical Engineering; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

mobile robot; autonomous guided vehicle; global positioning system; navigation system; control system; robot lawn mower; consumer product automation; low cost navigation

Xin, MingKinematics, Dynamics, and Controller Design for the Contour Crafting Cartesian Cable (C4) Robot
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2008, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering and Technology)
The Contour Crafting Cartesian Cable (C4) Robot is a type of cable-suspended robot that applies Contour Crafting (CC) technology. CC Technology is a new technology that is used to build construction layer by layer automatically. A cable-suspended robot is simpler in its form than traditional robots. Due to its large workspace, it has brought engineers' interest in building construction, transporting goods, and simulating the outer space environment. This thesis introduces how to use the cable-suspended robot that is combined with CC technology to enable automated house-building. Five different C4 robot design concepts are proposed and evaluated. After eliminating the unqualified, the remaining two concepts were tested by four stricter criteria: kinematics, dynamics, workspace, and stiffness. Then, the final suggested C4 robot is chosen based on the objective of controller design and performance. This thesis also focus on a key problem – how to maintain cable positive tensions during the CC process for all motions.

Committee:

Robert L. Williams II, PhD (Committee Chair); Paul Bosscher, PhD (Committee Member); Hajrudin Pasic, PhD (Committee Member); Wayne Huang, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Kinematics; Dynamics; Computed-torque Control; Workspace; Stiffness; Translational Stiffness; Rotational Stiffness; Cable-suspended Robot; Contour Crafting Cartesian Cable Robot; Cartesian motion; Positive cable tensions; Pesudostatics

Bettaieb, Luc AlexandreA Deep Learning Approach To Coarse Robot Localization
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2017, EECS - Electrical Engineering
This thesis explores the use of deep learning for robot localization with applications in re-localizing a mislocalized robot. Seed values for a localization algorithm are assigned based on the interpretation of images. A deep neural network was trained on images acquired in and associated with named regions. In application, the neural net was used to recognize a region based on camera input. By recognizing regions from the camera, the robot can be localized grossly, and subsequently refined with existing techniques. Explorations into different deep neural network topologies and solver types are discussed. A process for gathering training data, training the classifier, and deployment through a robot operating system (ROS) package is provided.

Committee:

Wyatt Newman (Advisor); Murat Cavusoglu (Committee Member); Gregory Lee (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Electrical Engineering; Robotics

Keywords:

robotics; localization; deep learning; neural networks; machine learning; state estimation; robots; robot; robot operating system; ROS; AMCL; monte carlo localization; particle filter; ConvNets; convolutional neural networks

Horton, Jennifer LeighPush Recovery: A Machine Learning Approach to Reactive Stepping
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2013, Electrical and Computer Engineering
When robots are integrated into the real world, chances are they will not be able to completely avoid situations in which they are bumped or pushed unexpectedly. In these situations, the robot could potentially damage itself, damage its surroundings, or fail to perform its tasking unless it is able to take active countermeasures to prevent or recover from falling. One such countermeasure, referred to as reactive stepping, involves a robot taking a series of steps in order to regain balance and recover from a push. Research into reactive stepping typically focuses on choosing which step to take. This thesis proposes a machine learning approach to reactive stepping. This approach leverages neural networks to calculate a series of steps that return the robot to a stable position. It was theorized that the robot would become stable if it always chose the step resulting in the highest reduction of energy. Theories were tested using a compass model that incorporated parameters and constraints realistic of an actual humanoid robot. The machine learning approach using neural networks performed favorably in both computation time and push recovery effectiveness when compared with the linear least squares, nearest interpolation, and linear interpolation methods. Results showed that when using neural networks to calculate the best step for an arbitrary push within the defined range, the compass model was able to successfully recover from 97% of the pushes applied. The procedure was kept very general and could be used to implement reactive stepping on physical robots, or other robot models.

Committee:

Yuan Zheng (Advisor); David Orin (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Engineering; Robotics

Keywords:

Push Recovery; Reactive Stepping; Machine Learning; Neural Network; Bipedal Robot; Compass Model; Robot

Wikman, Thomas StigReflex control for robot system preservation, reliability, and autonomy
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1994, Electrical Engineering
This thesis is concerned with the use of reflex-like control strategies for robot system reliability and autonomy. This thesis shows that reflex control is a useful concept for achieving robot system safety, reliability and robustness. The reflexive command filter for obstacle avoidance described in this thesis is a fast, on-line and failsafe obstacle avoidance method that protects the system from erroneous higher-level commands. The flee-reflexes introduced in this thesis are fast, on-line methods that protect the system from moving obstacles. This thesis further shows that reflex control can be used as an important component of complex autonomous systems. Highly efficient subgoal-based path planners utilizing the reflexive command filter as a local operator are described. The use of reflex control and fixed action patterns in an autonomous sonar-based world mapping scheme is also described. The reflexes and other low-level behaviors introduced in this thesis are functionally simple, execute very quickly, and allow for modular and incremental design. This thesis further discusses how reflexes should be constructed to be useful, and how stability or cycling problems can be avoided when adding reflex modules to a system, or building a system consisting of reflex modules and other types of low-level behavioral modules. The objective of this thesis is to demonstrate the usefulness of reflex-like control for robot system reliability and autonomy through the numerous implementations described, and present methods for performance analysis and design of reflex-like control systems.

Committee:

Wyatt Newman (Advisor)

Keywords:

Reflex control robot system preservation reliability autonomy

Hester, Matthew S.Stable Control of Jumping in a Planar Biped Robot
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2009, Mechanical Engineering

The ability to perform high-speed dynamic maneuvers is an important aspect of locomotion for bipedal animals such as humans. Running, jumping, and rapidly changing direction are fundamental dynamic maneuvers that contribute to the adaptability and performance required for bipeds to move through unstructured environments. A number of bipedal robots have been produced to investigate dynamic maneuvers. However, the level of performance demonstrated by biological systems has yet to be fully realized in a biped robot. One limiting factor in achieving comparable performance to animals is the lack of available control strategies that can successfully coordinate dynamic maneuvers. This thesis develops a control strategy for producing vertical jumping in a planar biped robot as a preliminary investigation into dynamic maneuvers. The control strategy was developed using a modular approach to allow adaptation to further dynamic maneuvers and robotic systems.

The control strategy was broken into two functional levels to separately solve the problems of planning and performing the jump maneuver. The jump is performed using a low-level controller, consisting of a state machine for determining the current phase of the jump and motor primitives for executing the joint motions required by the current phase. The motor primitives, described by open- and closed-loop control laws, were defined with numeric control parameters for modifying their performance. The high-level controller performs the task of planning the motion required to achieve the desired jump height. Fuzzy control, an intelligent control approach, was selected for the high-level controller. The fuzzy controller uses heuristic information about the biped system to select appropriate control parameters. This heuristic knowledge was implemented in a training algorithm. The training algorithm uses iterative jumps with error-based feedback to determine the control parameters to be implemented by the fuzzy controller.

The control strategy was developed and validated using a numerical simulation of the experimental biped KURMET. The simulation models the dynamics of the biped system and has demonstrated the ability of the control strategy to produce stable successive jumps with an approximate height of 0.575 m. The control strategy was also implemented on the experimental biped for a simplified case, resulting in stable successive jumps with a range of heights from 0.55 to 0.60 m.

Committee:

James Schmiedeler (Advisor); David Orin (Committee Member); Chia-Hsiang Menq (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

biped;robot;KURMET;legged;locomotion;jump;jumping;robotics;fuzzy control;intelligent control;control strategy;

Wanichnukhrox, NakrobReal-time visual servo control of a planar robot
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2003, Mechanical Engineering (Engineering)
Real-time visual servo control of a planar robot.

Committee:

Jae Lew (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Mechanical

Keywords:

Real-Time Control; Visual Control; Servo Control; Planar Robot

hart, charlesA Low-cost Omni-directional Visual Bearing Only Localization System
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2014, EECS - Computer and Information Sciences
RAMBLER Robot is designed to enable research on biologically inspired behavioral robot control algorithms. RAMBLER Robot tests the feasibility of autonomously localizing without typical sensors like wheel odometers or GPS. The primary objective is to independently, accurately, and robustly recover the path of a moving robotic system with only the lowest-cost sensors available off-the-shelf. Methods new and old are reviewed and tested on the real RAMBLER Robot hardware. The hardware and software necessary to use omni-directional camera measurements to decrease uncertainty regarding the position and heading of a small robot system are presented in detail. The RAMBLER Robot is shown to successfully localize within a small arena using three passive indistinguishable landmarks.

Committee:

Roger Quinn (Committee Chair); Francis Merat (Committee Member); Gregory Lee (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Robotics

Keywords:

omnicam; camera; omnidirectional; panoramic; catadioptric; spherical reflector; triangulation; power center; localization; particle filter; computer vision; raspberry pi; zumo; robot; robotics; low-cost; inexpensive; python; matlab; opencv;

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