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Tejada, Laura J.Kin and Kilometers: A Qualitative Study of Long-Distance Relationships from the Perspective of Transgenerational Theory
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2013, Counselor Education and Supervision-Marriage and Family Therapy
This phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of couples in long-distance relationships (LDRs) from the perspective of Transgenerational (TG) Theory, a foundational theory in the Marriage and Family Therapy field. Semi-structured individual and conjoint interviews were conducted via web-based communication technology with six LDR couples who were separated due to the demands of work, school, or family care giving. Genograms were constructed in the first interview and used to discuss intergenerational relational patterns in the families of origin of the LDR partners. Eligible couples were those who had been together in the same geographic location for at least one year prior to beginning the LDR, and who had been in the LDR for at least a year. Aspects of TG Theory salient to these LDR couples were identified through analysis of the transcripts using phenomenological methods. Multigenerational patterns were found in the families of origin of participants in work-related travel and/or relocation, being independent, sharing a commitment to caring for the family of origin, and having a strong work ethic. Distance appeared to make some relational processes more overt. The majority of these LDR couples were involved in providing physical and/or financial support to members of their extended families. Families of origin were important sources of support for these LDR partners and couples. The LDR lifestyle allowed the couples and families to give and take relational support in a mutual cycle involving both families and the intimate partners. LDRs offered a way for them to fulfill multiple commitments to each other and their families while living and working in separate locations. Two core themes incorporating individual and relational processes also emerged from the analysis of interview transcripts. First, commitment and trust in the partnered relationship allowed participants to embark on an LDR. The recursive interaction of trust and commitment strengthened the relationship while partners were apart. Second, LDRs represented resilience for these couples, who set forth on LDRs after losses of jobs and/or dreams.

Committee:

Linda Perosa, Dr. (Advisor); Suzanne MacDonald, Dr. (Committee Member); Karin Jordan, Dr. (Committee Member); Cynthia Reynolds, Dr. (Committee Member); Sandra Perosa, L. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Families and Family Life; Individual and Family Studies; Personal Relationships; Psychology

Keywords:

long-distance relationships; commuter relationships; long-distance marriages; commuter marriages; couple relationships; family relationships; Transgenerational Theory; Marriage and Family Therapy; genograms; phenomenology; qualitative study

Charvet, Francois F.Supply Chain Collaboration: The Role of Key Contact Employees
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Business Administration

Buyer-supplier collaboration is an important element of successful supply chain management. Previous research on facilitators or determinants of interorganizational collaboration has typically focused on firm-level variables. However, a distinct difficulty with supply chain collaboration is that many of the enablers and barriers are related to people, and reside at the interpersonal level.

The goal of this study is to provide a deeper understanding of the extent to which key contact employees are able to facilitate collaborative practices between buyers and suppliers. A dual level of analysis is employed, comparing the effects of interpersonal relationship quality between key contact employees and interorganizational relationship quality. Relationship quality is measured as a second-order construct consisting of trust, relationship commitment, and relationship satisfaction. Four collaborative practices are considered: information sharing, joint problem solving, joint performance measurement, and flexibility.

Data were collected from purchasing managers at 169 firms using a cross-sectional survey. Firms were sampled across a wide range of industrial sectors and consisted primarily of manufacturers. The results show that even after taking interorganizational relationship quality into account, the level of interpersonal relationship quality with key contact employees at the supplier has a significant impact on the level of collaboration at the buying firm. Higher interpersonal relationship quality has a direct, positive influence on information sharing and an indirect, positive influence on joint problem solving, joint performance measurement, and flexibility.

Overall, the empirical results confirm that interorganizational and interpersonal relationship quality can be differentiated, and that both types of ties play an important role in shaping collaborative practices between firms.

Committee:

Martha Cooper, PhD (Advisor); Keely Croxton, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Knemeyer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Marketing; Organizational Behavior; Personal Relationships

Keywords:

supply chain collaboration; buyer-supplier relationships; key contact employees; interpersonal relationships; interorganizational relationships; purchasing

Newberry, Melissa AnnExamining Conceptual Understandings in the Building and Maintaining of Student- Teacher Relationships by way of Productive Reflection Practices
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, ED Policy and Leadership

Research on student-teacher relationships over the last several decades has focused on the impact that such relationships have for the student. From such research we know that the relationship between a teacher and the student does promote cognitive and social development as well as academic achievement. Research has also demonstrated that classroom teachers prefer certain personality and character traits. It is plausible that these preferences contribute to differential treatment of students. Acknowledging that differential behaviors do occur, this study intends to explore the question of why they occur and to investigate what influence, if any, productive reflection might have on those behaviors.

The purpose of this research was to examine changes in relationships between a teacher and the individual students in her class over the course of one school year. Both teacher and researcher systematically examined concepts of closeness between teacher and student through productive reflection techniques, including the creation of diagrams to physically represent the tacit closeness the teacher perceived. In addition, observations of classroom interactions, personal reflections written by the teacher, and interviews consisting of guided reflection were compared and contrasted to discover differences between the perceptions held by the teacher and what is displayed in the classroom. The findings suggest that the teacher was influenced by the interactions with her students and that those interactions in turn may indicate significant implications for how, why and with whom she created and maintained relationships, as well as the type of relationships established. Results from this study expand on recent findings regarding the factors that influence a teacher’s choice for interaction with specific students by illuminating those social concepts and processes that persuade teachers as they make relationship choices. This study concludes that classroom relationships are much more fluid than previously thought and highlights the potential effectiveness of using productive reflection techniques to promote change.

Committee:

Anita Woolfolk Hoy, PhD (Advisor); Phil Smith, PhD (Committee Member); Heather A. Davis, PhD (Committee Member); Barbara Seidl, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Psychology; Personal Relationships; Teacher Education

Keywords:

Student- teacher relationships; productive reflection; emotional labor; emotional work; teacher- student relationships; classroom relationships; differential behavior; ethical care

Van Epp , Morgan CA Qualitative Examination of the Relationship Attachment Model (RAM) with Married Individuals
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2013, Counseling Psychology
The current study explored the theoretical underpinnings of the Relationship Attachment Model, an alternative model to understanding closeness in relationships, using deductive qualitative analysis (DQA; Gilgun, 2010). Qualitative data from married couples was used to explore whether the five bonding dynamics (i.e. know, trust, rely, commit, and sex), proposed by the RAM, existed in their marital relationships. Additionally, this study examined whether the RAM could explain fluctuations in closeness and distance in the couple’s marriage and how married couples described and talked about love in their relationship. The findings of this research indicated that the five bonding dynamics put forth by the RAM did exist in marital relationships of these couples and that the complicated dynamics that occur in marital relationships could be captured on the RAM. This research supported findings from past research on close relationships and added to the literature by proposing another model to understanding and conceptualizing close relationship dynamics. The findings of this study are discussed in terms of implications for therapists who work with couples and relationship researchers.

Committee:

John Quener, Dr. (Advisor); Susan Hardin, Dr. (Committee Member); David Tokar, Dr. (Committee Member); Ingrid Weigold, Dr. (Committee Member); Francis Broadway, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Counseling Education; Counseling Psychology; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Social Research

Keywords:

attachment; interpersonal relationships; marriage; close relationships; intimacy; closeness; love; marital relationships; relationship theory; attachment theory

Liggett, Danielle A.Assortative mating in young adult romantic relationships
BA, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Psychology
Research on mate selection has often shown that individuals choose romantic partners based on similarity in characteristics, behaviors and traits. The current research in the field of romantic attraction has primarily focused on married, adult populations to determine how individuals select a romantic partner. In this study, a young adult sample in dating relationships was examined to determine whether assortative mating exists for this population, as it seems to in married couples. The sample included 82 Kent State University students and their romantic partners recruited through the Psychology Subject Pool (N=164). Female participants’ average age was 19.87 years (SD= 1.39) and male participants’ average age was 20.59 years (SD= 1.64). The average length of time participants were in their current romantic relationship was 1.59 years (SD= 1.60). The Mini IPIP was used to determine personality similarity and the Adult Self Report measure was used to determine similarity in problem behavior and substance use. Partners were not similar in personality, but were similar in problem behavior and substance use. Partner dissimilarity in substance use was related to length of relationship. Interestingly, partner dissimilarity in agreeableness was associated with a longer relationship. Partner dissimilarity had no effect on relationship dissolution.

Committee:

Manfred van Dulmen, PhD (Advisor); William Kalkhoff, PhD (Committee Member); Susan Roxburgh, PhD (Committee Member); Robin Joynes, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Personal Relationships; Personality; Personality Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

assortative mating; romantic relationships; dating relationships; young adult relationships; attraction

Cooper, Lindsey MDemographic Asymmetries and Intimate Partner Violence: The Mediating Influence of Power Dynamics, Control Attempts, and Verbal Conflict
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Sociology
The present study examined whether demographic asymmetries among young adult men and women were associated with intimate partner violence. Scholars have examined the association between relationship dynamics, particularly asymmetries, and intimate partner violence; yet this work largely neglected the reciprocity of relationship violence and focused primarily on samples of married and cohabiting adults. Further, little is known about the influence of asymmetries on partner violence during young adulthood, a period of the life course during which individuals are at a greater risk for intimate partner violence. Finally, little is known about the mechanisms through which these associations operate. Using data from the fifth interview of the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n=819), the present study examined the influence of demographic asymmetries in education, employment, income, race, and age on young adults’ self-reported frequency of intimate partner violence. Additionally, this research examined whether lower power, control attempts, and verbal conflict mediated the associations between demographic asymmetries and partner violence. Using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, net of control variables, I found that demographic asymmetries in employment and race were associated with intimate partner violence. Moreover, control attempts and verbal conflict mediated the associations between demographic asymmetries in employment and race and partner violence whereas lower power did not.

Committee:

Monica Longmore, Dr. (Advisor); Peggy Giordano, Dr. (Committee Member); Wendy Manning, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Intimate partner violence, Young Adult Romantic Relationships, Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study

Séne, Kristina N.The Politics of Female Adolescent Sexuality: Perceptions, Conceptualizations and Experiences of Transactional Teacher-Student Sexual Relationships in Northern Beninois Secondary Schools
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2010, International Development Studies (International Studies)
Legally, education in Benin is open and equally available to all children. Yet, the retention rate of girls transitioning from primary to secondary school lags drastically behind that of boys. Much research has identified economic, socio-cultural and environmental barriers girls face in accessing education. However, the literature is insufficient on factors that endanger girl students once they enter the classroom. The most pervasive and potentially harmful of these obstacles is a school environment plagued by sexual interactions between teachers and students. This study contributes ethnographic work which provides space for participants’ voice and agency, and examines community-based understandings of teacher-student sexual relationships in a secondary school in northwestern Benin. The findings of this study suggest that poverty, unequal power relationships, and low levels of policy awareness influence transactional teacher-student sexual relationships. A deeper exploration of adolescent female sexuality is essential in fully understanding these relationships.

Committee:

Stephen Howard, PhD (Committee Chair); Diane Ciekawy, PhD (Committee Member); John Hitchcock, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Gender; International Relations; Secondary Education; Womens Studies

Keywords:

sexual harassment; Benin; girls' education; West Africa; transactional, sexual relationships; secondary schools; teacher-student sexual relationships

Morrison, Aubrey D.Dating and Relationship Experiences of Gay and Lesbian College Students
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Wright State University, 2013, School of Professional Psychology
In response to an identified need in the psychological literature for current research on topics related to same-sex dating and relationships, this Professional Dissertation was developed to gain a better understanding of contemporary gay and lesbian dating and intimate relationships within the college/university student population. A total of 159 self-identified gay and lesbian college/university students in the United States and Canada completed an online survey about their dating and relationship experiences. The survey was developed by the researcher based on a review of the literature and was designed to collect broad-based quantitative and qualitative data on the topic of study. Findings were compared to the literature on dating and relationships in the larger gay and lesbian population to identify points of consistency and inconsistency. Areas of strength and resiliency as well as challenges faced by gay and lesbian college/university students in this area of their lives are highlighted. Implications of the results and recommendations for helping professionals working with gay and lesbian college/ university students are discussed. Additionally, limitations of the current study are addressed and proposed directions for future research are identified.

Committee:

Heather Wilder, Psy.D. (Committee Chair); Julie Williams, Psy.D. (Committee Member); Daniela Burnworth, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Gender; Multicultural Education; Personal Relationships; Psychology; Psychotherapy; School Counseling; Social Research; Social Work; Sociology; Therapy

Keywords:

gay; lesbian; college students; dating; relationships; same-sex relationships

Anderegg, CourtneyThe Role of Interpersonal Experiences and Media Use on Perceptions of Romantic Relationship Stages: Cognitive Representations of Dating, Cohabitation, and Marriage Cultural Models
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Communication
Recent shifts in the perceptions of and expectations for dating, cohabitation, and marriage call for an evaluation of the characteristics associated with how these relationships function. The current research offers insight regarding the common cognitive structures that members of a social group use in defining these romantic relationship stages. Through the delineation and testing of a cultural model, this research expands the literature regarding knowledge structures of romantic relationships and explores the influence of interpersonal and mediated representations. Study 1 identifies the characteristics that individuals associate with typical dating relationships, cohabiting relationships, and marriages from the perspective of interpersonal and mediated representations. Characteristics were collected via a cognitive thought-listing task and then examined by a similar population in a member checking rating task. A qualitative analysis of the characteristics put forth by participants (n = 125) in the cognitive thought-listing task revealed common categories of characteristics for each stage. Additionally, a quantitative analysis revealed that participants listed more characteristics for each stage within the interpersonal condition when compared to the mediated condition; cohabitation was found to have the fewest characteristics listed by participants in both conditions. Once the categories of characteristics were established, participants (n = 24) in the member checking portion of this study rated each characteristic in terms of the typicality to the relationship stage. The results of a hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a two-cluster structure for each stage that identified characteristics rated as highly typical. The characteristics in the cluster with higher typicality ratings were retained to test for cultural model formation, consensus, and consonance. Study 2 identifies and evaluates the structure of interpersonal and mediated cultural models of dating, cohabitation, and marriage as well as examines the impact of media use on agreement with the model characteristics. In the first part of the study, participants (n = 26) were asked to complete a card sorting task to determine the similarity of model characteristics. Multidimensional scaling was used to determine the model structure for each relationship stage within the two conditions; a three-dimensional model structure was found for all six models. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to aid in examining how the characteristics were organized within this multidimensional space. Once the model structure was identified, participants (n = 398) were asked to complete an attribute rating task to identify cultural consensus on the model dimensions. Participants assessed the characteristics of each model on five attributes: good, important, satisfying, realistic, and desirable. Results showed significant fit for all attributes, except for the realistic attribute within mediated dating; however, attribute ratings were highly correlated and only explained a low to moderate degree of the model variance. Therefore, the attribute of best fit for each model was chosen for analysis of participant consonance (i.e., agreement) with the model. Consonance was examined by analyzing each participant’s consensus rating in conjunction with self-reported data regarding general and romantically-themed media use. Results showed that general and romantically-themed media use did not predict agreement with the cultural model for any romantic relationship stage.

Committee:

Jesse Fox (Advisor); David Ewoldsen (Committee Member); Roselyn Lee-Won (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

cultural models; interpersonal relationships; media portrayals; cultivation; romantic relationships; dating; cohabitation; marriage; qualitative; quantitative

Kaplar, Mary ElizabethLying Happily Ever After: Altruistic White Lies, Positive Illusions, and Relationship Satisfaction
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Psychology
Although some lies can damage relationships, we hypothesized that altruistic white lies (i.e., lies of minimal importance told to protect another) may benefit romantic relationships by buffering individuals against the potentially damaging effects of hurtful, albeit relatively minor, information. Positive relationship illusions (e.g., believing your relationship is more immune than others’ relationships to conflict and divorce) have been shown to be positively associated with relationship satisfaction. We hypothesized that altruistic white lies may help create positive illusions within relationships. In order to evaluate the potential links between altruistic white lies, positive relationship illusions, and relationship satisfaction, we created and validated a new scale called the Lying In Amorous Relationships Scale (LIARS). This scale assesses individual differences in attitudes toward telling altruistically motivated white lies to a romantic relationship partner. In a series of three studies we assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the LIARS, as well as whether favorable attitudes toward altruistic white lies are positively correlated with positive illusions and relationship satisfaction. The results of Study 1 indicated that the LIARS is a reliable, unidimensional scale that is best conceptualized as a single factor. In Study 2 the LIARS demonstrated good discriminant validity with measures of academic achievement and locus of control, as well as good predictive validity with behavioral intentions to tell one’s partner an altruistic white lie in response to a variety of scenarios. As predicted, LIARS scores also differed as a function of participants’ marital status and affiliation with the university. Contrary to predictions, the LIARS scores of men and women did not differ. Additionally, the LIARS did not demonstrate convergent validity with measures of empathic concern and perspective taking. Study 3 indicated that, contrary to our predictions, LIARS scores were negatively, rather than positively, correlated with positive relationship illusions (r = -.22) and relationship satisfaction (r = -.36). Thus, more positive attitudes toward telling altruistic white lies to a relationship partner were associated with fewer positive illusions and less relationship satisfaction. Stated another way, a preference for truth-telling (versus telling white lies) was associated with more positive illusions and greater relationship satisfaction. Overall, we conclude that the LIARS is a reliable measure of individual differences in attitudes toward telling one’s partner altruistically motivated white lies that demonstrates good discriminant and predictive validity. We also conclude that a preference for telling one’s partner the harsh truth (as opposed to telling altruistic white lies) is associated with greater positive illusions and relationship satisfaction, particularly for younger individuals, presumably with less relationship experience.

Committee:

Anne Gordon (Advisor)

Keywords:

romantic relationships; relationships; scale; scale creation; scale validation; scale reliability; validity; reliability; positive illusions; illusions; relationship satisfaction; satisfaction; dating; marriage; altruism; altruistic; lying; lies

Petrowski, Catherine ElizabethFamilial Caregiving, Role Reversal, and Social Ties: Experiences of Young Women with Mothers with Mental Illness
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Psychology/Clinical
Research on the experiences of adult children of mothers living with mental illness has primarily focused on negative outcomes, including poor academic, social, behavioral, and mental health outcomes. Few studies exist that examine the ways in which these adult children navigate their familial and social relationships and how they understand their experiences. The present qualitative study examined first-person accounts of 10 young women attending college (ages 18-22) who were raised by mother living with mental illness (depression, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia). Participants completed individual semi-structured interviews in which they described their relationships with their mother, their father, siblings, and friends, feelings of obligation and parentification in their family, and positive experiences that resulted from their mother’s mental illness. Qualitative content analysis indicated differences in the perceived quality of adult daughters’ relationships with their mothers. Young women who described the quality of their mother–daughter relationship in positive terms also described aspects of felt obligation, caregiving, and support seeking with family and friends differently than young women who described the quality of their mother–daughter relationship in more negative terms. Regardless of differences in their perceptions of maternal relationship quality, however, all participants described positive experiences associated with having a mother with mental illness. Implications of study findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

Committee:

Catherine Stein, Ph.D. (Advisor); Dryw Dworsky, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Dale Klopfer, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology

Keywords:

mother-child relationship; emerging adults; serious mental illness; caregiving; parentification; sibling relationships; peer relationships

Sirrine, Nicole KCHILDREN'S SOCIAL GOALS AND RETALIATION BELIEFS: A COMPARISON OF MULTIPLE RELATIONSHIP CONTEXTS
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Psychology/Clinical
Social information-processing models provide theoretical support for an association between social cognitive processes and aggressive behavior (Crick and Dodge, 1994; Huesmann, 1998). However, little empirical research has investigated how two social cognitive factors, social goals and beliefs about the acceptability of aggressive behavior, are related to one another and how they combine to influence child behavior. The present study examined the relationship among children’s social goals, retaliation beliefs, and behavior within and across best friend, sibling, and peer relationship contexts. Elementary and middle school children’s desire to pursue aggressive and prosocial goals and their approval of verbal, physical, and relational acts of retaliatory aggression were assessed across relationship context, type of aggression, age, and gender. In addition, path models were constructed to determine whether the relationship between children’s social goals and aggressive behavior is direct or mediated by children’s retaliation beliefs within multiple relationship contexts. The findings indicated that the relationship between social goals and aggressive behavior in relationships with best friends and peers operates differently than in relationships with siblings. Further, children’s social goal endorsements and beliefs regarding the appropriateness of aggressive behavior varied by age, type of aggression, and relationship context.

Committee:

Dara Musher-Eizenman (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Developmental

Keywords:

social goals; retaliation beliefs; social information processing; behavior; peer relationships; sibling relationships

Warfel, Regina M.Effects of Priming Family versus Friend Support and Non-support on Subsequent Cardiovascular Reactivity to Acute Psychological Stress
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2009, Experimental Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
To further understand the relationship between cognitive aspects of close relationships and health, the present study examined the effects of writing about supportive or non-supportive family and friends on blood pressure and heart rate responses to stress. In a 2 Relationship Quality x 2 Relationship Type mixed design study, 88 participants were randomly assigned to either a supportive or non-supportive priming condition (between groups) and were asked to write about friend and family relationships (within groups) in two separate sessions. After a 10 minute baseline, participants engaged in writing and thinking about a specific relationship for 4 minutes, prior to engaging a preparation and interview-style speech task. Unexpectedly, results revealed null effects of relationship quality as well as null interaction effects; however, a main effect of relationship type emerged, such that writing about family relationships significantly attenuated DBP responses to the preparation and speech tasks, relative to writing about friends. These findings suggest that writing about more familiar relationships may aid in one‚s ability to cope with subsequent stress, relative to writing about less familiar relationships.

Committee:

Christopher R. France, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Experiments; Health; Personal Relationships; Physiological Psychology; Psychology; Social Psychology; Social Research

Keywords:

relationships; priming; blood pressure; heart rate; reactivity; cognitive; friends; family; affect, physiological; cardiovascular; social relationships; CVR; CV; BP; HR; SBP; DBP

Brothers, Denise"Doing" LAT: Redoing Gender and Family in Living Apart Together Relationships in Later Life
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2015, Population and Social Gerontology
Current research on intimate relationships of older adults in the U.S. is predominantly focused on marriage. Furthermore, gender relations in later life relationships have historically been studied within long-term marital relationships, which show patterns of high gender conformance earlier in family life, especially with young children, and less so later in life. Demographic and socio-cultural changes are transforming the ways in which people partner across the life course, including later life. Women’s increasing education and workforce participation has helped alter family and household composition, giving rise to different partnership forms including cohabitation, divorce, remarriage, and living apart together (LAT), an intimate relationship in which the couple maintains separate residences. Very little is known about this type of relationship in the U.S. Using a life course framework I examine how gender is manifested in the formation and maintenance of LAT relationships in later life using social constructivism and the theory of gender as social structure. A grounded theory qualitative study with 13 women and 7 men age 59 to 89 reveals patterns of “doing” gender as well as “doing” family earlier in life. LAT relationships in later life appear to be an opportunity to “redo” family in an individualized way, with the men and women both valuing and maintaining the autonomy and freedom that comes in a life stage with lessening work and family responsibilities. Additionally, LAT allows the women in the study to continually “redo” gender by actively resisting doing gender in ways such as being submissive to men, catering to men’s needs and wants, and taking on caregiving duties. This study demonstrates how LAT meets the individualistic needs of both men and women in later life. It is also an intimate relationship that provides the opportunity to exercise agency to act outside of gender norms and expectations present in earlier life, especially for women.

Committee:

Jennifer Bulanda (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Aging; Families and Family Life; Gender; Gender Studies; Gerontology; Individual and Family Studies; Personal Relationships

Keywords:

romantic relationships; older adults; life course perspective; living apart together; gender as social structure; intimate relationships; family demography, families in later life

Yan, JiaTrajectories of Mother-Child and Father-Child Relationship across Middle Childhood and Associations with Child Adjustment
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2017, Human Ecology: Human Development and Family Science
To understand the roles of parent-child relationships in child adjustment, I examined the trajectories of father-child and mother-child relationship closeness and conflicts, as well as their associations with child depressive symptoms and optimism for boys and girls in middle childhood. Resident mothers and fathers from 685 families reported relationship closeness and conflicts with children across middle childhood at Grades 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6. In each family, one study child reported on his/her depressive symptoms and optimism at Grade 6. Parent-child relationship conflicts increased, whereas closeness decreased across middle childhood, regardless of parental or child gender. Mother-child relationships were characterized as closer but more conflictual than father-child relationships for both boys and girls. After controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), maternal and paternal depressive symptoms, and mother-rated externalizing behaviors and internalizing behaviors at Grade 1, the trajectories of father-child, but not mother-child, conflicts predicted child depressive symptoms at Grade 6, after accounting for the conflicts between child and the other parent. The trajectories of father-daughter closeness predicted girls’ but not boys’ depressive symptoms after controlling for mother-daughter closeness. The trajectories of both father-child and mother-child closeness predicted boys’ and girls’ optimism. The findings highlight the important roles of both father-child and mother-child relationships in child adjustment.

Committee:

Sarah Schoppe-Sullivan (Advisor); Xin Feng (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Families and Family Life

Keywords:

father-child relationships, mother-child relationships, parent-child closeness, parent-child conflict child depressive symptoms, child optimism, middle childhood

Funk, Amanda J.Covering Faces
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2009, English (Arts and Sciences)
This thesis is comprised of a collection of original short stories with an introduction that focuses on honesty and sincerity in writing as well as the minimalist storytelling process by connecting my work with that of my inspiration, Ann Beattie. The collection consists of a group of connected pieces, with five of the seven focusing on relationships, primarily sibling relationships, in the Midwest.

Committee:

Darrell Spencer, PhD (Committee Chair); Joan Connor, MFA (Committee Member); Janis Holm, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Literature

Keywords:

short stories; relationships; sibling relationships

Kantz, Kenneth EdgarAccepted: The Role of Organization-Public Relationships and their Correlations in Enrollment Management
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2009, Speech Communication
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role organization-public relationships play within the field of enrollment management. The study examined the differences in perceptions of student-university relationships between the institution in which the student enrolled and an institution in which the student did not enroll. Additionally, the study explored whether student-university relationships were associated with students’ future behavioral intentions. The results of this study indicated that students have a stronger perception of relational dimensions for the institution they choose to attend than the institution they chose to reject. The dimensions of a personal and community relationship were found to be positively correlated with students’ intention to persist in enrollment and graduate. Furthermore, relational dimensions (personal, community, and professional) showed to be positively correlated with students’ intention to remain connected in the future with their chosen institution. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Committee:

Marjorie Nadler, PhD (Advisor); Lawrence Nadler, PhD (Committee Member); Judith Weiner, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Higher Education

Keywords:

enrollment management; public relations; organization-public relationships; relational dimensions; admissions; higher education; student-university relationships; behavioral intentions; behavioral outcomes

Carroll, Jamie L.Children's Constructed Meanings of Sisterhood When an Older Sibling has Autism
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2013, Antioch New England: Clinical Psychology
Sibling relationships have been recognized as important in facilitating the acquisition of emotional and social understanding and even assisting in cognitive development (Sanders, 2004). Sibling relationships that include one child with a disability are especially significant and worthy of study, as typical siblings tend to take on more responsibility for their siblings' care across their lifespan (Cicirelli, 1995). In attempting to understand these sibling relationships in childhood, past researchers have largely relied on parent report and behavioral observations. In order to advance the field's understanding of sibling relationships when one child autism, this study asked children to voice their perspectives and share their experiences. More specifically, four school-aged girls who had an older brother with autism were asked to individually complete a kinetic family drawing and participate in a semi-structured interview. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was then utilized to investigate these girls' constructed meanings of sisterhood. Analysis resulted in the discovery of superordinate and emergent themes relevant to role enactments, the felt experience of these roles, and the significance of togetherness. Additional themes appearing particularly relevant to sistering a brother with autism were also discovered. These superordinate and emergent themes are described in detail and are then considered in terms of alignment and departure from the existent literature. Lastly, limitations of this study and implications for clinical work and future research are addressed.

Committee:

Martha Straus, PhD (Committee Chair); Barbara Belcher-Timme, PsyD (Committee Member); George Tremblay, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology

Keywords:

Autism; Childhood Sibling Relationships; Role Perception; Sibling Role Relationships; Sisterhood

Fredericks, Deborah A.The Leader's Experience of Relational Leadership: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Leadership as Friendship
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2009, Leadership and Change
There are many ways to lead others, all of which involve a relationship among parties.However, the heartbeat of leadership may be a leader's relational sensibility. This research explored the leader's experience of relational leadership and the extent to which the metaphor of leadership as friendship described its qualities. It also explored whether actual friendship between leaders and followers was possible with this form of leadership. The topic of relational leadership was approached through a hermeneutic phenomenological methodology to explore the lived experiences of six women leaders. Their experience of relational leadership and the degree to which the metaphor of leadership as friendship represented their experience was the vantage point for this study. Using an inverted pyramid structure, in-depth interviews were conducted in three rounds consisting of six, three, and two participants for a total of 11 interviews. This research augments the leadership literature by describing the leader's experience of relational leadership and the degree to which the metaphor of leadership as friendship captures its qualities. This research concluded that leaders can, and do, find ways to lead with friends, to lead with characteristics one finds in friendship, or both. It demonstrated that leaders can have actual friendships (with each other and with their followers or subordinates), provided boundaries are maintained. The electronic version of this dissertation is available in the open-access OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Laurien Alexandre, PhD (Committee Chair); Carolyn Kenny, PhD (Committee Member); Sherwin Davidson, PhD (Committee Member); Gerri Perrault, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Management; Organizational Behavior; Personal Relationships; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Relational Leadership; Friendship; Phenomenology; Relational Cultural Theory; Positive Work Relationships; Women Leaders; Leadership as Friendship; Nonprofit

Grace-Rowland, MiriamDimensions of Mentoring Relationships in the Workplace: A Holistic Perspective
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2008, Leadership and Change
This was an exploratory study to understand the lived experience of those involved in mentoring relationships within a formal mentoring program in a corporate context. The researcher looked for rich detail about the nature of the relationship from the perspective of the mentor and mentee. To achieve a holistic perspective, the experience of organizational managers was deliberately included in the research. Exploration of this triadic relationship of mentor, mentee, and organizational manager has been neglected in the empirical literature. An exploration of where meaning intersected and diverged among the triad relationship members gave depth to the dimensional frame. Findings suggested that the lack of a holistic approach to mentoring in the workplace may be creating counterproductive mentoring participant behaviors. Values misalignment may be creating cultural miscues that potentially misdirect mentoring program design and policies. Findings pointed to the need for increased integration of mentoring, leadership development, cultural transformation, and organizational learning initiatives in order to better serve the aims of the corporation and increase the capacity of the workforce. The qualitative paradigm was followed for this research. Grounded theory dimensional analysis was employed to discover the dimensions of mentoring important to participants. Open-ended interview techniques allowed the participants to express their experiences in their own words. A research team experienced in the tools and techniques of this research approach collaboratively analyzed the data. As theoretical propositions emerged they were explored via a theoretical sampling method. The basic social process of mentoring among the three members of the mentoring triad and other human and non-human actors was illustrated. Metaphorical and theoretical models were developed that illustrated the participants' perspectives on the interrelated and interdependent parts of the ancient human activity system we call mentoring. The electronic version of this dissertation is accessible at the Ohiolink ETD Center: http://ohiolink/edu/etd/

Committee:

Elizabeth Holloway, PhD (Committee Chair); Laurien Alexandre, PhD (Committee Member); Laurent Daloz, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Carroll, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Management; Organizational Behavior; Personal Relationships; Social Psychology

Keywords:

Mentoring Relationships; Systems Approach; Managers; Grounded Theory; Dimensional Analysis; Corporate Mentoring Programs; Learning; Workplace

Spade, Julie A.The Relationship Between Student Bullying Behaviors and Self-Esteem
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Leadership Studies
This dissertation explored the relationship between student bullying behaviors and the self-esteem of intermediate elementary school students in grades 3-5. While bullying behaviors of students have existed for centuries, research on the topic of bullying has only begun in the past couple of decades and more recently since the turn of the century due to increased school shootings and school-related incidents of violence. Very few studies have specifically examined the effects of bullying upon student self-esteem. At a small rural elementary school in Northwest Ohio, 197 intermediate students (ages 8-13) where surveyed using the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (BVQ) consisting of 39 items that measured the frequency and degree of bullying behaviors for both the victim and the bully (Olweus, 2004). The results of this survey revealed that nearly half of all students had not been bullied in the past couple of months; however, 15% had been bullied several times a week, though 8.2% claim that bullying has gone on for several years. Students were bullied most frequently by being called names, made fun of or teased in a hurtful way. Victims were typically bullied by one boy in their class, but it was also reported that both boys and girls bully others. Bullying behaviors are also more likely to occur in unstructured and unsupervised areas. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Survey (SES) was also administered to measure the levels of student self-esteem. This survey consisted of 10 items that revealed student self-worth, attitude, and satisfaction with oneself. Students overall had a positive self-esteem. However, some students did feel useless at times and wish they could have more respect for themselves. When examining the relationship between bullying behaviors and self-esteem, a significantly negative mutual relationship was found to exist between the bullying behaviors of victims and bullies and their self-esteem. A significant difference was also found between the bullying behaviors of victims in grade 3 and grade 4. Students in grade 5 exhibited significantly lower levels of self-esteem as the bully than students in grades 3 and 4. Students in grade 4 reportedly had the highest levels of self-esteem and the lowest levels of both victim and bully experiences. As bullying behaviors increased, levels of self-esteem decreased. Lower levels of self-esteem also increased bullying behaviors. In addition, as self-esteem increased, bullying behaviors decreased for both the victim and the bully. It is recommended that educational leaders work to create a sense of urgency within their schools that addresses bullying behaviors in order to develop a positive, caring, safe and secure educational environment where learning thrives and respect for others abounds. Local school board policies regarding bullying should be current, relevant, and clearly communicated to the school community. While there are numerous programs that can be implemented to address bullying behaviors, none are more comparable than the building-up of caring relationships between parents and their children and staff and their students that foster care and respect for others. These are the relationships that bind and which help children to find their own special interests, encouraging them to build up their individual self-esteem. It is also recommended that additional studies be conducted on the long-term effects of bullying and self-esteem as well as the more current issues of cyber bullying, examining the profiles of victims who become passive/aggressive cyber bullies and who have the potential to become violent and cause harm to others in the immediate or near future.

Committee:

Patrick Pauken (Advisor)

Keywords:

bully; bullying; self-esteem; Olweus; Rosenberg; school violence; relationships; care; elementary school; correlation; victim; leadership; principal

Gessell-Frye, Donna AnnContesting guardianship, challenging authority: The guardian and ward relationships in Gothic and domestic fiction, 1789-1793
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1995, English

Arguing for a rereading of women’s novels previously thought contentless but now demonstrably participating in contemporary debates, I investigate the socio-cultural implications of the guardian and ward relationship in texts published in England between 1789 and 1793. In The Romance of the Forest (1791), A Simple Story (1791), and The Old Manor House (1793), Anne Radcliffe, Elizabeth Inchbald, and Charlotte Smith use the legal relationship of guardianship to represent highly sensitive topics, such as abuses of asymmetrical power relationships and practices of patriarchal authority. I argue their writing examines the conflict between the private individual and public forms of power in ways similar to Richard Price’s A Discourse on the Love of Our Country (1789), Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), Thomas Paine’s The Rights of Man (1792), and Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). While these authors openly discuss tyranny, Radcliffe, Inchbald, and Smith indirectly use images of guardianship to examine these same issues of the uses and abuses of power.

Chapter One explores the historical context of the legal relationship of guardianship. Because of its ambiguous social status – incorporating the relationships of the private family while at the same time being mediated by public courts – guardianship allows writers to address issues concerning public institutions of power as well as those concerning private family relationships. Chapters Two through Four each explores a novel and the ways in which each author uses representations of guardianship to champion issues of self-government. Each author espouses a movement from externalized, public power to internalized, private authority. Their discussions of guardianship press the government to perform its duties as both curator and tutor, to act as a just guardian. Chapter Five concludes the discussion, commenting on the inability of law to legislate absolute authority for any segment of society. By delegitimatizing guardianship, Radcliffe, Inchbald, and Smith each contest authority, forcing articulation on issues previously unchallenged.

Committee:

William Siebenschuh (Advisor)

Subjects:

Literature, English

Keywords:

Contesting guardianship; challenging authority; guardian; ward relationships; Gothic; domestic fiction; 1789-1793

Fishwick, Nancy JeanHealth care encounters of women in abusive relationships: A process of protecting personal integrity
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1993, Nursing
The purpose of this investigation was three-fold: (a) to explore the perceptions of women in abusive relationships when health care services are used, (b) to identify factors that influence women's disclosure or concealment of abuse in a health care encounter, and (c) to develop a conceptual understanding of the basic process and overall goal of women's behaviors and interactions as they live in an abusive relationship and interact in health care encounters, grounded in the women's perspective. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 women who identified themselves as being involved in an abusive adult intimate relationship currently or in the past. Data were analyzed using grounded theory's constant comparative method. The trustworthiness of the research process and credibility of the resulting conceptualization was ensured in several ways, including returning to participants for critique of the interpretation of data. A core process was identified, termed "protecting personal integrity," that conceptually explained women's behaviors as they lived in an abusive relationship and interacted in health care encounters. Protecting personal integrity encompassed women's immediate and long-term goals of maintaining emotional security, physical safety, and a living situation th at fostered positive development for herself and/or any children involved. Participants made a complicated series of decisions before, during, and after any health care encounter. Potential benefits, risks, contingencies, and strategic management of information regarding the abuse were considered prior to each health care visit. During the health care encounter, the structural and interactional environment was assessed and monitored to protect personal integrity as perceived at that point in time. The outcomes of the health care encounter were evaluated according to criteria congruent with the woman's perspective at that time; the evaluation influenced future decisions to seek help from, or to avoid, health care providers in the future.

Committee:

Claire Andrews (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Behavioral

Keywords:

Health care; women; abusive relationships; protecting; personal integrity

Nash, Sue PetrinaRelationship Inequity and Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adult Daters
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Sociology
Intimate dyadic relationships become increasingly important as adolescents transition into young adulthood. Yet, intimate relationships often involve negative experiences. In this study I examine whether negative relationship dynamics influence depressive symptoms, net of other known correlates of depression. Data from the fourth wave of the Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study (TARS), when respondents are aged 18-24, are used for this investigation. Using ordinary least squares regression models, among current daters (N=422) I first examine the influence of communication awkwardness, conflict, jealousy, sexual non-exclusivity, control, influence and unfavorable power as predictors of depressive symptoms. Next I test whether relationship dynamics are predictive of depressive symptoms, and whether predictors differ for female versus male respondents. I find that communication awkwardness, conflict, sexual non-exclusivity, control and influence are significant predictors of depressive symptoms. However, gender interactions are not significant suggesting that the same correlates are associated with depressive symptoms for both men and women.

Committee:

Monica A. Longmore, PhD (Committee Chair); Peggy C. Giordano, PhD (Committee Member); Wendy D. Manning, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Intimate Relationships; depressive symptoms; young adult daters

Shields, Alison B.WHAT DID YOU DO TO MY BRAND? THE MODERATING EFFECT OF BRAND NOSTALGIA ON CONSUMER RESPONSES TO CHANGED BRANDS
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College of Business Administration / Department of Marketing
Marketers often make changes to brands to make the brand seem current or exciting. Some updates are successful while others are spectacular failures. This dissertation establishes a connection between consumer acceptance or rejection of updated brands and the consumer’s reported brand nostalgia. In this dissertation, I refine the current marketing definitions of nostalgia to develop a more specific construct of brand nostalgia, develop a scale to measure the construct of brand nostalgia, examine the differences between schemas for nostalgic brands and non-nostalgic brands, and show that consumers’ affective and attitudinal responses to changes in a brand are moderated by brand nostalgia. Nostalgia has been defined as “a positively toned evocation of a lived past” (Davis 1979), and “a fondness for possessions and activities associated with days of yore” (Holbrook 1993). Consumers have been observed to engage in nostalgic behaviors, from re-watching favorite old movies (Holbrook, 1993) to reminiscing about favorite cars from their youth (Brown, Kozinets and Sherry 2003) to consuming specific foods as a way to reconnect with the past (Loveland, Smeesters and Mandel, 2010). Consumers have also reported nostalgic feelings for particular brands or items (Holbrook and Schindler 2003). When individuals recall nostalgic memories, they recall affect and brand information stored in their schema for the target brand (Collins and Loftus 1975). Nostalgia is “not a true recreation of the past but rather a combination of many different memories, all integrated together and in the process, all negative emotions filtered out” (Hirsch 1992). Thus, the individual’s memory trace is biased, leading the individual to recall the brand as being better than it actually was. Further, when an individual forms a relationship with a brand, the individual incorporates affective and attitudinal information into the schema, leading to a more complex, more robust schema (Fournier 1998; Smit, Bronner and Tolboom 2006). Once the individual experiences the updated brand, he compares the new experience to his biased memory and attempts to assimilate the new stimuli into his or her existing schema. The individual’s ability to assimilate the new experience into their schema built on the biased memory will depend on the degree of change to the brand as well as the individual’s level of nostalgia towards the brand. When a highly nostalgic individual processes a changed brand, his more complex and affect-based schema will lead to a smaller latitude of acceptance for the change (Hart and Diehl 1993). If the change falls outside the latitude of acceptance, the individual will reject the updated brand (Atkins, Deaux & Bieri 1967). Conversely, less nostalgic individuals are likely to have less complex, less affect-laden, less positively biased memories of the brand, making them more likely to assimilate the change (Meyers-Levy and Sternthal 1993; Martin 1986; Martin, Seta and Crelia 1990). This dissertation combines literature from marketing, psychology and sociology to identify the ways in which the cognitive structures nostalgic individuals access when exposed to a brand towards which they are nostalgic differ from the cognitive structures non-nostalgic individuals access. This dissertation further provides a framework for both practitioners and academics to better predict consumer responses to changes in brands with nostalgic cache.

Committee:

Jennifer Wiggins Johnson (Committee Chair); Robert D. Jewell (Committee Member); Katherine A. Rawson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Marketing

Keywords:

Brand Nostalgia; Consumer/Brand Relationships; Changed Brands;

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