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Sabo, Carl WilliamThe impact of state-federal agency structure on service delivery and outcomes for individuals with visual impairments
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Physical Activity and Educational Services
The purpose of this study was to examine service delivery and outcomes for individuals with visual impairments. The study sought to examine whether differences existed in service delivery and outcomes based on agency structure within the state-federal vocational rehabilitation system. Within the state-federal vocational rehabilitation system there are two major agency structures that serve as service delivery vehicles for persons with visual impairments. There is a combined agency structure, providing vocational rehabilitation services to individuals of all disability types, including those with visual impairments. The other major service delivery system is the separate/blind agency structure. This system provides vocational rehabilitation services to individuals who have visual impairments. This ex-post facto study utilized national data from the state-federal vocational rehabilitation system in federal fiscal year 2002. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was selected for evaluating the relationship between agency type and variables such as weekly earnings, hours worked, number of types of services, case expenditures, and number of services. Furthermore, chi-square analysis was utilized to study any statistical differences in the type of services that individuals with visual impairments received from the agency structures providing vocational rehabilitation services to that population. The MANOVA and chi-square results of the study showed that statistical differences existed between the agency structures in vocational rehabilitation outcomes and service delivery for individuals with visual impairments. MANOVA analysis found that consumers of combined agencies had higher means on all variables studied. Of note was that consumers of combined agencies had higher weekly earnings, $365.54 vs. $354.73, and more hours worked per week, 34.09 vs. 31.93. Ths chi-square analysis found statistical significance in virtually every type of service category with consumers of combined agencies receiving disproportionately more type of services than individuals with visual impairments working with separate agencies. There is a dearth of empirical data in this area. This study's aim is to add meaningful information to the body of research on this topic.

Committee:

Michael Klein (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Guidance and Counseling

Keywords:

state-federal vocational rehabilitation; state-federal agency structure; visual impairments; disability agencies; vocational rehabilitation; blind vocational rehabilitation; state vocational rehabilitation; rehabilitation services

Ziv, RonenMoving Beyond the RNR and GLM Models: Building a New Vision for Offender Rehabilitation
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2016, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Criminal Justice
In the aftermath of the attack of rehabilitation and embrace of Martinson’s (1974) “nothing works doctrine,” scholars have made a concerted effort to create an evidence-based corrections and to show “what works” to change offenders (see, e.g., MacKenzie, 2006). Perhaps the most important contribution to this effort to build an effective theory and practice of intervention has been made by a group of Canadian psychologists, most notably Donald Andrews, James Bonta, and Paul Gendreau. They have developed a treatment paradigm—called the Risk-Need-Responsivity Model—that has become the dominant theory of correctional treatment. This approach is now widely known by its acronym—the “RNR model” (Andrews & Bonta, 2010a). Although less developed and implemented, the RNR model has been challenged by a perspective developed by Tony Ward, Shadd Maruna, and others, called the “Good Lives Model”—known by its acronym as the “GLM.” Based in part on desistance research and positive psychology, this model proposes to rehabilitate offenders by emphasizing building on the strengths offenders possess (Ward & Maruna, 2007). In essence, these scholars see the RNR model as more of a deficit model—fixing criminogenic needs as opposed to identifying what the offenders value most in life and using these positive factors to pull them out of crime. Over the past decade, a spirited debate has arisen between advocates of the RNR model and the GLM. This dissertation is an effort to present the details of each model as a way of probing the extent to which they are incompatible or compatible approaches to offender treatment. The ultimate purpose of this dissertation is to assess whether the RNR and GLM approaches can be integrated to build a new and hopefully more effective vision for offender treatment. Toward this end, Chapter 1 sets a context for understanding the rise of the rehabilitative ideal, its decline, and then—in response to the attack on treatment—its rise through the evidence-based movement within corrections. Chapter 2 then discusses in detail the evolution and content of the RNR model, including its underlying theory, core principles, and the technology of treatment used to translate the ideas into practice. Accordingly, Chapter 3 introduces the GLM as the second systematic model of intervention. This includes the GLM’s underlying theory, the correctional direction it suggests, and the evidence that support its assumptions and practice. Chapter 4 then conveys the nature of the debate between the GLM and RNR model and shows potential points of agreement. The conclusions from Chapter 4 lead Chapter 5 to suggest two possible futures of offender rehabilitation. One future views the GLM and RNR model as incompatible and thus as offering two independent, rival treatment paradigms. The second future for offender rehabilitation envisions the possible integration of the GLM and the RNR model. As a concrete example, this closing chapter proposes a defensible integrated model of offender rehabilitation—the Risk-Need-Responsivity-Motivation model (RNRM model).

Committee:

Francis Cullen, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Cheryl Lero Jonson, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Paula Smith, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Patricia Vanvoorhis, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Criminology

Keywords:

Corrections;Offender rehabilitation;RNR model;Good Lives Model;Correctional rehabilitation

Pitale, Jaswandi TusharDevelopment of an Interactive Wearable sensor to Promote Motor Learning in Children having Cerebral Palsy
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Mechanical Engineering
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a developmental disorder of movement and posture that occurs due to damage to the developing nervous system. The current standard of care for gait treatments includes stretching, night splinting, serial casting, physical therapy, medication, botulinum toxin injections and orthopedic surgeries. In some cases therapists may visit homes of patients to prescribe exercises but only for few hours a week. The equipment used for therapy is large and stationary requiring the patients to visit clinics. Motor learning therapies require repetitive voluntary movements and it may be difficult to achieve this during the limited outpatient hours available. Wearable sensors that trigger interactive feedback can be easily portable and used at home enabling repetitive movements as per the patients’ schedule. They reduce personnel and equipment demand and require minimum clinical supervision. Auditory feedback has been helpful in gait retraining in past studies. A portable, musical device could have therapeutic effect by promoting gait retraining. Here, we describe a prototype of a heel-strike real-time feedback system that has been developed as part of the dissertation. It records the number of heel strikes during gait and also promotes them through real time auditory feedback. The prototype was tested with healthy children and children having CP. The accuracy in detecting heel strikes in case of healthy children was 97.8% (S.D. = 5.541) and when tested with children having CP it was 96.78% (S.D. = 5.243). The device is lightweight and does not affect the maximum force with which neurologically impaired children strike their feet during walking. The heel strike timing detected by the device was compared to the time at which heel strike was detected by a force plate. Based on statistical analysis, the difference between heel strike detected by a force plate and the heel-strike detected by the device was on an average 14 ms. In some trials, there was minimal delay showed by the device compared to a force plate, in detecting a heel strike. Children found the sound feedback provided by the device to be appealing. On an average it took the subjects 1.455 more iteration (95% CI of 0.503 to 2.406) to learn a movement pattern without sound than when the sound is turned on. Sound feedback thus helped them to learn new movement patterns in lesser time. With auditory feedback, the performance accuracy was higher by 21.599 percentage points on an average (95% CI of 12.319 to 30.878). The functional prototype was tested with young children having CP and it could detect heel strikes in children who occasionally walked on their toes and pronated. It could be extended to use with children having walking disorders due to other neurological disorders such as autism, developmental delays, and stroke. These studies inform research and development of a future product that uses interactive sound to motive motor learning gains, might be used in the home environment, and might become a commercial product.

Committee:

John Bolte, PhD (Advisor); Necip Berme, PhD (Committee Member); Manoj Srinivasan, PhD (Committee Member); Blaine Lilly, PhD (Committee Member); Lise Worthen-Chaudhari, MFA, MS, CCRC (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomechanics; Dance; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Neurosciences; Rehabilitation; Therapy

Keywords:

wearable sensor; auditory feedback; neurorehabilitation; musical device; gait retraining; cerebral palsy; toe-walking; learning movement patterns; Indian dance; rehabilitation; at-home rehabilitation

Meyers, Melissa A.Predictors of Participant Retention in Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2008, Clinical Psychology (Arts and Sciences)

Background: Effective programs in cardiac rehabilitation exist to manage the manifestations and consequences of cardiovascular illness. Unfortunately, these programs are underutilized, with only 11-60% of eligible participants completing programs (Leon et al., 2005; Sanderson et al., 2004; Suaya et al., 2007). To date, most cardiac rehabilitation research has focused on urban, male program completers with little attention given to factors affecting overall outcomes such as retention or geographic variability (Taylor et al., 2004).

Purpose: The purposes of this study were to evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI), physical activity (METS), and quality of life (SF-36) by retention status and gender in cardiac rehabilitation participants from pre to post program participation. Additionally, the study aimed to identify predictors of retention in cardiac rehabilitation programs.

Methods: The study consisted of a retrospective medical chart review on archival data that were deidentified. Data were collected from two sites, one urban and one rural on cardiac rehabilitation participants attending between the years of 2004 and 2007. Sampling matched gender and geographic location each year.

Results: The current study examined 230 participants (115 male; 115 female) following a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation program. The sample was predominantly Caucasian (90.4%), married (69%), earned $30,000 or less annually (41%), had an average age of 62 years (SD=11.6) and attended an average of 25 (SD=12.3) sessions. The total sample experienced significant improvements in body mass index, physical activity, and quality of life from pre to post program participation. There were no significant differences by retention in BMI or METS and by gender in BMI or SF-36. Compared to noncompleters, completers had greater change in SF-36 scores. Rural program location was predictive of retention. Compared to females, males had greater change in METS.

Conclusions: The current sample showed improvements in BMI, METS, and SF-36 with important outcome differences on SF-36 between completers and noncompleters and on METS between males and females. Findings suggest that geographic location was an important factor in participant retention status. The results of this study provide valuable information on group differences, along with important information for designing strategies to increase retention and improve outcomes in existing cardiac rehabilitation programs.

Committee:

Mary de Groot, PhD (Advisor); Christopher France, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Patterson, PhD (Committee Member); Kathi Heffner, PhD (Committee Member); Sharon Denham, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health; Psychology; Rehabilitation

Keywords:

Cardiac Rehabilitation; Retention; Rural Cardiac Rehabilitation; Gender Differences; Quality of Life

D'Angelo, Maurissa S.Analysis of Amputee Gait using Virtual Reality Rehabilitation Techniques
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Wright State University, 2010, Engineering PhD
This research shows promise in becoming a standard practice for long term amputee rehabilitation. Exceptional rehabilitation is not universally available to all disabled individuals due to circumstances which limit patient care such as a limited number of trained personnel, limited access to therapy in remote areas, limited patient feedback, limited visits under insurance policies and differing expertise of personnel. Providing real-time, objective feedback will help to continuously improve the quality of life of amputee individuals and provide standardized baseline techniques. The research described in this dissertation expands the use of virtual reality systems to amputee rehabilitation. A virtual reality system with performance metrics was designed, developed and tested. The effectiveness of real-time feedback through self visualization was investigated. This virtual reality system integrated real-time kinematic data into a virtual reality system. Subjects participated in a baseline session, three intervention sessions and a final training session. This Virtual Reality Rehabilitation (VRR) study, incorporating real-time feedback and objective performance metrics, provided a successful baseline demonstration for future research using VRR to improve gait techniques and enable more efficient and effective rehabilitation for amputees and other disabled individuals. To the knowledge of the dissertation team, this was the first study documenting a successful VRR gait-based strategy in patients with lower limb amputations.

Committee:

David Reynolds, PhD (Advisor); S. Narayanan, PhD (Advisor); Susan Kotowski, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Page, PhD (Committee Member); Jennie Gallimore, PhD (Committee Member); Chandler Phillips, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Research; Engineering; Health Care; Rehabilitation

Keywords:

virtual reality; rehabilitation; amputee rehabilitation

Svoboda, Aaron DennisEffects of Urban River Rehabilitation Structures on the Fish Community of the Ottawa River, Ohio
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2014, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Urban rivers are often viewed as prime candidates for rehabilitation efforts. However, few analyses on the effects of rehabilitation structures on a resident fish community have been published. A 1,500m section of the Ottawa River located on the University of Toledo campus was the site of such urban river rehabilitation. A before/after – control/impact (BACI) study design was implemented to analyze the impact of the rehabilitation. I predicted that rehabilitation structures, while limited by the regional species pool, would positively impact the fish community abundance, richness, Shannon diversity (SDI), and index of biotic integrity (IBI). I also predicted that rehabilitation structures would positively affect site habitat quality in terms of surficial sediment heterogeneity, variability of water depth, and a quantitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI). Eight 20m sites were selected; four control sites and four impact sites, where structures were placed after 2013 sampling. Each of the eight sites was sampled twice during low water in the summers of 2013 and 2014. Fish community metrics, collected with seines and a backpack shocker, included species presence, diversity, richness, IBI and spawning condition. Habitat variables included Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI), sediment texture, water depth and flow, water quality, and canopy cover. Fish community and habitat metrics were analyzed using poisson and linear models, respectively. Impact site abundance in 2014 was greater than 2014 control abundance (p<0.10) while 2014 control site abundance decreased from the previous year (p<0.001). Impact site QHEI scores in 2014 were higher than 2014 control site QHEI scores (p<0.05). Percent weight of coarse sands (0.5mm-2mm) decreased across control sites in 2014 (p<0.001) while fine sands (63µm-0.5mm) increased across control sites in 2014 (p<0.001). Impact sites in 2014 had greater percentages of fine sands than control sites in 2014 (p<0.05). No rehabilitation structure impacts were found for species richness, SDI, or water depth variability. Observed improvement in impact site QHEI scores coupled with a minimal fish community response suggest a delay between habitat and biological improvements of the river. This study contributes important baseline information on impacts of urban river rehabilitation structures on a resident fish community. Future rehabilitation efforts should continue to consider improvements at a larger spatial scale such as management of storm water, non-native species, and floodplains. With continued monitoring, long-term fish community responses may emerge and a better understanding of the effectiveness of urban river rehabilitations will be achieved.

Committee:

Dr. Johan Gottgens (Advisor); Dr. Patrick Lawrence (Committee Member); Dr. Todd Crail (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Ecology; Environmental Science

Keywords:

urban river; river rehabilitation; rehabilitation structures; restoration; fish comunity; Ottawa River; Ohio

Spreitzer, Elmer A.Patterns of informal organization within a rehabilitation center : a sociometric study /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1968, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Vocational rehabilitation;Rehabilitation centers

Patterson, Lindsey MarieThe Right to Access: Citizenship and Disability, 1950-1973
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, History

From the 1950s to the 1970s, the modern civil rights movement set into motion a profound transformation of citizenship rights. This study expands on this transformation, charting the development of disability rights activism and policy through the diverse campaigns that grappled with problems of public access after WWII through the passage of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which contained the first civil rights provision for people with disabilities. Scholars have emphasized Congressional initiative, notably Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as the driving force behind providing civil rights to the disabled. My research, by contrast, synthesizes the complex relationship between the state and grassroots activism.

This study challenges the traditional narrative of the disability rights movement, placing its origins in the 1950s, rather than the late 1970s. Examining both local and national efforts, false starts, resistance, and successes, it describes a complex, contentious debate in American society that engaged student activists, federal and state bureaucrats, politicians, and corporate philanthropists. What emerged was a unique rights discourse that centered on the problem of physical access to public spaces and that contested common definitions of discrimination and disability. This study traces the development of activist networks and the social roots of political activism from rehabilitation centers, summer camps, and college campuses in pursuit of federal civil rights legislation.

Committee:

Susan Hartmann, PhD (Advisor); Kevin Boyle, PhD (Committee Member); Paula Baker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; History

Keywords:

Disability; Civil Rights; Accessibility; Activism; Rehabilitation Act of 1973; Architectural Barriers; Networks; Rehabilitation Centers

ROHRER, JAMES RANDALFACTORS IN THE MARITAL ADJUSTMENT OF COUPLES AFTER THE SPINAL CORD INJURY OF ONE OF THE PARTNERS
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Education : Counselor Education
This study explores the impact spinal cord injury (SCI) of one of the partners has had upon the marital relationship and the individual and relational characteristics which participant couples believe have helped them to maintain the integrity of their relationship. In this qualitative investigation, five couples discuss the story of their relationship prior to, and subsequent from, the spinal cord injury of one of the partners. Couples describe the characteristics and factors which assisted them in coping with SCI and make recommendations for rehabilitation and mental health professionals that increase support for individuals with SCI, their spouses, and their marriages. Literature spanning 40 years is reviewed and used as a foundation for the design of this study. This investigation is grounded using a combination of theoretical approaches: personal construction theory to seek understanding of the personal adjustment of each of the partners to the disability, ecological theory to seek explanation regarding the complexities involved in responding to trauma and marital strain; and symbolic interaction theory to give context to family systems issues as the couple adjusts roles, functions, and expectations. A descriptive, multiple case study design was used to seek understanding of the experience of participant couples and to strengthen the validity and stability of the findings. Participants were invited from two pools: An SCI association of a medium-sized midwestern state, and an Internet listserve of SCI couples. Selection criteria included: SCI occurrence at least 18 months prior; injury due to sudden onset; and, involvement in a committed relationship at the time of injury which has maintained up to the time of the study. A semi-structured format was used for each 2 ½ to 3 hour interview. All couples noted major changes in priorities and daily activities, marital role changes, the need for personal care and independence, and social changes for the couple as having major impact upon their relationship following SCI. Eighty percent reported their relationship to be stronger and the majority claimed an increase in intimacy. Extraordinary stress for the non-injured spouse and increased financial pressures are noted. Major factors contributing to maintaining these relationships include: a clear commitment to the relationship; having strong values and a spiritual foundation, meaningful employment for each spouse; having parents as good marital role models; having a positive attitude; and, returning to a normal pattern of living. Couples stressed the importance for rehabilitation professionals to listen attentively, to support and include the non-injured spouse, and to provide the couple with time alone. This research verified the results of previous studies. New findings included reduction in marital conflict regarding gender-role changes after SCI and the need for couples to share emotional closeness and friendship.

Committee:

Dr. Geoffrey Yager (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Guidance and Counseling

Keywords:

spinal cord injured; marital adjustment; rehabilitation; couples counseling; disability

Wagner, Christopher T.Drug court success: An exploratory, qualitative review of how drug court stakeholders define outcomes
Bachelor of Arts (BA), Ohio University, 2012, Sociology
Drug courts have entered their second decade of existence and bring an impressive literature base with them. However, there is a noticeable lack of qualitative research within this base, and what has been published primarily focuses on recidivism. This study is an exploratory analysis of positive drug court outcomes other than recidivism reduction. The author conducted interviews with drug court professionals in the state of Ohio in order to field open, candid responses. Findings suggest that drug court stakeholders are more dedicated to treating each participant’s individual needs rather than just focusing on reducing their future offenses. In addition, findings lend support for the application of the therapeutic jurisprudence and restorative justice theoretical frameworks.

Committee:

Thomas Vander Ven, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Criminology; Law; Legal Studies; Sociology

Keywords:

drug court; drug treatment court; recidivism reduction; drug use; drug treatment; specialized docket; law; courts; rehabilitation

Stock, Kathryn MREHABILITATION STAFF PERCEPTIONS OF END-OF-LIFE CARE IN LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2007, Speech Pathology and Audiology
The purpose of this study was to identify case load size, utilization of services, overall stress levels and the overall clinical perspectives of rehabilitation professionals working with end-of-life (EOL) patients. Results revealed few rehabilitation professionals worked on palliative care teams and rehabilitation professionals reported low numbers of EOL care patients on caseloads. Eighty-five percent of the participants perceived they had a role to play in EOL care. EOL care education, years experience and field of practice were not significant predictors of rehabilitation staff stress levels. No significant difference was found between the three professional groups’ perceptions of key factors influencing quality-of-life, suggesting an overall agreement between perspectives related to professional roles and the goals of the rehabilitation team in EOL care.

Committee:

Laura Kelly (Advisor)

Keywords:

End-of-Life Care; Palliative Care; Rehabilitation Services; Long-Term Care Facilities

Fishman, Daniel M.The Effects of Opiod and Benzodiazepine Weaning on Cognitive Ability in the Context of a Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Program
Master of Arts in Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2008, College of Science
Pain is a component of many disease processes; however in some cases, when pain becomes a chronic condition it can become the problem itself. It can be a debilitating condition which is emotionally and economically costly to the individual, his or her family, and societies as a whole. Theories of pain have evolved over the last several decades to incorporate a Biopsychosocial Model of Pain. The biological portion of the model relies on The Gate Control Theory of Pain, although some emerging research points to a Neuromatrix model. As is suggested by the term, Biopsychosocial Model of Pain, the biologic basis of pain is only a part of the overall phenomenon. The experience of pain relies on many subjective, individual and environmental factors. Similarly the treatment of pain has evolved to encompass multiple dimensions of the phenomena of pain. The predominant model of Interdisciplinary Treatment encompasses seven areas: Medication; Education; Psychophysiologic Pain and Stress Management; Individual and Group Psychotherapy; Physical and Occupational Therapy; Behavior Modification; and Family Therapy. While classically medication with opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines has been a mainstay of treatment, they have recently been the source of considerable debate. Some research and practitioners suggest that these medications may hinder a patient's progress in treatment and reduce or inhibit their functioning overall and contribute to their pain. The exact nature of the relationship to neurocognitive functioning is still the source of considerable debate. This paper examines the relationship of two classes of medication: opioids and benzodiazepines to neurocognitive functioning as measured by two subtests of the WAIS-R (Digit Span and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test) in a Cleveland, OH pain rehabilitation clinic population.

Committee:

Richard Rakos, PhD (Committee Chair); Judith Scheman, PhD (Committee Member); Steven Slane, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychotherapy

Keywords:

Chronic Pain Rehabilitation; Opioid; Benzodiazepine; Digit Span; Digit Symbol Substitution Coding

Oswald, Gina R.Predictors of Successful Outcomes of Transition-Aed Youth in Vocational Rehabilitation in the State of Ohio
PHD, Kent State University, 2010, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Lifespan Development and Educational Sciences
The purpose of this study was to descriptively explore transition-aged youth in state vocational rehabilitation (VR) and to determine if predictor variables could be identified for successful employment outcomes. In addition, public assistance and supported employment services were also analyzed for predictive value. The participants of this study included 3,215 vocational rehabilitation consumers who were referred prior to age 23 and were closed in fiscal year 2006 after a rehabilitation plan was initiated. At closure, more than half the participants were closed successfully in competitive employment. The majority were working in service, clerical and sales, or professional/technical/managerial positions after receiving VR services focused on understanding the consumer’s needs and creating appropriate plans (guidance and assessment), preparing for a job (college and miscellaneous training), obtaining a job (job search, placement, transportation) and then retaining employment (on the job supports). In addition, Supplemental Security Income recipients and consumers receiving non-Title IV funded supported employment services were less likely to be employed at case closure. Implications for transition and rehabilitation practice include: the necessity of specific training for VR counselors working with the transition population; the higher rate of success through services such as diagnostics, vocational guidance, further training, and placement; and more attention to populations who are at risk or may be more effectively served in appropriate group settings such as those with cognitive or emotional disorders.

Committee:

Connie McReynolds, PhD (Committee Chair); Robert Cimera, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Mark Savickas, PhD (Committee Member); Robert Flexer, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Rehabilitation; Special Education; Vocational Education

Keywords:

transition; transition-aged youth; disabilities; vocational rehabilitation; employment; youth; youth with disabilities; special education

Cornwell, Andrew StevensControl of a Multiple Degree-of-Freedom Arm With Functional Electrical Stimulation Using a Reduced Set of Command Inputs
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2012, Biomedical Engineering

Although no treatment or cure for spinal cord injury (SCI) currently exists, there are rehabilitative technologies that provide increased levels of independence. Because the injury to the spinal cord largely spares damage to the peripheral nervous system and muscles, it is often possible to electrically stimulate paralyzed peripheral nerves and artificially initiate the original function of those nerves. This technique is called Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), and it can be used to restore motor function by stimulating the motor nerves. If the nerves are stimulated in carefully orchestrated patterns, it is possible to restore functional movements.

An advanced neuroprosthesis is under development in our laboratory to restore arm function to individuals with high-cervical level SCI, where users have complete paralysis of the entire arm. This system will use several novel techniques to overcome the inherent difficulties of providing a complete system to a user with no control of his arms or hands. For example, a new command source will be used because the retained functions available for delivering commands are very limited. Promising options include face and neck EMG signals, or signals recorded from the brain. Currently, these command sources are capable of robustly producing two or three continuous commands. However, to position the arm and hand in space requires specifying the position of each joint in the arm, which implies at least seven mechanical degrees of freedom.

The goal of this project is to develop a “command map,” the mathematical relationship that extracts the user’s intent from the available command source, and maps this information to arm joint angles so the FES controller can determine appropriate levels of stimulation for executing the intended movement. We obtained this command map by using the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of able-bodied individuals performing a carefully selected set of daily living tasks. This work details the importance and selection of those daily living tasks, identifies high levels of repeatable correlation in joint angles during everyday movements, and then demonstrates the controllability of a virtual arm by able-bodied users using the PCA-based command map.

Committee:

Robert Kirsch, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); P. Hunter Peckham, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Dawn Taylor, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Gregory Nemunaitis, MD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Engineering

Keywords:

FES; rehabilitation; Funtional Electrical Stimulation; Principal Components Analysis; Movement Primitives

Mackersie, JohnATHLETES’ PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION FROM SPORT INJURY IN RELATION TO THEIR RESTORATION NETWORKS
Master of Science in Sport Studies, Miami University, 2010, Physical Education, Health, and Sport Studies
This paper examines the role of social support and its affect on athletic injury rehabilitation. The study utilized a semi-structured interview structure on six previously injured Division I athletes. Results were analyzed using qualitative methodology looking for emergent themes and sub-themes. It was originally thought a social network of supporting roles was crucial for injured athletes’ recovery. However, with the current results, it is now evident that social networks are but a small fraction of the process. This study concludes with future research directions.

Committee:

Robin Vealey (Advisor); Valeria Freysinger (Committee Chair); Brett Massie (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Psychology; Social Psychology; Sociology; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

social support; restoration networks; social; networks; support; rehabilitation; athletic injury

McCarroll, Michele LynnThe effects of exercise and airway clearing devices on chronic pulmonary diseased patients in pulmonary rehabilitation
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Physical Activity and Educational Services
BACKGROUND: Since chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often complicated by excess airway mucus, providing airway clearance treatments (ACTs) for patients during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) may enhance their PR outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of ACTs before and after exercise training on COPD patients participating in PR METHODS: Thirty-five patients with COPD from three PR centers were randomly assigned to either: 1) usual care group, (PR - Exercise Training), n = 12, 2) usual care plus high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO, The Vest™) n =11, or 3) usual care plus vibratory positive expiratory pressure (VPEP, The Acapella®), n=12. Airway clearance therapy (HFCWO or VPEP) was given for 10 min before and after the exercise for PR patients assigned to those treatment arms. Assessments of Pulmonary Function Status Scale (PFSS), Six-Minute Walk (SMW) test, Physical Activity Stage of Change Questionnaire (PASCQ), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) and Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) were measured at baseline and completion of PR. Sputum quantity was measured before exercise, during exercise, and after exercise. RESULTS: The entire group showed significant changes in the PFSS: pre 118 SD±22.6 to post 123 SD ±21.9 (p<0.5); SMW test pre 803.7ft SD±383 to post 967.9ft SD±386 (p<0.5); PASCQ of precontemplation pre 8% to post 0%, contemplation pre 43% to post 0%, preparation pre 37% to post 14%, action pre 3% to post 66%, and maintenance pre 9% to post 20%; FEV1 0.90L ±0.44 to 0.96 L ±0.56; and PEF 157 l/min ±96 to 180 l/min ±131 (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in all the outcomes between the three treatment groups (p>0.05). As well, the mean wet sputum weights at each time interval between treatment arms were not significant (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the current findings, adding VPEP or HFCWO ten minutes before and after exercise training did not yield additional benefits in the outcomes collected. Exercise may be used as an inexpensive airway clearing treatment for improving lung function, exercise capacity, and sputum clearance. More research is needed to demonstrate quality initiatives to acquire better rehabilitation outcomes in caring for the growing COPD population.

Committee:

Timothy Kirby (Advisor)

Keywords:

Pulmonary Rehabilitation; Sputum Clearance; Airway Clearing Devices; Exercise

Tooson, John HarryEvaluating Ohio's Injured Workers For Vocational Rehabilitation Utilizing the Menninger Return to Work Scale
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Educational Services and Research
Predicting the return to work for individuals who have become disabled has been an area under investigation for vocational rehabilitation for several years. For the workers’ compensation programs, the infusion of vocational rehabilitation programs add a different and significant problem for industrially injured workers. The vocational rehabilitation programs under these agencies were created to work with a specialized group of individuals who have a greater opportunity to return to work because of their unique work experience. Workers’ compensation industrial vocational rehabilitation face the same issues as does the state-federal vocational rehabilitation system, and that is how to determine allocation of funding for appropriate vocational rehabilitation services to increase successful outcomes. In conjunction with the issue of allocation is the predictability of a successful outcome. The Menninger Return to Work Scale (MRTWS) was created from a sample of long-term disability clients. Utilizing specific variables, a determination as to the likelihood of an individual returning to work or not returning to work, can be developed. In this study, an evaluation of the scale’s practical application to the Ohio Workers’ Compensation system was examined. The variables of age, disability, marital status, area of residence, gender, type of employer, length of time in rehabilitation program, attorney representation, wage replacement, were studied to determine their impact on the return to work. The Chi-square test and the t-Test were used to determine if differences exist between the return to work group and the non-return to work group. The return to work group and the non-return to work group were found to be not significantly different for each variable in the study. The scale created for Ohio Bureau of Worker’s Compensation clients will provide some justification for the decisions made with regard to entering a client into a vocational rehabilitation program and in determining the level of support that will be necessary to bring the case to a positive resolution. Other uses for the scale are explored and recommendations are made for other possible studies to enhance the use of the Menninger Return to Work Scale.

Committee:

Bruce Growick (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Guidance and Counseling

Keywords:

Workers' Compensation; Workers' Compensation Vocational Rehab; Vocational Rehabilitation; Return to Work; Return To Work Scale; Menninger Retun to Work Scale

Busby, Andrea KristinSex Differences in Inflammation, Psychological Functioning, and Disease Outcomes Among COPD Patients Participating in Pulmonary Exercise Rehabilitation
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Psychology
Studies indicate that women may have a greater risk of diagnosis with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as poorer disease outcomes than men. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a critical factor in this sex difference. This study evaluated sex differences in systemic inflammation among men and women with COPD (N=23) prior to and after participation in pulmonary exercise rehabilitation. Before and after rehabilitation participation, participants had blood drawn to measure serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and participants completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, quality of life, and dyspnea, as well as standardized assessments of physical fitness. It was hypothesized that women would have higher levels of systemic inflammation, psychological distress, and dyspnea, and lower levels of quality of life and physical fitness at baseline compared with men. In addition, it was hypothesized that men would experience significantly greater improvements on most outcome variables after participating in exercise rehabilitation. Further, it was hypothesized that age, sex, and psychological distress would moderate the relationship between changes in physical fitness and changes in systemic inflammation. Results indicated that women reported higher levels of psychological distress than men at baseline, but that men and women did not differ in terms of systemic inflammation at baseline. In addition, both men and women experienced improvements in multiple outcome variables following exercise rehabilitation. There was limited evidence of any additional improvement for men, beyond that experienced by women, and neither group experienced changes in systemic inflammation as a result of exercise rehabilitation. However, women experienced greater increases in inflammation associated with improvement in physical endurance. Pearson correlations revealed that IL-6 was positively correlated with weight and negatively correlated with pulmonary functioning. However, IL-6 was also positively correlated with subjective vitality and negatively correlated with age. The results of this study indicate that men and women benefit from pulmonary exercise rehabilitation in multiple disease-relevant domains, but that systemic inflammation may be more closely related to lung functioning than to functional performance, quality of life, or distress. Thus, an 8-week exercise rehabilitation program may have limited impact on inflammation in this population, and may contribute to short-term increases in inflammation among women. Future research is needed to more fully explore the relationship between COPD, inflammation, pulmonary functioning, and exercise training.

Committee:

Charles Emery, Ph.D. (Advisor); Janice Kiecolt-Glaser, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Michael Vasey, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Timothy Buckley, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

COPD; inflammation; sex differences; pulmonary rehabilitation; depression; anxiety; quality of life

HUBBARD, DANA JONESCOGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF GENDER AND OTHER RESPONSIVITY CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON SUCCESS IN OFFENDER REHABILITATION
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Education : Criminal Justice
The specific responsivity principle suggests that personal characteristics of offenders may interfere with their ability to be receptive to treatment. This is the least researched aspect of the principles of effective intervention. While many have suggested this principle to be true, the exact personal characteristics thought to interfere with treatment are not yet known. This dissertation sought to address this principle by asking the following research questions, 1) Is gender a responsivity consideration? and 2) Are other characteristics such as intelligence, self-esteem, depression, personality, and a history of sexual abuse related to success in a cognitive-behavioral program? Data were gathered on 446 men and women offenders and success was measured by program completion, no arrests, and no incarcerations. While many of the characteristics were not found to be related to success in cognitive-behavioral treatment, gender and a history of sexual abuse were found to be related. Women were less likely to be arrested and incarcerated and people with a history of sexual abuse were more likely to be arrested. What is equally as interesting is that other potential responsivity characteristics such as intelligence, personality, and self-esteem were not found to be related to outcomes. These findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral treatment, a program that meets the general responsivity principle, may help different types of offenders be receptive to treatment thus overriding the specific responsivity principle.

Committee:

Dr. Edward J. Latessa (Advisor)

Subjects:

Sociology, Criminology and Penology

Keywords:

corrrectional rehabilitation; responsivity; cognitive-behavioral treatment; offenders

ALTUM, SHARYL ANNA MODEL OF HOSTILITY AND CORONARY HEART DISEASE BASED ON ORIENTATION TO SELF AND OTHERS
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Arts and Sciences : Psychology
Previous research establishes support for the separate influences of the expression, suppression, and repression of hostility on the development of coronary heart disease. The present study proposes a model that organizes and integrates these modes of coping with hostility and attempts to explain their potential impact on coronary heart disease. The model identifies 4 methods of coping based upon two bipolar axes, antagonism versus agreeableness and self-absorbed versus selfless. Those who use antagonistic, repressive, and suppressive coping styles were predicted to show less improvement in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program than those who use a more agreeable, assertive style. Sixty-four male and female rehabilitation patients participated. The predicted group differences were not found, but there was support for an effect based on high versus low reports of hostility. Specifically, reports of high antagonism, from either truly antagonistic or suppressor participants, were associated with a greater decrease in baseline heart rate from the 4th to the 12th session when compared to low reports of antagonism (truly agreeable and repressors). This general finding was supported in individual hostility scale analyses evaluating neurotic hostility, cynical hostility, and low agreeableness, and was in the opposite rather than the predicted direction. However, analysis of initial baseline physiology was suggestive of high chronic arousal for those who reported high versus low neurotic hostility. These data suggest that reports of high hostility, especially more cognitive forms of hostility like cynical mistrust and neurotic hostility, may have a different effect on the development of CHD compared to recovery following a coronary event.

Committee:

Dr. Christine A. Hovanitz (Advisor)

Keywords:

hostility; repression; suppression; coronary heart disease; cardiovascular rehabilitation

Rankin, Wendi MicheleUtilizing Art Therapy to Recognize Cognitive-Communication Disabilities in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury
Master of Arts, Ursuline College, 2008, Art Therapy and Counseling
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been named the signature injury of the war in Iraq. Following injury, cognitive-communication disabilities may go unseen in TBI patients because of good verbal communication. Art therapy utilizes non-verbal communication and therefore may be helpful in recognizing these cognitive disabilities. This study uses a mixed method approach to show that verbal functional communication skills in TBI patients may be high even when cognitive-communication skills are low. Thirty TBI patients on a locked brain injury rehabilitation unit of a full service hospital were interviewed and asked to complete an art intervention. Verbal communication and non-verbal cognitive-communication in TBI patients were examined using a functional communicationscale (FCS) and a cognitive-communication art therapy scale (CCATS). The results revealed that TBI patients scored high on the FCS even when they scored low on the CCATS. This study asserts that art therapy can be used to find cognitive-communication disabilities in TBI patients.

Committee:

Gail Rule-Hoffman, M.Ed (Advisor); Cecile Brennan, Ph.D (Advisor)

Subjects:

Cognitive Therapy; Communication; Developmental Psychology; Fine Arts; Mental Health; Neurology; Psychology; Psychotherapy; Rehabilitation; Speech Therapy; Therapy

Keywords:

Art Therapy; Mental Health; Rehabilitation; Cognitive Disablilities; Communication; Traumatic Brain Injury; Counseling

Myatt, Taylor ScottPreservation, Education, and Rehabilitation: A Wildlife Conservation Internship at Brukner Nature Center
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2017, Environmental Sciences
The following report summarizes my internship with Brukner Nature Center (BNC) in Troy, Ohio from January through May, 2016. This internship served as partial fulfillment of the Master of Environmental Science degree from the Institute for the Environment and Sustainability at Miami University. I actively assisted with wildlife conservation practices in the disciplines of preservation, education, and rehabilitation. My responsibilities regarding preservation included trail maintenance, wildlife food and shelter supplementation, invasive species control to improve habitat and wildlife diversity, and participation in research projects. My responsibilities involving education included teaching of natural history to multiple age and social groups as well as caring for and handling resident wildlife ambassadors used for educational purposes. My rehabilitation duties included lawful intake procedures and care of injured and/or orphaned wildlife for eventual release back into the wild. In addition, my project was to assist in the development of BNC’s breeding bird banding station through the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship program, which included siting, mapping, assessing, constructing, and preparing the station.

Committee:

David Russell, PhD (Advisor); Hand Vincent, PhD (Committee Member); Cummins Hays, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Conservation; Environmental Science; Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Management

Keywords:

Wildlife Conservation; Wildlife Preservation; Wildlife Education; Wildlife Rehabilitation; Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship - MAPS; Brukner Nature Center

Dharmadhikari, Sayali RavindraExamining Infarct Sizes In Female Sprague Dawley Rats In Response To A Delayed Post-Stroke Pharmacological Treatment In Combination With Physical Rehabilitation
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2016, Pharmacology and Toxicology
In this study, we hypothesize that a pharmacological drug treatment comprised of Fluoxetine, Simvastatin and Ascorbic acid together with physical rehabilitation would reduce infarct sizes. Over the period of 60 days after stroke-induction, 13 of the 23 rats were administered the drugs beginning 20-26 hours after stroke-induction and the rest were assigned to the control group. Physical rehabilitation exercises were initiated from poststroke day 8 and continued for 23 alternate days. The rats were tested for functional recovery using Montoya staircase apparatus and were euthanized after post-stroke day 60. The brains sections were analyzed using Nissl stain for infarct volume analysis. Due to the excess amount physical rehabilitation exercise in comparison to the previous studies conducted in our laboratory, the rats suffered large amount of stress. Stress antagonizing neurogenesis is believed to be the reason for lack of motor functional recovery and lack of any reduction in infarct sizes.

Committee:

Adrian Corbett, Ph.D. (Advisor); Yanfeng Chen, M.D., Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ji Chen Bihl, M.D., Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Neurobiology; Neurology; Neurosciences; Pharmacology; Rehabilitation

Keywords:

Stroke; fluoxetine; simvastatin; ascorbic acid; rat; rehabilitation; infarct volume; Montoya Staircase; Forelimb Asymmetry;

Siff, Sarah BradyTough on Dope: Crime and Politics in California's Drug Wars, 1946-1963
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, History
This dissertation places state lawmaking and local enforcement at the center of its analysis of the U.S. drug wars by exposing California's efforts to reduce the traffic in illicit substances during the first two decades of the postwar era. In contrast with existing work that sees drug enforcement as federally directed, this research reveals that state and local initiatives drove attitudes and action on illegal drugs. The California drug-control experience in the postwar era shows that the drug wars were locally escalated through grassroots campaigns, overzealous law enforcement, and political jockeying to solve the problem of increasing illicit drug use. Beginning just after World War II, law enforcement agencies and the mass media in the greater Los Angeles area encouraged widespread panic over heroin and marijuana smuggled from Mexico. Federal agencies fueled this concern during congressional hearings on organized crime, which connected the "narcotics menace" to the mafia and communism, birthing local crime commissions focused on drugs and juvenile delinquency. Police Chief William H. Parker engineered a brutal narcotics enforcement regime that targeted minority neighborhoods and violated the constitutional rights of drug defendants in defiance of court rulings, suggesting Los Angeles as a western site of massive resistance. Californians interrogated the relationships between federal, state, and local enforcement arms, whose leaders often disagreed and failed to cooperate. Increasingly politicized, drug control became a major issue in the 1962 governor's race, with Republican Richard Nixon pressing for harsh penalties and Democrat Pat Brown seeking to protect the rights of drug defendants and replace prison time with rehab. California's critique of the federal drug-control regime was widely publicized and convinced President John F. Kennedy to reorganize federal agencies tasked with combatting drugs. California exercised an early and deep influence over the course of U.S. drug policy at midcentury by pressing the federal government to combat drug trafficking from Mexico and questioning the methods of longtime drug czar Harry J. Anslinger. This dissertation extends backward the traditional timeline of the modern U.S. drug wars and opens a discussion about the roles played by citizens, local officials, and state governments.

Committee:

David Stebenne (Advisor); Paula Baker (Committee Member); David Steigerwald (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; American Studies; History; International Relations; Mass Media; Public Policy

Keywords:

California; drug wars; war on drugs; drug control; prohibition; crime; law enforcement; civil rights; William H Parker; Edmund G Brown; Edward R Roybal; law and order; marijuana; heroin; Mexico; US-Mexican relations; borderlands; rehabilitation

Slovenec, DerekSeismic Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Improved Design of Sub-Standard Steel Concentrically Braced Frame Buildings
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2016, Civil Engineering
Seismic design of multi-story buildings requires capacity design principles that allow for distributed damage (plastic member deformations) to occur over the building height while preventing soft-story failure mechanisms that may lead to collapse. Seismic evaluation of steel concentrically braced frame (CBF) buildings has revealed that they exhibit soft-story behavior due to non-uniform brace degradation and non-ductile failure modes. This research proposes a rehabilitative design procedure for existing buildings that uses a stiff rocking core to redistribute plastic deformations along the structure’s height. Additionally, an improved design procedure for braced frame columns is proposed for new frame design. Several representative frames were designed and evaluated using nonlinear transient seismic finite element analysis and large-scale hybrid experimental testing. Predicted, analytical, and experimental response results show reasonable agreement, and the proposed techniques are believed to be reliable for achieving desirable seismic performance in low- to mid-rise steel braced frame structures.

Committee:

Michael Pollino, Ph.D. (Advisor); Brian Metrovich, Ph.D. (Committee Member); YeongAe Heo, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

steel; braced frame; seismic rehabilitation; SRC; structural engineering; structural design; civil engineering; seismic; earthquake;

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