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Harvey, Megan E.Mental Health Service Provider Knowledge, Attitudes and Competencies Regarding Recovery From Serious Mental Illness
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Arts and Sciences : Psychology
The current study addresses community mental health care providers’ knowledge, attitudes, and competencies regarding recovery from mental illness. A total of 119 participants completed a three-part survey that assessed recovery constructs and provider variables. Descriptive statistics indicated that providers held favorable attitudes toward recovery, were moderately competent in implementing recovery principles, and had a general knowledge of recovery. Correlation analyses indicated that there was no significant relationship between provider attitudes toward recovery and competency in implementing recovery principles. A multiple regression analysis failed to reveal a significant relationship between recovery attitudes and provider variables; however, there was a significant relationship between provider variables and competency in implementing recovery. Specifically, providers with case management/active duties (e.g., assisting clients in finding housing) reported being significantly more competent in assisting consumers obtain their goals than providers whose primary duties included more traditional treatment (e.g., psychotherapy) or educational duties (e.g., teaching medication skills). Additionally, providers with case management/active duties reported being significantly more competent in assisting families in the coping process than providers whose primary duties included more traditional treatment or educational duties. Also, as providers’ education levels increased, they reported being less competent in involving and assisting families in the recovery process. With replication, the findings may be used to guide provider training programs that promote the recovery process. Future research is needed to explore mental health provider variables and recovery constructs in both community and inpatient treatment settings.

Committee:

Dr. Robert Stutz (Advisor)

Keywords:

Recovery from serious mental illness; Mental health providers; Competency in implementing recovery principles; Attitudes toward recovery; Knowledge of recovery

O'Rourke, MichaelThe Role of the Wellness Management and Recovery (WMR) Program in Promoting Mental Health Recovery
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2009, Psychology
Mental health recovery has gained increasing attention as it relates to the conceptualization and treatment of those individuals experiencing severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia, major depression, and manic-depressive illness. Despite "recovery" serving as a guiding vision for the implementation and practice of mental health service delivery (Anthony, 1993), the concept itself continues to evolve. As part of this evolution, consumers have played an increasing role in the delivery of such services, whether through consumer-operated agencies or through partnerships with traditional, professionally trained mental health providers. The present study sought out to qualitatively assess recovery using a phenomenologically-guided Grounded Theory Analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1990), specifically within the context of the Wellness Management and Recovery (WMR) program. The WMR program is a 10 session, recovery-focused / consumer-oriented treatment delivered in a group format. WMR is currently being disseminated across the state of Ohio in both traditional mental health centers and consumer-operated agencies. The model that emerged from the qualitative data, based on a sample N=7 consumers of mental health services, consisted of 3 primary themes characterizing the components of recovery: Growth, Group Content & Process, and Overcoming Prejudice & Stigma. Furthermore, the inter-relationships between themes and the sub-categories contained within provided a model of the process of recovery or how it took place for consumers. Of particular importance for many consumers were the aspects of group atmosphere, a sense of belonging, equality, and having fun. Of secondary importance in the present study was the assessment of group change (N=291) from Pre- to Post-Treatment in the areas of mental health recovery, empowerment, quality of life, and symptoms distress. Results are indicative of significant group change across time, with small to medium effect sizes found (Cohen’s d= .21 - .59). The present study not only provides further data supporting recovery in general, but details the specific process of recovery within the context of an evolving evidence-based practice (i.e., WMR). Implications for clinical practice as well as a change in mindset or philosophy when it comes to the treatment and conceptualization of those experiencing severe mental illness are discussed.

Committee:

Wesley A. Bullock, PhD (Committee Chair); Jeanne Brockmyer, PhD (Committee Member); Gregory Meyer, PhD (Committee Member); Svetlana Beltyukova, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Christman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

recovery; mental health recovery; qualitative; wellness management and recovery

Hupp, Danelle RenaeThe Role of the Wellness Management and Recovery (WMR) Program in Promoting Social Support
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2008, Psychology
To many consumers, recovery is much more than just a return to a normal state of functioning or symptom remission: it is a journey (Deegan, 1995). Social support has been found to play an important role in this recovery journey (Frese & Davis, 1997) for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). However, individuals with SMI have been found to have social networks that are one-half the size of those of the general population (Corrigan & Phelan, 2004; Wilson, Flanagan, & Rynders, 1999).

Many individuals with SMI have a dual diagnosis for co-occurring substance use disorders (MacDonald et al., 2004), and the recovery process is not unique to the field of mental health (e.g., other health arenas such as cancer and substance abuse also address recovery processes). Today, in the age of the consumer-survivor movement, where the client is an active and informed participant in their treatment and recovery (Gonzalez, 1976; Wilson et al., 1999), there is much debate about the definition of recovery.

This study represents an integration of the current recovery and social support literature with an evaluation of the Wellness Management and Recovery (WMR) program. The WMR program is an ongoing, multi-site project which is designed to promote mental health recovery among individuals experiencing severe and persistent mental illness in the community. The current research was an adjunct to WMR and examined how this recovery program affects the quality and quantity of the social support of the participants. The present study was designed to evaluate whether a recovery-oriented program helped individuals with SMI to gain not only in number of social supports (quantitatively), but also whether these supports were perceived to be meeting their needs (qualitatively). Results found that participants successfully completing the WMR program showed a significant increase in both quantity and quality of their social support networks. Exploratory analyses of follow-up data, as well as an open-ended question regarding the most important persons in the lives of participants (Intimates versus Friends), are also discussed.

Committee:

Wesley Bullock, PhD (Advisor); Jeanne Brockmyer, PhD (Committee Member); Sallyann Treadaway, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mental Health; Psychology; Social Psychology

Keywords:

social support; recovery; serious mental illness; Wellness Management and Recovery program; WMR; Wellness Management and Recovery Social Support Questionnaire; WMR SSQ

Leslie, Jennifer CUnderstanding the Changing Landscape of Client Perspectives of Recovery from Anorexia Nervosa
Psy. D., Antioch University, 2014, Antioch New England: Clinical Psychology
Current research exposes the lack of a universal definition of recovery from Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Discrepancies in how the term is defined and used have created problems for clients, clinicians, and families; particularly around how insurance providers allot financial coverage for treatment. Additionally, there is a gap in the literature regarding the length of time clients consider appropriate for symptom abatement prior to being considered recovered. This dissertation utilized a mixed-methods approach to investigate how the term recovery had different meanings over the course of treatment for women previously treated for AN. Seventy-nine adult women participated in the web-based survey. Descriptive statistics and patterns of responding were identified using quantitative data. Content analysis was employed to analyze qualitative data that sought to gain insight into subjective definitions of recovery. Participant responses were coded and sorted into categories that were then used to establish a codebook of the major themes. All participants reported a shift in personal meanings of recovery over time, as they were asked to reflect on how they viewed recovery at the beginning and the end of treatment, as well as at the time of survey administration. Participants were also asked to report on symptoms they believe are important to address in order to consider one's self recovered, in addition to the length of time symptoms must be gone. This dissertation also attends to the unique nature of individual responses and explores suggestions to assist future research and clinicians who work with this population. Limitations of this study are also shared.

Committee:

Theodore Ellenhorn, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Rachael Goren-Watts, Psy.D (Committee Member); Vincent Pignatiello, Psy.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology

Keywords:

anorexia nervosa; recovery; eating disorders; client perspectives of recovery; mixed method

Lin, Bing C.Do Recovery Experiences during Lunch Breaks Impact Worker Well-Being?
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Psychology
Work breaks are commonly incorporated into employees’ workdays under the assumption that breaks have a restorative effect on employee well-being. In the present study, I tested this assumption by examining well-being changes over the course of a workday, and recovery experiences engaged in during lunch breaks were tested as predictors of post-lunch break well-being. Results indicated that there were overall changes in worker well-being throughout the day with well-being being significantly lower at the end of a workday than at other measurement periods. Furthermore, detachment and positive work reflection experienced during the lunch break were significant predictors of exhaustion, fatigue, and vigor after lunch, and only positive work reflection during lunch significantly predicted post-lunch attentiveness. Control experienced during lunch significantly predicted exhaustion and attentiveness at the end of the workday. The results obtained from this study shed light on general trends in well-being throughout employee workdays, and further affirm the importance of engaging in recovery experiences during respites.

Committee:

Charlotte Fritz (Advisor); Steve Jex (Committee Member); Robert Carels (Committee Member)

Keywords:

RECOVERY EXPERIENCES; positive work reflection; RECOVERY; positive work; work reflection; attentiveness

Lee, AlishaAn Evaluation of Changes in Cognitive Appraisal and Emotion Regulation in the Treatment of PTSD in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2015, Psychology - Clinical
The primary theories (Ehlers & Clark, 2000; Foa & Kozak, 1986) concerning the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are cognitive in nature. Subsequently, the front-line treatments for PTSD have been cognitive behavioral treatments; however, research examining the efficacy of these treatments has largely excluded individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) as participants. Thus, research on treatments for PTSD in individuals with SMI is limited, and only cognitive treatments for this population have been examined (Frueh et al., 2009; Mueser et al., 2008). Recent literature (Ehring & Quack, 2010; Price, Monson, Callahan, & Rodriguez, 2006) has emerged demonstrating that programs focused on improving emotion regulation (ER) in individuals who have PTSD are effective (Kearney et al., 2012; Kimbrough et al., 2010); however, research is still lacking concerning the use of this treatment modality with individuals with comorbid PTSD and SMI. Wellness Management and Recovery (WMR), a psychoeducational group program aimed at promoting mental health recovery in individuals with SMI has recently been evaluated and determined to be associated with reductions in PTSD in individuals who have completed the program (Lee, 2011). However, the mechanisms through which WMR works remain unclear. As a result, the purpose of the current study was to utilize self-report measures of PTSD symptoms, cognitive appraisal of a traumatic event, and ER to determine whether or not WMR’s impact on trauma-related beliefs or ER significantly predicted participants’ reduction in PTSD symptoms. Results of the present study demonstrated that following participation in WMR, individuals’ self-reported levels of PTSD symptoms, trauma-related cognitions, and ER difficulties decreased. Regression analyses revealed that both changes in cognition and ER predicted changes in participants’ self-reported levels of PTSD symptoms; however, changes in ER were found to be the superior predictor, predicting 18% more of the variance in change in PTSD symptoms than did changes in trauma-related cognitions. The results of this study suggest that PTSD treatments developed for individuals with SMI may be most effective if interventions aimed at increasing ER skills are integrated into treatment protocols.

Committee:

Wesley Bullock, PhD (Committee Chair); Jeanne Brockmyer, PhD (Committee Member); Stephen Christman, PhD (Committee Member); Janet Hoy, PhD (Committee Member); Sallyann Treadaway, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

severe mental illness, recovery, wellness management and recovery, PTSD

Martin, ZebulonEffects of Precipitation on the Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Hewett Fork Watershed
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2017, Environmental Studies (Voinovich)
Limited biological recovery in acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted streams may be due in part to a flushing response caused by rainfall events. While there is very little water required to react with sulfide minerals to form AMD, more is required to dissolve and transport the chemical products. Increased discharge allows for the transport of accumulated reaction products from mineral surfaces and mobilization of sediments from streambeds. The objective of this study was to investigate this flushing behavior in the heavily AMD impaired Hewett Fork Watershed by tracking the changes in water chemistry over the course of multiple rain events and seasonal flow regimes. Hewett Fork is located within Athens County, Ohio, and is currently treated by an active remediation system. This study utilized two auto-samplers, at two field sites along the same stream gradient of impairment, to allow for the collection of hourly water samples during selected storm events in spring, summer, and fall. The collected water samples were then analyzed for total concentrations of a large suit of metals, sulfate, acidity, and alkalinity. Results show how the geochemistry is changing within Hewett Fork during precipitation events. Analysis of these changes in water quality revealed response patterns of each monitored constituent allowing them to be grouped by their dominant response pattern. The constituents also displayed seasonal patterns that showed large flushing events in the spring and fall seasons. It remains unclear if these flushing events have limited the biological recovery in Hewett Fork. Further studies should be conducted to better understand the varied and complex responses of the geochemistry in AMD impacted watersheds during precipitation events to properly manage and treat this prolific non-point source pollution.

Committee:

Natalie Kruse (Committee Chair); Dina Lopez (Committee Member); Kelly Johnson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Geology; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geochemistry; Hydrologic Sciences; Hydrology; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Effects of precipitation on acid mine drainage; AMD; acid mine drainage; limited biological recovery in acid mine drainage; storm events; precipitation; limited biological recovery; Hewett Fork Watershed; Hewett Fork; Raccoon Creek; auto sampler;

Oturkar, Siddharth A.Push Recovery of Humanoid Robot Using Thruster and Acceleration Compensation
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2012, Electrical and Computer Engineering
This thesis is concerned with a problem of balancing the humanoid robot after an external impact. Dynamic model of the humanoid robot is derived using Lagrangian dynamic formulation. Use of the maximum joint accelerations to reject disturbance is studied. In our approach, we propose the use of non-natural force like thruster on the torso of the humanoid robot for balance recovery. Mathematical simulation of derived dynamic model is performed using MATLAB. Plotted results prove the validity and usefulness of the proposed approach. We also show that, acceleration compensation and using thruster are complementary to each other. We prove that both techniques can be used together to reject large disturbances in minimum time.

Committee:

Dr. Yuan Zheng (Advisor); Dr. Hooshang Hemami (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering; Engineering; Mechanical Engineering; Robotics; Robots

Keywords:

Robot; Humanoid Robot; Push Recovery; Thruster; Maximum Joint Acceleration; Acceleration Compensation; Dynamic Equation; Euler-Lagrange; New Push Recovery Approach; 3-Link Model; Three Link Model;

Owen, Ross P.Modeling, Analysis, and Open-Loop Control of an Exhaust Heat Recovery System for Automotive Internal Combustion Engines
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2011, Mechanical Engineering
A zero-dimensional fluid and thermodynamic model of an engine, cooling system, and exhaust system was developed in order to simulate the operation of an advanced thermal management system. The model was calibrated with experimental data where available. The thermal management system modeled in this work employed waste heat recovery to reduce engine, coolant, and lubricating fluid warm-up times and fuel consumption following a cold-start. The model was used to develop a control strategy for two valves in the exhaust system which control the flow of exhaust through an exhaust-to-coolant heat exchanger. The objective of the controller was to minimize coolant warm-up time without violating any of the system constraints. A model-based open-loop controller was developed that was able to reduce warm-up time by nearly 35% on the FTP city drive cycle while respecting the limitations of the system.

Committee:

Marcello Canova, Dr. (Advisor); Giorgio Rizzoni, Dr. (Committee Member); Timothy Scott, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Automotive Engineering

Keywords:

Exhaust Heat Recovery; Waste Heat Recovery; Advanced Thermal Management System; Modeling

Erden, NumanPolyurethane-Polybenzoxazine Based Shape Memory Polymers
Master of Science in Polymer Engineering, University of Akron, 2009, Polymer Engineering

Shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) have attracted much attention from academic and industrial researchers due to strong potential in biomedical and consumer applications. Some of the limiting factors of these materials are low recovery stress (RS) and shape recovery (SR). Fundamental studies have focused on the improvement of RS and SR values using primarily two approaches. The first utilizes the nanocomposite route by which a few weight percentages of nanofillers are added to SMPU in order to increase the modulus and consequently to obtain enhancement in recovery stress. Although successful in the case of SMPU with amorphous soft segments, the nanofillers caused reduction in crystallinity of crystalline soft segment leading to deterioration of shape memory properties of SMPUs. In the second approach, chemical additives are added which either chemically bond with SMPU chains or form a separate phase and offer much stronger modulus than the soft and hard segments of SMPU. This second approach was followed in the current study.

Polybenzoxazine (PB-a) was incorporated into a thermoplastic polyurethane (PU) formulation, anticipating that it would play a similar role to hard segment and improve the shape memory properties. It was found that benzoxazine monomer formed miscible blends with the prepolymer derived from 4,4'-methylenebis (phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) and poly (tetramethylene) glycol (PTMG) with average molecular weight of 650 g/mol. This allowed chain extension of prepolymer using 1,4-butanediol (BD) as in the synthesis of regular polyurethanes. The benzoxazine was later polymerized into polybenzoxazine (PB-a) by thermal curing at 180 °C in 3 hrs.

The results of this study showed that both RS and SR increased with the addition of benzoxazine. A specimen with 17 wt. % benzoxazine produced the best RS and SR values with 13 MPa and 93%, respectively compared to RS of 6.8 MPa and SR of 72% for polyurethane. The deformation conditions were also found to exert significant influence on RS and SR values. Both stretching rate and stretching temperature increased the RS values. However, higher heating rates caused a reduction of the values of RS. The stress relaxation experiments were carried out to establish a correlation between the deformation conditions and the values of RS. It was found that specimens with 9 wt. % and 17 wt. % benzoxazine experienced high degrees of stress relaxation. Consequently, the RS values of these specimens, although higher than polyurethanes, were somewhat compromised. Furthermore, an investigation on surface morphology revealed that the specimens had different levels of hard and soft segment phase separation.

Committee:

Sadhan Jana, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Polymers

Keywords:

Poyurethane; Polybenzoxazine, Shape Memory, Polymer, Recovery Stress, Shape Recovery

Kenitzer, Zachary EdwardHow Plan Implementation Fails: Examining the role of Experience, Expectations, and Externalities
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, City and Regional Planning
Plans developed as a result of Hurricane Katrina and the Mississippi Renewal Forum, including the de facto nullified SmartCode, three vacated SmartCode Community Plans, and two tabled and non-adopted Comprehensive Plans failed. Further indicated by a gap between Plan vision and on-the-ground results, other authors and scholars point to the process of Plan implementation as the key to this failure. Despite this observation, a case study of implementation does not exist. Also, few academic case studies that explore the implementation of Plans exist. To explore `Why Plans Fail’ this dissertation employs a Case Study approach, rooted in Grounded Theory Methodology and the Constant Comparative method. Five methods of analysis include two forms of Plan evaluation, document analysis, semi-structured interviews, and a new exploratory method of Tenure Analysis. Findings derived from analysis explore the roles of implementation experience, expectations, and externalities in Plan and policy failure. The research concludes by arguing for further case studies, a careful rethinking of how the American Planning Association approaches their advocate role, and that Planners should stop treating implementation like the `black box’ of the Planning and Plan-Making process.

Committee:

Jennifer Evans-Cowley (Advisor); Rachel Kleit (Committee Member); Bernadette Hanlon (Committee Member); Greenberger David (Other)

Subjects:

Area Planning and Development; Design; Land Use Planning; Political Science; Public Administration; Public Policy; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Plans; Planning; Implementation; Policy; Process; Evaluation; Hurricane; Katrina; Camille; Gulfport; Mississippi; Politics; New Urbanism; Grounded Theory; Tenure; Disaster; Recovery; Post Disaster; Long-Term Recovery; Build Back Better; Resilience

Borchardt, Amy R.The Effects of Meditation on Cardiovascular Recovery from Acute Stress
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Experimental Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
This study was conducted to examine the effect of meditation on cardiovascular recovery from stress to determine if meditation is a useful coping strategy to improve recovery from a stressor. A sample of 99 undergraduate Psychology students with no prior meditation experience were randomly assigned to either meditate, listen to an audio book, or sit quietly for 20 minutes after a stressful math task. All groups displayed a significant decrease in heart rate (HR) immediately following the stressor; however, blood pressure (BP) remained above resting levels for most participants. Individuals in the meditation group had a significant increase in high frequency heart rate variability (HRV) and a significant decrease in skin conductance. Individuals in the audio book and control groups only displayed an increase in HRV. Following meditation, the meditation group participants' moods returned to pre-stress levels. Both audio book and control groups showed decreased positive affect and increased negative affect. Together, findings suggest that there were some physiological and psychological differences among groups, but there were many similarities, as well. More research is needed to determine if meditation is a useful strategy to use during recovering from stress.

Committee:

Stephen Patterson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Stress; recovery from stress; cardiovascular recovery; meditation; cardiovascular

Hupp, Danelle R.A Qualitative Analysis of Participant Feedback from the Wellness Management and Recovery (WMR) Program
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2011, Psychology

For most individuals a diagnosis of serious mental illness (SMI) is a catastrophic event (Marsh & Johnson, 1997). However, a wellness-centric or recovery perspective views an individual with SMI as living beyond their diagnosis (Deegan, 1995). Psychological recovery has been defined as “the establishment of a fulfilling, meaningful life and a positive sense of identity founded on hopefulness and self-determination” (Andresen, Oades, & Caputi, 2003, p. 588). The Wellness Management and Recovery (WMR) program is an example of a psychotherapeutic/psychoeducational program that is designed to promote communication, social support, wellness, and self-empowerment. The goal of the WMR program is to support mental health recovery and promote better overall health. A central tenet of the WMR model is that the individuals with SMI benefit from having opportunities for both intra-personal growth and inter-personal relationship building (Bullock et al., 2009).

The WMR program places an emphasis on empowerment and “finding the voice” of each consumer participant. The primary goal of the current study was to determine what participants of the WMR program liked most and least about the program, as well as what components of WMR participants believed were most influential in their individual journeys to recovery. Using qualitative data analysis of three open-ended questions regarding participants’ experience in the program, the following phases of data analysis were conducted: 1) initial thematic categories for three open-ended questions were inductively developed during a pilot study using a subsample of 75 responses; 2) the coding system developed for the pilot study was utilized by this author to code all data (current N = 500+ who have completed the WMR program, and who have provided responses to the qualitative questions for the current study); 3) a team of three researchers (this author and two intern-level graduate students unaffiliated with the WMR program and blind to the research questions) developed a revised coding system; 4) all current data was coded independently by the three raters (inter-rater reliability was high); and 5) the author analyzed data using NVivo (qualitative data analysis software).

Current findings suggest high levels of overall satisfaction with the WMR program and the strongly expressed belief by the majority of participants that the WMR program was beneficial to their individual recovery journeys. Results suggest that key aspects of the WMR program’s success in aiding individuals in their individual recover journeys included: group dynamics; social support; the program content (e.g., materials) and educational components; its focus on wellness; communication skill-building; and individual activation (e.g., feelings of empowerment, gains in self-insight, becoming an active participant in their recovery). Participants indicated that certain elements of time, social interaction, and content were components that they liked least about WMR. Results of the current study supported those of a previous study conducted using in-depth interviews to look at recovery outcomes following participation in WMR, and other qualitative studies of recovery. Results also offered insight into limitations and areas for growth within the program, which will aid in future training of facilitators as well as offer information as to how to expand or modify the WMR program.

Committee:

Wesley Bullock, PhD (Committee Chair); Jeanne Brockmyer, PhD (Committee Member); Janet Hoy, PhD (Committee Member); Sallyann Treadaway, PhD (Committee Member); Yueh-Ting Lee, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

serious mental illness; recovery; Wellness Management and Recovery program; qualitative analysis

Tenbarge, Brittany A.The Relationship between the Wellness Management and Recovery Program and Physical Health
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2011, Psychology
Prior research has demonstrated that individuals diagnosed with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) experience high rates of preventable co-occurring medical conditions and higher mortality rates than the general population (Fleischhacker et al., 2008; Miller, Paschall, & Svendsen, 2006). The present study utilized archival mental health recovery outcomes and documentation of physical health variables from the psychiatric treatment records of persons who had previously been recruited to participant in the Wellness Management and Recovery (WMR) program in order to evaluate the proportions of preventable physical health conditions and the physical health care utilization in the subset of individuals with SPMI. The study also investigated the relationship between physical health and participants’ ability to complete the WMR program and make gains in mental health recovery. The results of the present study suggested that WMR participants experience high rates of medical comorbidities similar to those found in persons with SPMI in community settings. Furthermore, preliminary health care utilization data suggests that WMR participants engage in suboptimal use of the medical health care system, characterized by a lack of a usual source of care and low rates of annual physical health exams. Contrary to expectation, WMR participants with physical health conditions were more likely than those without such conditions to successfully complete the program. Within the individuals who completed the WMR program, having physical health conditions was not related to their ability to make mental health gains from pre-WMR to post-WMR.

Committee:

Wesley Bullock (Committee Chair); Jeanne Brockmyer (Committee Member); Mojisola Tiamiyu (Committee Member); Janet Hoy (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Physical health; Medical comorbidities; Severe and persistent mental illness; Wellness Management and Recovery; WMR; Group program completion; Mental Health Recovery Measure

Wang, ChongModeling and Analysis of Synchronization Schemes for the TDMA Based Satellite Communication System
Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering, University of Toledo, 2012, Electrical Engineering
As a multiple access technique, time division multiple access (TDMA) is becoming more widespread in satellite communications. Although single-carrier (SC) modulation techniques has been mostly employed in the TDMA satellite communication system, multi-carrier modulation techniques, like orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), are also promising candidates for the future high rate satellite communication due to its high bandwidth efficiency and robustness to fading. As is known, accurate synchronization is a key requirement for efficient data transmission in TDMA systems. Because of the channel impairment or propagation delay, the receiver may experience the carrier frequency offset (CFO) or symbol timing error (STE) that may result in difficulty of signal detection and estimation. Comparing with SC systems, OFDM systems are more sensitive to synchronization errors, because these errors will lead to inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI). Although many synchronization algorithms have been disclosed in literature as the effective recovery methods to reduce detection error in the presence of CFO as well as STE, tradeoffs still have to be made between the estimation accuracy and estimation range (or implementation complexity). This motivates further research to improve the performances of synchronization methods for the TDMA based satellite communication system. The main objectives of this research are modeling and mathematical analyses of the synchronization methods under various channel impairment scenarios towards the practical applications in TDMA satellite communication systems. To achieve these objectives, this research firstly investigates the performance degradation due to CFO for both SC and OFDM systems. The performance of SC system impaired by CFO is mathematically analyzed and computer simulation is performed under additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). For OFDM system in the presence of CFO, the performance of binary phase shift keying/quadrature phase shift keying (BPSK/QPSK)-OFDM impaired by CFO is evaluated and simulated under AWGN, Rayleigh flat fading, and frequency selective fading. Because of the lack of analyses in higher order modulation or modulation with non-rectangular decision region, this research derives the closed form of symbol error probability expressions for 8-ary phase shift keying (8PSK)-OFDM and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM)-OFDM impaired by CFO under AWGN. All of the corresponding simulation results validate the correctness of the theoretical analyses and symbol error probability derivations. In order to compensate the effect of CFO to SC systems, numerous methods have been proposed as the effective architecture for CFR. Thus, comparison between various existing synchronization algorithms under certain condition has been performed based on modeling and mathematical analysis. By the results, the major impact factors of different CFR algorithms have been identified. Then, a novel CFR algorithm, which is derived based on least square estimation method, is proposed and evaluated under AWGN. Finally, the proposed algorithm is simulated and compared with other exiting algorithms with respect to estimation range, estimation accuracy and computational complexity. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has the benefit of reduced computational complexity and high estimation accuracy. In the case of OFDM systems, two novel data-aided (DA) carrier frequency and symbol timing recovery algorithms are proposed. These maximum likelihood (ML) based algorithms jointly estimate the CFO and STE for the OFDM systems. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated and compared with existing estimation algorithms in terms of estimation range and accuracy under AWGN, Rayleigh flat fading and frequency-selective multipath fading, respectively. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms under various levels of signal to noise ratios (SNRs) and the robustness of different lengths of cyclic prefix (CP) of the preamble.

Committee:

Junghwan Kim, PhD (Advisor); Dong-Shik Kim, PhD (Committee Member); Mansoor Alam, PhD (Committee Member); Mohsin Jamali, PhD (Committee Member); Thomas Stuart, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Synchronization; Carrier Recovery; Symbol Timing Recovery; OFDM

Cole Mattson, Colleen MarieDepression, Anxiety, and Social Support Fail to Predict Heart Rate Recovery in Exercise Stress Test Patients
MA, Kent State University, 2011, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Psychology
Depression, anxiety and social support in cardiac patients are related to an increased risk for cardiac morbidity and mortality. One explanation for this relationship is altered autonomic nervous system functioning and, more specifically, decreased parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Heart rate recovery is a simple method used to assess PNS functioning with depression predicting decreased HRR in cardiac patients. The current study investigated the hypothesis that depression, anxiety and social support would each predict reduced heart rate recovery after a treadmill exercise stress test. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) were administered to 144 patients prior to undergoing an exercise stress test. Bivariate correlations showed increased trait and state anxiety was related to faster heart rate recovery (trait: r = .23, p > .05; state: r = .23, p > .05), however; depressive symptoms and level of social support were not related to heart rate recovery (depression: r = .06, p = .55; social support: r = -.16, p = .17). Using multiple regressions and controlling for age, sex, and β-blocker usage, neither trait nor state anxiety predicted heart rate recovery (trait: β = .16, p = .12; state: β = .16, p = .10). Additionally, neither depression nor social support predicted heart rate recovery (depression: β = .03, p = .78; social support: β = -.13, p = .17), again controlling for age, sex, and β-blocker usage. The lack of support for the current hypotheses is likely attributed to the low levels of emotional distress in the sample. Further, high levels of social support are likely acting as a buffer against depression and anxiety. Finally, it is possible that because the current investigation utilized a diagnostic sample, not all patients currently had cardiovascular disease. Future investigations should utilize patient populations while sampling for increased depression and anxiety along with low social support.

Committee:

Joel Hughes, PhD (Advisor); John Gunstad, PhD (Committee Member); John Updegraff, PhD (Committee Member); Karin Coifman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health; Psychobiology; Psychology

Keywords:

heart rate recovery; cardiovascular disease; depression; anxiety; social support; stress test

Surani, FalgunDEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED ENERGY ABSORPTION SYSTEM USING NANOPOROUS MATERIALS
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2006, Civil Engineering
In a recent study, we have performed first-order analysis and proof-of-concept experiments for a novel application of nanoporous materials in developing high-performance pressure controllable nanoporous energy absorption system. When nanoporous particles are immersed in a non-wetting liquid, the liquid cannot enter the nanopores spontaneously. With the increase in external pressure, however, as the capillary effect is overcome, the liquid can be forced to infiltrate into the nanoporous material. Because of the factors that are still under investigation, as the pressure is reduced, in a certain types of nanoporous materials the confined liquid would remain in the nominally energetically unfavorable nanopores, and thus the excess solid-liquid interfacial energy can be considered as being "absorbed". Due to the large specific surface area (100-1000 m2/gm), the energy absorption effectiveness of this system can be in the range of 10-100 J/g. We experimentally demonstrated full control on system parameters like infiltration pressure (pin), recoverability and accessible infiltration pore volume (Vp) using admixtures and promoters. And we have successfully developed a solid like composite nanoporous energy absorption system which can largely simplify the design of protection devices and mechanical dampers.

Committee:

Yu Qiao (Advisor)

Keywords:

energy absorption; nanoporous materials; hydrophobic; silica gel; polyelectrolytes; infiltration pressure; recovery

Hammond, Gretchen ClarkTHE PHOENIX RISING: DESCRIBING WOMEN’S STORIES OF LONG-TERM RECOVERY A NARRATIVE ANALYSIS
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Social Work
Women’s personal narratives about long-term recovery from alcohol and drug addiction are scarce, leaving much unknown about the nature of the recovery process over the life course. The female experience of being in recovery is often absent from the literature. Nine women, who identified as being in long-term recovery, ranging from five years to 28 years of sustained abstinence, were interviewed to gather their perspectives. A tri-layered narrative analysis was employed to examine story structure, transitions and trajectories over the life course, and women’s voicing of their experiences. Findings reveal language that is highly contextualized to structure personal stories, and includes the use of vignettes to further explain significance, and images and metaphors to illustrate emotionally charged experiences. The trajectories into addiction and recovery are detailed, including transitions that occur within each component. Definitions for recovery are included, as well as a description of recovery over the long-term from a female perspective. Implications for social work research in the addictions include an elongated timeline for early recovery, the importance of personal identity, an expanded definition for recovery from a female perspective and an awareness of the impact of trauma, abuse and stigma in the lives of recovering women.

Committee:

Thomas Gregoire, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Susan Saltzburg, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Holly Dabelko-Schoeny, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Social Work

Keywords:

recovery; addiction; women; long-term; life course; feminism; narrative analysis;

Zhang, KunFumaric Acid Fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae with Integrated Separation Technologies
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Fumaric acid is an important specialty chemical with wide applications as a food acidulant and as the chemical feedstock for the production of resins, plasticizers, and miscellaneous industrial products. Currently, fumaric acid is produced through a petroleum-based chemical method. Fungal fermentation provides a promising alternative method due to its advantages in environmental friendliness and availability of widespread renewable biomass feedstock. However, conventional fumaric acid fermentation processes suffer from low product yield, low productivity, and high production cost, whereas the competing chemical production methods are currently more economical. Therefore, the goal of this research was to develop effective and economic fermentation and recovery methods for improved fumaric acid production by Rhizopus oryzae. One of the major technical challenges is to control the fungal morphology and physiology for the overproduction of fumaric acid in a sustainable and scalable way. First, an effective fermentation process with good morphology control was developed using soybean meal hydrolysate as the nitrogen source for cell growth and fumaric acid production by R. oryzae. Uniformly dispersed mycelial clumps with a diameter of ~0.1 mm were formed with enhanced subsequent fumaric acid production. The fermentation reached a product titer of 50.2 g/L with yield of 0.72 g/g glucose. SMH with a high protein content was demonstrated as a good nitrogen source and the formation of protein precipitate acted as the immobilization carriers for cells. The solid-phase protein also provided a novel method for slow/controlled release that allowed the utilization of the nitrogen source by cells for an extended period without losing cell activity. The fermentation was then studied in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor (STB) and the results also showed that using SMH as the nitrogen source improved fumaric acid production with increased yield and productivity compared to urea. Aeration with air containing 16.7% CO2 increased the productivity by 76% and product titer by 13%. To improve the productivity, in situ product recovery by coupling the fermentation with an ion exchange column for fumaric acid adsorption was investigated. A strong-basic anion exchange resin IRA900 was selected due to its high adsorption capacity at fermentation-favored pH of 5.0, and high selectivity against byproducts. The adsorption isotherm and the mechanism involved were investigated. A preliminary study showed that fermentation with intermittent in situ recovery enhanced product yield by 25% and productivity by 59%. In order to recover the low-concentration fumaric acid (<6.3 g/L) present in the filtrate after crystallization, an integrated separation process was developed for fumaric acid recovery and purification by adsorption with activated carbon followed with desorption and crystallization with acetone with high recovery yield of 93%. Both activated carbon and acetone can be recovered and reused in the adsorption process. Water sweeping was used to further increase the purity of fumaric acid crystals to >98%. Compared to the conventional recovery process using precipitation, although this new process require additional capital investment, with the reduced operational costs and enhanced the recovery yield it is economically and environmentally favorable with good potential for industrial application.

Committee:

Shang-tian Yang (Advisor); Jeffrey Chalmers (Committee Member); David Wood (Committee Member); Gönül Kaletunç (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemical Engineering; Microbiology

Keywords:

Fumaric acid; Rhizopus oryzae; morphology control; mycelial clumps; soybean meal; protein precipitate; CO2 fixation; in situ product recovery; ion exchange; IRA900; intraparticle diffusion; activated carbon adsorption; acetone desorption

Morris, Seth HendersonQuasi-Transient Calculation of Surface Temperatures on a Reusable Booster System with High Angles of Attack
Master of Science (M.S.), University of Dayton, 2011, Aerospace Engineering
The calculation of a recovery temperature based heat transfer coefficient proves to be sufficiently independent of wall temperature to use in a three dimensional, transient temperature model of a thermal protection system of a reusable booster concept. After a derivation of recovery temperature from the 1st law of thermodynamics, the weak dependence of the recovery temperature based heat transfer coefficient is investigated by 72 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models at angles of attack ranging from 0° to 90° over a range of Mach numbers, from Mach 2 to 5, and a variety of thermal boundary conditions at the wall, from isothermal to a conductive wall. Then, the heat transfer coefficient is calculated at many steady state CFD solutions for a reusable booster system concept on a given trajectory and applied to a transient Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model of a thermal protection system. Results are presented graphically.

Committee:

Timothy J. Fry, PhD (Committee Chair); José A. Camberos, PhD, PE (Committee Member); John Doty, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Atmosphere; Computer Science; Fluid Dynamics; High Temperature Physics; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

quasi; transient; heat; transfer; coefficient; hypersonic; CFD; computational; fluid; dynamics; thermodynamic; FEA; steady; state; recovery; temperature; reusable; booster; system; high; speed; computing; super; computer; kinetic; energy

Doering, SharonHuman Trafficking Recovery: Conceptual and Dimensional Considerations in a Stage Model
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Educational Studies
The devastating crime of human trafficking affects millions of individuals and communities; therefore deeper understanding of it and its psychological and social impacts is needed. Agencies are interested in strategizing methods that promote protection and assistance while individuals are interested in personal healing — both interested in recovery on various levels from the blight of human trafficking. Survivors, clinicians, and rehabilitative programmers share their ideas through semi-structured interviews about the crime, its sequelae, and important features to recovery called dimensions. This study reveals that existing models of trauma and recovery based in ecological theories are sufficient for conceptualizing the trauma and recovery from human trafficking. Stages are considered in terms of where dimensions might occur implicating practical considerations for aftercare or rehabilitative programming.

Committee:

Stephen Sunderland, PhD (Committee Chair); Sharlene Lassiter Boltz, JD (Committee Member); Vanessa Allen-Brown, PhD (Committee Member); Roger Collins, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

human trafficking;recovery;complex posttraumatic stress disorder;stages;;;

Tolusso, Danilo VThe Placebo Effect: Influence on Recovery During Repeated Intermittent Sprints
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies /Kinesiology
Despite the available literature addressing the placebo effect regarding performance, there is a paucity of research addressing the possibility of a placebo effect both within and between bouts of repeated sprint performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the administration of a placebo influences recovery during and between sessions of intermittent sprinting. Ten sprint-trained participants performed a series of repeated sprint tests under two different conditions in a counterbalanced order; one where they were administered a control beverage (i.e., water) and another with an experimental beverage (i.e., placebo). Each testing session consisted of three repeated anaerobic sprint tests (RAST) on a non-motorized treadmill with seven minutes of recovery between sets. Participants were then given 24-hours of recovery whereupon the repeated sprint test protocol was repeated. Ratings of perceived exertion were recorded within five seconds after each sprint. Following each RAST, participants were asked to rate their pain using a visual analog scale which was followed by a blood lactate sample drawn. Participants were then asked to rate their recovery using the perceived recovery status scale 30 seconds before beginning each subsequent RAST. Power was recorded throughout each session from a non-motorized treadmill in order to analyze changes in sprinting performance. Approximately 20 minutes following the final sprint, participants provided a session rating of perceived exertion to rate the global difficulty of the session. A 2x3 repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine significant differences in peak power, mean power, decrement score, recovery score, perceived recovery status, rating of perceived exertion, pain, and blood lactate between RASTs and conditions. Results from the analyses revealed no significant differences between conditions during the day one testing session. However, results showed the experimental condition produced significantly higher peak power (p < 0.001) and mean power (p = 0.002) versus the control condition in RAST3 of the day two session. These findings were observed in absence of any other significant difference in metabolic or perceptual strain (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it appears the administration of a placebo can attenuate the decline in performance as fatigue increases during repeated sprinting bouts.

Committee:

Matt Laurent, PhD (Advisor); Adam Fullenkamp, PhD (Committee Member); David Tobar, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Kinesiology

Keywords:

PLACEBO; PLACEBO EFFECT; REPEATED SPRINTS; RECOVERY; FATIGUE; INTERMITTENT; PERCEPTUAL; PERFORMANCE

Chandrasekaran, VetrivelVirtual Modeling and Optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2014, Mechanical Engineering
Organic Rankine Cycles are used for Waste Heat Recovery from low temperature heat sources. In an Internal Combustion Engine, roughly one-third of the fuel energy is sent out through the exhaust. ORC's were investigated for fuel efficiency improvements for heavy duty trucks in the 70’s during the oil crisis. ORC’s have once again gained interest with the current energy scenario and advances in technology. A recuperated ORC with R245fa as refrigerant is modeled in this thesis using the commercial 1-D simulation software GT-SUITE. The ORC is designed to extract energy from the exhaust of a gasoline powered light duty vehicle. Control inputs for the ORC are pump speed, expander speed and exhaust gas bypass valve position. The exhaust gas is not a steady source of heat, with varying temperature and mass flow rate depending on the operation of the vehicle. To maintain the ORC at a pre-determined operating state, feed-forward maps will be created. Exergy destruction is proposed to be used as a parameter that limits the control effort within reasonable limits. A second law analysis will be performed to identify points of exergy destruction and the ORC will be optimized using a Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm to generate a Pareto front of net power output and exergy destruction in the system for a single exhaust condition that will allow the decision maker to choose a suitable state for the ORC. The Pareto front will be constructed for other off-design exhaust conditions and the trends will be observed between multiple exhaust gas conditions.

Committee:

Marcello Canova, PhD (Advisor); Shawn Midlam-Mohler, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Automotive Engineering

Keywords:

ORC; PSO; Multi-objective optimization; Optimization; GT-POWER; Waste Heat Recovery;

Medved, David GA Grounded Theory Investigation of Public Stigma, Internalized Stigma, and Mental Health Recovery in the Wellness Management and Recovery Program
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2014, Psychology
Mental illnesses are prevalent and impairing conditions in the United States, with a 26% 12-month prevalence, and a 46% lifetime prevalence (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005; Kessler, Berglund, Demler, Jin, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005). In the United States, 5.8% of the population is considered as having a serious mental illness (SMI). The term SMI is used in federal regulations that refer to disorders that interfere with at least one area of social functioning. Mental illnesses are often stigmatized by the public and generally this stigma is regarded as an issue of concern, but the research indicates an inconsistent relationship between the presence of stigma and mental health (Mak, Poon, Pun & Chung, 2007). Given that stigma is both a social issue and a psychological issue, pitting in-groups against out-groups, it is often addressed in psychosocial treatment groups. The current study sought to generate a grounded theory model of stigma experiences and therapeutic changes experienced by those participating in a recovery-focused, psychoeducational group treatment program for persons with SMI, the Wellness Management and Recovery (WMR) program. Qualitative data were collected from 12 participants of the WMR program. Two higher order themes emerged. The first theme regarded participant experiences with mental illness and stigma, while the second theme regarded their responses to these phenomena. These two themes, experiences and response to mental illness and stigma, provide a unique viewpoint on the relationships between mental illness, public stigma, and internalized stigma from the perspective of WMR participants. Subordinate themes including benefits, limitations, coping, and disclosure of mental illness are described by participants, as well as the role of WMR in promoting mental health recovery and lessening internalized stigma. Participants also reflected on their experience and put forth hypotheses for the development, persistence, and consequences of both public and internalized stigma. Finally, participants provided suggestions for reducing stigma in the general public. Results of this study help to elucidate the complicated associations between symptoms of mental illness, coping, and how public and internalized stigma complicate the recovery process. Further support is provided for theories of stigma as a harmful social process with dire consequences for the internal and external environments of the stigmatized individual (Corrigan, 2004).

Committee:

Wesley Bullock, PhD (Committee Chair); Gregory Meyer, PhD (Committee Member); Mojisola Tiamiyu, PhD (Committee Member); Janet Hoy, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

stigma; mental health recovery; psychosocial rehabilitation

Draper, Shane NEffects of Intermittent Pneumatic Compression on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) in Long Distance Runners
Master of Education, Cleveland State University, 2014, College of Education and Human Services
Purpose: The purpose was to measure the effects of intermittent pneumatic compression (NormaTec, NT) on muscle inflammation after long distance running. Methods: Ten long distance runners, five males and five females, ages 18-55 years performed two, 20 mile runs at 70% VO2 max. The runs were followed by either no treatment (control) or NT treatment for five consecutive days. For the NT run, subjects were treated for one hour immediately following the run and daily for five days after. For the control run, subjects did not receive any treatment. Serum C – reactive protein (CRP), a marker of muscle inflammation, was measured pre and post run and daily thereafter for five days for both trials. Repeated measures ANOVA and two-way ANOVA were used to assess treatment differences. Results: The results indicated no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the control and treatment runs in CRP levels. There was also no gender differences or order effect of runs. Subjective pain ratings indicated no significant difference in pain between the control and treatment runs except when comparing the first run compared to the second run (regardless of whether the first run was a treatment or control run); there was a significant difference in which the subjects experienced less pain on the second run. There was no significant difference in mean weight loss, fluid intake, sweat rate, heart rate, percentage of maximum heart rate, or percentage of maximum VO2 max. There was, however, a significant difference (P = 0.038) in running time when comparing the control run (196.2 minutes) against the treatment run (204.8 minutes). Conclusions: Although the test subjects recovered one day earlier when using the NT device (Day 4) compared to the control (Day 5), this difference was not significant.

Committee:

Kenneth Sparks, Ph.D. (Advisor); Kathleen Little, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Emily Kullman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Joan Thoman, Ph.D., RN, CNS, CDE (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Anatomy and Physiology; Health Sciences; Kinesiology; Physiology; Therapy

Keywords:

Inflammation; Recovery; Intermittent Pneumatic Compression; Compression; NormaTec

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