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Carmona, Jasmin RThe Role of Maternal Trauma in Reciprocity of Reasoning, Verbal Aggression, and Physical Violence between Mothers Who Use Substances and Their Children
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Human Development and Family Science
Understanding the complexity surrounding trauma, substance use, and conflict resolution in mother-child interactions is imperative to addressing the wide range of needs and challenges among high risk families. Yet, there is little research that focuses on the interrelationship between trauma, substance use, and conflict resolution within a systemic context. No study to date has examined trauma and conflict resolution tactics among children and mothers with a substance use disorder engaged in a family-systems intervention. Thus, the current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining three research objectives. First, women were grouped based on the type and frequency of their trauma experience (childhood abuse, intimate partner violence, and street victimization), and predictors of these groups were investigated. Second, stability and reciprocity in conflict resolution tactics (reasoning skills, verbal aggression, and physical violence) were examined among mothers and children. Third, conflict resolution tactics were compared between a family-systems intervention and an attention control. Findings suggested the categorization of three trauma classes, with depressive symptoms and runaway episodes predicting the classes. Although reasoning skills and verbal aggression did not significantly differ between the three classes, using the full sample, children’s reasoning skills and verbal aggression at 12 months was predicted by their initial levels of these tactics (e.g., stability) and mothers’ verbal aggression at 12 months predicted their initial levels of this tactic (e.g., stability). Children’s use of reasoning skills and verbal aggression tended to predict their mothers’ use of these tactics. Evidence of reciprocity was not found and the model that examined physical violence used to resolve conflicts could not be estimated. Treatment effects in conflict resolution tactics were not found, but using the full sample, findings suggested reductions in verbal aggression among mothers and children regardless of treatment condition. Overall, findings of the current study suggest that trauma experiences range in type and frequency among women, with trauma likely occurring in both childhood and adulthood. Therefore, it may be advantageous for substance use treatment programs to include components that address women’s trauma experiences in order to provide more comprehensive care. A better understanding of the factors that interrupt stability in verbal aggression among children and mothers is needed, and providers should include children in their mothers’ treatment plan given that children’s use of conflict resolution tactics may predict their mothers’ use of tactics. Similarly, research is needed on the active elements of family-systems interventions that reduce verbal aggression used to resolve conflicts. Understanding the conflict resolution process is a crucial step towards successfully intervening in high levels of family conflict, especially among vulnerable children and mothers experiencing a substance use disorder and trauma.

Committee:

Natasha Slesnick (Advisor); Suzanne Bartle-Haring (Committee Member); Keeley Pratt (Committee Member); Samantha King (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Individual and Family Studies

Keywords:

Maternal Trauma in Reciprocity of Reasoning, Maternal Trauma in Reciprocity of Verbal Aggression, Maternal Trauma in Reciprocity of Physical Violence, Mothers Who Use Substances, Children of Mothers Using Substances

Bogdewiecz, Sarah E.Hard Science Linguistics and Nonverbal Communicative Behaviors: Implications for the Real World Study and Teaching of Human Communication
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2007, English (as a Second Language)
This thesis incorporates a study that shows a relationship between verbal and nonverbal behaviors and the outcome of a communicative event. This study was conducted by observing the communicative behaviors that potential customers exhibited after they were offered a free sample. The societal norm of reciprocity states that people who receive gifts (such as free samples) are likely to express obligatory feelings to the gift-giver (Spradly 2000). However, it was demonstrated by El-Alayli and Messe (2003) that people who receive a gift may feel that their social freedom is challenged and choose not to respond. The study shows that although the majority of people accept a free sample, they are not likely to reciprocate; and responses that are traditionally assumed to show acceptance can actually refer to denial or rejection when one observes nonverbal responses. For example, ten percent of the time when the responses of “sure”, “yeah” or “okay” were spoken by a customer after a free sample was offered, he/she did not accept the sample. Four percent of the time when the customer said “thanks” or “thank you”, he/she also did not take the sample. The outcomes of this study coincide with Hard Science Linguistics that values human communication as being comprised of all observable behaviors in real world situations. Nonverbal behaviors are important to analyze because they do not depend on the properties of the researcher to be observed. Furthermore, articulations that are traditionally viewed as positive acceptance (such as "thanks", "thank you", "sure", "yeah" or "okay") can actually be part of a denial or rejection of an offer when analyzed in combination with nonverbal responses. Evaluations of the cultural and pragmatic circumstances surrounding an event directly reflect the behaviors of potential customers when they were offered a free sample. When teaching communication, one must take into account verbal and nonverbal behaviors of the native setting in relation to the overall context or purpose of the communicative event.

Committee:

Douglas Coleman (Advisor)

Keywords:

nonverbal; nonverbal communication; communication; real world; real world communication; hard science linguistics; applied linguistics; linguistics; anthropology; free samples; gifts; norm of reciprocity; reciprocity

McDowell, Evelyn AnitonReciprocity and Financial Information Relevance
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2006, Accounting
The goal of this study is to provide direct evidence of the relationship between donations and the use of financial information by donors. In addition, the study explores how the motivation to reciprocate influences the use of financial information and donor choice. As one of the most widespread and basic norms of human culture, reciprocity requires that one person try to repay what another person has given. This sense of future obligation enables the development of various kinds of continuing relationships, transactions, and exchanges that are beneficial to society. Social motives, such as reciprocity, drive behavior and outcomes; yet, these are often ignored in accounting research. An underlying assumption in accounting research is that donors are swayed by financial information. However, there is little direct evidence on this point. This study provides data on how donors actually use financial information in their decision process. This study hypothesizes, using a model of social preferences, that the rule of reciprocity will bias judgment and influence information acquisition and choice. The study applies a pre-decisional research method that tracks the information selected by subjects and uses a dictator game to investigate the relevance of financial information to decision makers. In the experiment, subjects are given small gifts from nonprofit organizations and then are asked to allocate resources between themselves and organizations, using the financial and non-financial data displayed on web pages to facilitate the decision process. The findings of this study indicate that reciprocity is a motivator that affects the level of donations and the amount of effort subjects put forth in their decision-making process. The program ratio, a supposedly salient piece of financial information and purported to play a significant role in donor’s investment choice, is not the overwhelming factor in the decision to contribute to an organization. In addition, this study provides evidence that non-financial information is useful in donor decision making and, in some cases, makes accounting information less relevant. Overall, the findings indicate that reciprocity affects donor decision making and the use of financial information.

Committee:

Timothy Fogarty (Advisor)

Subjects:

Business Administration, Accounting

Keywords:

Nonprofit Organizations; Financial Statements; Reciprocity; Social Preferences; Relevance of Information; Experiment; Computerized Mouselab; Contributions

Perion, Jennifer J.The Effect of the Reciprocal Nature of Friendship on the Experience of Malignant Social Psychology in Community Dwelling Persons with Mild to Moderate Dementia
Master of Liberal Studies, University of Toledo, 2016, Liberal Studies
Social scientists have identified negative social exchanges, known as Malignant Social Psychology, that can erode perceptions of self-worth and negatively influence one’s social identity. When a person with dementia encounters social exchanges such as shunning, infantilization or stigmatization, it creates a negative experience that can be especially difficult to overcome. Friendship, which is a mutually voluntary relationship often outside of the caregiver/care recipient dynamic, may offer benefits for persons with dementia if it has a reciprocal nature that provides opportunities for a more balanced exchange. This study examines friendship for persons with dementia, and whether opportunities exist in such relationships for reciprocal behavior that might influence the experience of Malignant Social Psychology for these individuals. Six men and four women who identified as experiencing memory problems were recruited from education and support programs sponsored by a chapter of The Alzheimer’s Association. The majority of the participants were White and had at least some college education. They had an average age of 76 years and all reported their health as good or very good. During a one-time face-to-face interview, participants were asked questions about existing friendships, including opportunities for mutual support and help. The data were analyzed using a qualitative phenomenological method that revealed themes of friendship that are valued by persons with dementia. Five themes emerged: 1) recognizing the importance of longevity in friendship, 2) helping one another is a normal part of friendship, 3) feeling “alive” through the give and take in friendship, 4) knowing somebody is there for them, and 5) seeking security through friendship. Opportunities for further research into the importance of friendship as it pertains to feelings of positive identity and usefulness exist. Understanding the benefits that friendship provides, and ways to encourage the continuation of existing friendships, will allow professionals and caregivers insight into ways to provide enriching, fulfilling experiences for persons with dementia.

Committee:

Jerry Van Hoy, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Victoria Steiner, Ph.D (Committee Member); Barbara Chesney, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Gerontology

Keywords:

Malignant Social Psychology; friendship; dementia; reciprocity; personhood movement; Social Constructionist Theory; Social Positioning Theory; identity

Gordon, Ellen R. Exploring the Reciprocity of Attraction: Is the Truism True?
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2015, Experimental Psychology (Arts and Sciences)
The current research investigates the reciprocity of attraction phenomenon. The first six studies offer evidence for reciprocal liking and disliking. The first study demonstrated the effect while using a confederate. The second and third study demonstrated that people reciprocate attraction with both a previously liked and less liked individual. The fourth and fifth study employed an unobtrusive measure of attraction and the sixth demonstrates the effect by observing a real-world natural event, the sorority recruitment process. A seventh study was included a control condition as well as an unobtrusive measure of attraction.

Committee:

Mark Alicke (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Psychology; interpersonal attraction; reciprocity of attraction; reciprocal attraction

KNAPP, JOSHUA R.Developing a Multi-Foci Perspective of Psychological Contract Theory
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2008, Business Administration : Business Administration

A “psychological contract” exists when an individual perceives that another party hasobligated itself to a reciprocal exchange relationship with him/herself. Most researchers exploring this concept tend to focus solely on the exchange relationship existing between the individual and a unitary “employer” (e.g., Coyle-Shapiro & Conway, 2005; King & Bu, 2005; Raja, Johns, & Ntalianis, 2004; Rousseau, 2000; Rousseau, 2004; Sels, Janssens, & Van den Brande, 2004). However, it is important to note that psychological contract theory is not limited in scope to this specific exchange relationship. Rather, the concept can also be applied to the individual…#8482;s relationships with “…a client, customer, supplier, or any other interdependent party” (Italics added: Rousseau, 1995: 34). Unfortunately, the implications of this theoretical flexibility are largely unexplored in academic research.

The central premise of this dissertation is that individuals have simultaneous distinct but related psychological contracts with various individuals and groups operating within an organizational context, and the purpose is to examine the psychological contract concept from this multi-foci perspective. I accomplish this purpose through a three-stage survey-based research study. The sample population for the study was the entire incoming class of freshman at the business college of a large mid-western university. In Stage One, I investigated the nature of psychological contracts in my sample. This exploratory stage: 1) theoretically justified my research sample through an examination of archival data, 2) determined the foci of student psychological contracts through open-ended qualitative survey questions, and 3) determined the content of student psychological contracts through open-ended qualitative survey questions. In Stage Two, I used a quantitative survey methodology. Exploratory factor analyses were done to develop new measures of psychological contract content, and structural equation modeling procedures were used to test hypotheses related to psychological contract dimensions. In Stage Three, I again used a quantitative survey methodology and structural equation modeling procedures to test hypotheses related to psychological contract breach.

Overall, the described research program provides a substantial amount of evidence demonstrating that: a) individuals have simultaneous multiple psychological contracts, each with a different focus, and b) the dynamics associated with these psychological contracts change across foci. These results have important implications for both academic research and managerial practice.

Committee:

Suzanne Masterson, PhD (Committee Chair); Elaine Hollensbe, PhD (Committee Member); Karen Machleit, PhD (Committee Member); David Lundgren, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Social Psychology

Keywords:

psychological contracts; multi-foci; social exchange; reciprocity

Gilfert, Kaitlyn EmilyThe Directionality of English Vowel Substitution Errors in /hVt/ Context
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2017, Speech Pathology and Audiology
This study examined substitution errors for pairings of the English pure vowels (/i ¿ e æ ¿ u ¿/) in an /hVt/ context. Different measures exist to determine the impact errors have on intelligibility, including functional load and goodness. Vowel substitution errors commonly affect children with Apraxia of Speech and English Language Learners. Native monolingual English speaking listeners rated native monolingual English speakers saying the pure vowels as target /hVt/ words and all English vowels (/i ¿ e ¿ æ ¿ u ¿ o ¿ ¿/) in /hVt/ context as substitution errors on a goodness scale. This study found that there is no correlation between functional load and goodness ratings, thus the ratings should not be used to predict one another. Additionally, some vowel substitution errors are bidirectional demonstrating equally problematic vowel errors. Other vowel substitution errors show a unidirectional preference. Listeners prefer the mid central vowel /¿/ when paired with any peripheral vowel. Listener’s also show a preference for vowels that create a more frequently occurring /hVt/ word. Vowel substitution errors demonstrating a unidirectional preference should be prioritized in target selection for the populations mentioned.

Committee:

Amber Franklin, Ph.D. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Linguistics; Speech Therapy

Keywords:

functional load; goodness; vowel substitution errors; vowel directionality; vowel reciprocity

Ashirifi, Gifty DedeWhat do coresidential grandparents and the grandchildren they're raising need from each other?
Master of Gerontological Studies, Miami University, 2016, Gerontology
This research explored the reciprocity of care among coresidential grandparents and the grandchildren they are raising and what they need from each other to promote healthy grandparent-grandchild relationships. Grandparents provide invaluable contributions to their families and society sometimes by accepting primary responsibility of raising their grandchildren. Existing research posits both satisfaction and challenges involved in grandparents raising their grandchildren which can influence grandparent-grandchild/ren relationships. In addition to external factors such as the culture of the ethnic group and social support for grandparenting, existing research also shows that internal factors have an impact on grandparent-grandchild relationships including gender, the stage of development of the grandchild, the relationship between the grandparents and the parents, and the relationship between the parents and the child (Won, 2009). However, the relationship between the grandparents and the grandchild/ren they are raising (the focus of this study) has not been explored extensively. To explore this topic, primary data was gathered through semi-structured interviews conducted from 26 participants (15 grandparents, 11 grandchildren). Detailed notes were taken and audiotape recordings were made to validate the notes taken during the interviews. Findings suggest that reciprocity of care exists among coresidential grandparents and the grandchildren they are raising. In addition to love, care and respect, this research also found that engaging in activities together as a family promotes healthy interactions which can improve grandparent-grandchild relationships.

Committee:

Kate de Medeiros , PhD (Committee Chair); Brown Scott, PhD (Committee Member); Jennifer Bulanda, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geotechnology

Keywords:

Coresidential grandparents, grandchildren, reciprocity of care

Doughty, Jeremy R."The other side": A narrative study of south African community members' experiences with an international service-learning program
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Higher Education Administration
The purpose of my narrative study was to hear stories about how community members are affected by international service-learning programs. At a time when universities and colleges in the United States emphasize internationalization efforts and the civic purpose of higher education, more institutions are designing and delivering international service-learning programs. More questions must be raised regarding how these programs affect communities. Despite the centrality of reciprocity in the service-learning paradigm, the extant literature primarily focuses on the effects of international service-learning programs on students. I spent two weeks collecting data at a primary school in Ithemba, a predominantly Black African, Xhosa-speaking township in South Africa characterized by one of my participants as “the other side.” Three participants at Korhaan School—Bhejile (the principal), Dunyiswa (the deputy principal), and Peline (a teacher)—engaged in two semi-structured interviews and one focus group. To mask the identity of my participants, I selected pseudonyms for the two universities, the primary school, and the community where the primary school is situated, and I use the names selected by my participants throughout the manuscript. Three key findings emerged from the data. First, my participants’ stories underscored the interconnectedness of the community and the community-based organization. Second, the students who participate in the international service-learning program bring a myriad of benefits to Korhaan School, and the students’ actions align with ubuntu, a cultural framework that shapes an individual’s engagement with others. Third, areas for improvement exist for the international service-learning program. A number of implications for higher education professionals are presented as a result of the findings. First, faculty members and practitioners must involve community members as co-educators in the long-term life cycle of an international service-learning program. Second, U.S. higher education professionals must learn from international models of service. Third, faculty members and practitioners who design international service-learning programs must restructure pre-departure programming to include domestic service opportunities, academic preparation beyond surface-level knowledge, and the postcolonial perspective. These strategies will help higher education professionals construct meaningful partnerships with community-based organizations that are characterized by thick reciprocity—partnerships that are more inclusive, just, and reciprocal.

Committee:

Maureen Wilson, Ph.D. (Advisor); Ksenija Glusac, Ph.D. (Other); Christina Lunceford, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Dafina-Lazarus Stewart, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

international service-learning; service-learning; study abroad; South Africa; international education; community; community engagement; reciprocity; higher education; student affairs; narrative inquiry

Velez, John A.A Test of Bounded Generalized Reciprocity and Social Identity Theory in a Social Video Game Play Context
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Communication
Little is known about why cooperative video game play can have beneficial effects for players’ subsequent pro-social behaviors. The current experiment provides a formal test of two competing theories of social behaviors (i.e., Social Identity Theory and Bounded Generalized Reciprocity) in the context of social video game play. This study employed a 3 (Teammate: Helpful vs. Minimal vs. Unhelpful) x 2 (Prisoner’s Dilemma Game: Simultaneous vs. Sequential) x 2 (Donation Recipient: In-group and Out-group) mixed experimental design. Participants played a basketball video game with a helpful or unhelpful teammate against an ostensible opposing team. Participants then engaged in a one-shot simultaneous or sequential prisoner’s dilemma game with their teammate and an opposing team member. Participants in the control condition were assigned to teams but did not play a video game until after engaging in the prisoner’s dilemma game (i.e., minimal groups). The results indicated that participants with helpful teammates were more pro-social to teammates in the simultaneous prisoner’s dilemma game compared to participants with unhelpful teammates. As predicted by Bounded Generalized Reciprocity, participants’ donations in the prisoner’s dilemma games were mediated by their expectations of teammates to reciprocate pro-social behaviors. Participants with helpful teammates did not demonstrate in-group favoritism (i.e., donating more money to teammates compared to opposing team members) by donating substantial amounts to teammates and opposing team members. Participants with unhelpful teammates also did not engage in in-group favoritism by donating low amounts of money to teammates and opposing team members. Overall, the results support predictions of Bounded Generalized Reciprocity compared to Social Identity Theory. Implications for social video game research are discussed.

Committee:

David Ewoldsen (Advisor); Brad Bushman (Committee Member); Brandon Van Der Heide (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

Cooperative Video Game Play, Bounded Generalized Reciprocity, Social Identity Theory

Prosser, Julie LanetteUnder Pressure? The Relationship between Reciprocity, Intimacy, and Obligation in Self-Disclosure
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2015, Psychology, General
Studies of self-disclosure conducted in the lab show that individuals report greater liking for those who disclose highly intimate information, whereas field studies show that individuals report greater liking for those who disclose information of lower intimacy. One possible explanation for such inconsistent findings is that laboratory studies typically create a scenario where the recipient of self-disclosed information is expected and obligated to reciprocate by self-disclosing in return. Field studies, however, remove the obligation for the participant to reciprocate, thus creating an unbiased evaluation of liking for the discloser. The current study examined the effects of self-disclosure on liking when level of intimacy and participants' roles were manipulated in a lab setting (participants were expected to respond or not). Participants evaluated an individual based on a vignette of low or high intimate content. The interactive effects of participant role and intimacy level on reports of interpersonal liking as well as the role of perceived similarity with the disclosing target were examined. Results indicated only a main effect of intimacy, such that participants evaluated the target person with higher levels of liking when the vignette was of high intimacy rather than low intimacy, regardless of expected role. Additionally, although similarity did not mediate the association between intimacy and liking, participants in the high intimacy group felt significantly less similar to the target than participants in the low intimacy group and liked the target significantly more when they perceived him or her to be similar to themselves.

Committee:

Erin O'Mara (Advisor); Jack Bauer (Committee Member); Lee Dixon (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

self-disclosure; intimacy; reciprocity; similarity; liking; obligation

Weng, ZhiquanConsumer Search and Firm-Worker Reciprocity: A Behavioral Approach
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Economics

My dissertation research uses a combination of theoretical, empirical and experimental methods to identify the psychological factors underlying decision processes and to quantify their effects in market contexts in the industrial organization literature.

The first essay, "Modeling Sequential Search with Anticipatory Regret and Rejoicing" models how regret and rejoicing arise when consumers sequentially search for lower prices, and shows that regret and rejoicing can explain why people are generally found to "search too little" compared to the theoretical benchmarks. Anticipatory regret and rejoicing are incorporated into the optimal search problem based on the formal regret theory of Bell (1982) and Loomes & Sugden (1982). Due to the asymmetry in anticipatory regret and rejoicing, the model predicts: First, "search too little" is optimal as long as people are more sensitive towards regret than towards rejoicing. Second, if additional feedback is offered so that people expect to see what the next price would have been had they continued to search, search behaviors become observationally indistinguishable from the benchmarks. In addition, if people's sensitivities towards future regret/rejoicing are strengthened after recently experiencing regret or rejoicing, the model can explain why people rationally recall past prices.

The second essay, "Testing Regret in Sequential Search: Evidence from Experimental Data" devices an empirical strategy to test if regret and rejoicing do affect actual search in the way prescribed by the model. An empirical investigation of 673 separate searches from an experimental dataset confirms that people's latent reservation prices are affected by their experiences with regret and rejoicing during search. In particular, regret about the last search being unsuccessful increases the probability of stopping from 18% to 31% in the current round. Two competing explanations for “search too little”, risk aversion and satisficing behaviors, are evaluated and are rejected in favor of regret/rejoicing. We also propose an experimental design that directly tests the effect of anticipatory regret on search through the manipulation of feedback following the decision to stop.

The final essay, "Surprise and Reciprocity: A Real Effort Experiment" presents the results of a real-effort field experiment which tests for the presence of a surprise effect in a gift-exchange game. We hypothesize that a surprise effect induces workers to work harder when the wage paid is greater than expected. We find that surprising workers with a higher wage induced them to work more meticulously, raising the quality but not the quantity of the work performed. The surprise effects did not diminish but persisted over time. In contrast, workers did not respond positively to additional wage payment when the bonus announcement was made ahead of time.

Committee:

Dr. Matthew S. Lewis (Committee Chair); Dr. Paul J. Healy (Committee Member); Dr. Lixin Ye (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Economics

Keywords:

search too little; sequential search; regret theory; rejoicing; surprise; gift-exchange; reciprocity; real effort experiment;

Modula, Michael VincentTrust, Knowledge, and Legitimacy as Precursors to Building Resident Participation Capacity in Public Land-Use Decisions
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, City and Regional Planning
The purpose of this research is to understand how neighborhood residents build a capacity, or conversely, are prevented from building a capacity to participate in city land-use decisions that have an effect on their neighborhoods. The specific focus is on the speech acts of giving explanations and making promises and the contributions of those speech acts to the building up or tearing down of trust, knowledge and legitimacy between the residents, between the residents and their institutions (area commission and its zoning committee in this research) and between the members of those institutions. The goal is to contribute to our understanding of how residents can move between the rungs of Arnstein’s participation ladder so they may participate authentically as partners in the future of their neighborhoods rather than simply giving input. The analysis is based on regime theory utilizing a Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodological framework. The analysis is based on two case studies from one neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio. Those two case studies confirm the assumption that humans connect to each other and learn from each other through reciprocal acts of exchange or speech acts. Constructive speech acts strengthen trust, knowledge, and legitimacy between people. Under certain conditions destructive speech acts can push people into positions that strengthen their trust, knowledge, and legitimacy. Conversely, destructive acts of exchange can convince people that they have no knowledge or legitimacy and can limit the trust that they build with each other and with their institutions. We have also learned that the speech acts of leaders (both those who hold positional authority and those who hold personal authority) are particularly important. Neighborhood institutions (e.g. area commissions, civic associations, and other neighborhood-based organizations) are also significant because they provide the spaces and conditions for trust, knowledge, and legitimacy to develop. We learned that the lack of this social infrastructure can be a significant impediment to the development of civic capacity. The area commission, we learned, is particularly important because it provides a pre-existing institutional “shell” for resident appropriation into a trust-building, knowledge-building, and legitimacy-building institution that can develop or strengthen participation capacity. However it cannot accomplish this without other social infrastructure and without leadership that supports the development of trust, knowledge, and legitimacy among the residents. Part of that social infrastructure comes from smaller, more local, social institutions, such as civic associations. However, there must be a communicative conduit connecting the area commission to the civic associations, and the communication must be bi-directional, trust-building, knowledge-building, legitimacy-building, and representative of residents’ needs and aspirations. Policy recommendations focus on actions residents and their institutions can take within the neighborhood to build and sustain participatory capacity. Partnerships with other local institutions (such as faith-based institutions) are suggested so long as all parties have a clear understanding of each group’s goals and priorities. Recommendations for future research include further analysis of the role and development of citizen leaders in neighborhood organizations and the impact of individual behaviors of employees within city bureaucracies.

Committee:

Hazel Morrow-Jones (Advisor); Kenneth Pearlman (Committee Member); Jennifer Cowley (Committee Member); Kevin Cox (Committee Member); Eugene McCann (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Land Use Planning; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Participation, Regime Theory, Participatory Action Research, Reciprocity

Larsen, Randy R.The Role of Nature in John Muir's Conception of the Good Life
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2011, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies

Aristotle says our best moral guidance comes from considering the lives of exemplary individuals. I explore John Muir, as an exemplar of environmental virtue, and consider the role of Nature in his conception of the good life. I argue his conception consists of a web of virtue including various goods, values, and virtues. I suggest three virtues are cardinal: attentiveness, gratitude and reverence. I explore how Muir cultivated these virtues in Nature.

I argue Muir sought freedom from a popular conception of the good life, grounded in the gilded age values of money and materialism, and was sensitive to the harms these brought to both Nature and individuals. I show that Muir was particularly aware of the effects of what he called the vice of over-industry. I argue Muir was willing to suffer extreme loneliness in order to cultivate his conception of the good life in Nature. I show that he struggled, especially in his thirties, to find a balance between freedom and community.

I show how in Nature Muir cultivated attentiveness to both his intuition and the observable world and I explore the relationship between them. I show that his rejection of anthropocentrism was based, in part, on his observations as a fully-engaged scientist. I argue attentiveness lead Muir to view wild animals as exemplars. He was especially drawn to the skill, beauty and true instinct of wild mountain sheep.

I explore the relationship between gratitude and celebration and Muir's exuberant expressions of ecstasy. I argue that while many of his friends remained stoic, his observation of the celebration of Stickeen, a small black dog, lead him to important insights into the commonality of all “our fellow mortals.” I make the case that Muir was most grateful for beauty as expressed in natural harmony. I distinguish gratitude from appreciation and thankfulness by suggesting gratitude implies reciprocity, as in a debt of gratitude, and that Muir's environmental activism was motivated by wanting to reciprocate his gratitude for Nature. I also posit that through this activism Muir found increased meaning in his life; thus reflecting the nature of a truly reciprocal relationship.

I argue Paul Woodruff's framing of the term reverence offers an important environmental virtue because it positions processors as learning the limits and potentialities of their power and wisdom. Knowing one is neither all-powerful nor helpless is an essential environmental virtue because it steers clear of both apathy and hubris. I argue neither apathy nor hubris is an appropriate response to our current environmental crisis. I show how Muir was able to cultivate reverence through wild adventure.

I conclude by speculating on how President Obama's Deepwater Horizon Oil Disaster Commission might have been affected if John Muir were a member the commission.

Committee:

Mitch Thomashow, Dr (Committee Chair); Phil Cafaro, Dr. (Committee Member); Joy Ackerman, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ecology; Environmental Education; Environmental Philosophy; Environmental Studies; Ethics; Philosophy; Religion; Wildlife Conservation

Keywords:

John Muir; virtue ethics; wilderness; Nature; gratitude; attentiveness; reverence; reciprocity; simplicity; freedom; Aristotle; beauty; Stickeen; Deep Horizon Oil disaster; over-industry; ; environmental virtue ethics; environmental ethics;loneliness;

Trocchia-Balkits, LisaA Hipstory of Food, Love, and Chaosmos at the Rainbow Gathering of the Tribes
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2017, Individual Interdisciplinary Program
Engaging with sensory ethnography at the Rainbow Gathering of the Tribes, I bring forward ways of knowing about food and social relationships that are complex and interdisciplinary, abstract, and at the same time, intensely felt and personal. Conducting research in the Green Mountains of Vermont in 2016, during the 44th annual gathering, I explore the social spaces of the counterculture gathering where food is produced, distributed, prepared, consumed, and disposed of, as being deeply performative. These sites enable expressions of difference, and stand as incarnations of the personal as political—embodied and dynamic. Food spaces are potent affective environments, where Love, variously expressed and interpreted, directs intention. Through active participation, select interviews, historical research, and reflection, I encounter and consider how food and affect interanimate to define identities, influence relationships between ecologies, modulate environments, and shape economies. Chaosmos, the constant interplay between order (the cosmos) and disorder (chaos) provides the stage for considering the experience of self-organized food systems in affective, cooperative, and horizontal environments. This interdisciplinary study privileges embodied experiences and intuitive ways of knowing as they concern multisensorial scholarship. Hybrid creative/academic elements introduce chaosmos into the dissertation-as-artifact. In the end, through the transmission of affect, the performance of food, and the praxis of self-organizing and complex reciprocity, a social ecology of food emerges at the Rainbow Gathering of the Tribes as order from disorder. The implications of this research speak to the complex nature of food environments as social structures of empowerment and resistance.

Committee:

Stephen Scanlan, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Devika Chawla, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Smoki Musaraj, PhD (Committee Member); Larry Burmeister, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Communication; Cultural Anthropology; Economic Theory; Experiments; Peace Studies; Personal Relationships; Social Research; Social Structure; Sociology; Spirituality; Sustainability

Keywords:

Food systems; Self-organizing; Affect; Sensory Ethnography; Counterculture; Rainbow Family; Mutual Aid; Performance of food; Interdisciplinary; Social Ecology of Food; Diverse Economies; Complex Reciprocity; Resistance; Collective Action

Batten, Dallas SanfordThe effects of bilateralism upon reciprocity, bilateral trade flows, and the demand for international reserves /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1980, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Economics

Keywords:

Commerce;Commercial treaties;Reciprocity ;Econometric models

Oliver, Daniel G.How's your research going to help us?: The practices of community-based research in the post-apartheid university
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Educational Policy and Leadership
The purpose of this research was to examine the practice of university engagement at one South African university. I have examined one feature of engagement: community-based research in the Greenveld region of South Africa. Three research questions framed this study: 1) How do academic research and community service interact?; 2) What are the particular ways that context complicates this interaction?; and 3) What meaning does reciprocity have for researchers and residents? How is reciprocity practiced? How is reciprocity experienced? In this study, I examined how a host of relationships (e.g., researcher/participant, administrators, grantors) and contexts (e.g., institutional, local, regional, national) complicated the practice of community-based research. Using interviews, observations and documents, I examined the practices of community-based research at a rural, South African research facility. In speaking with researchers and administrators affiliated with the facility, and local residents often affected by facility projects, a nuanced image of community-based research emerged. Local residents believed that given the resources at the disposal of the facility and the poverty in the area, community-based researchers should offer tangible goods and services. In contrast, researchers had diverse preferences and practices regarding their use of community-based research, local participation and reciprocity, often providing very little in terms of direct service or tangible goods. Amid these diverse opinions and preferences were contexts that further complicated the practice of community-based research. First, the facility was located in one of the poorest regions of South Africa. When overlaid with apartheid, the result was an area suffering from many social, political and economic problems. Second, the institutional context of the university complicated the practice of community-based research. While a post-apartheid culture worked to popularize outreach and engagement, many at the university did not fully embrace such practices. In the end, it is suggested that community-based research be viewed as a social practice. When focused on practice and experience, community-based research begins to appear more diverse than characterized in the literature. Approached this way, community-based research shows the imprint of context (e.g., local, regional, national, institutional) and individual preferences (e.g., perceptions of reciprocity and participation).

Committee:

Susan Jones (Advisor)

Keywords:

community-based research; reciprocity; participation; South Africa; research policy

Ressue, LaurenReciprocity in Russian: An investigation of the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic interfaces
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures

This dissertation explores two reciprocal expressions in Russian, drug druga and reciprocal sja verbs to determine their distribution, semantics and pragmatics. I argue that while these two expressions are similar in many ways, they also differ in subtle ways not before discussed. While the empirical foundations of this dissertation are data from Russian, my findings have empirical and theoretical consequences for both the formal semantic and the typological literature on reciprocity.

In English, the reciprocal expression each other has been studied in detail to explore the relations between participants it is compatible with (Langendoen 1978, Dalrymple et al. 1998b, Beck 2001). For example, the sentence in (1) is compatible with a context in which (i) each artist painted each other artist or each artist painted just one other artist.

(1) The four artists painted each other.

In this dissertation, I explore the meaning of reciprocal expressions in Russian to discover whether these expressions have the same meaning as each other and whether they contribute any meaning other than relations between individuals. My data comes from both a corpus study utilizing the Russian National Corpus and elicitation with native speakers of Russian.

My results suggest that while both drug druga and the sja verbs, like each other, also convey more than one relation between individuals they also contribute other semantic content to a sentence. For example, they both introduce a temporal restriction on events. Some of the sja verbs semantically restrict events to simultaneity, and I argue that drug druga gives rise to an implicature that the events are simultaneous. I also explore two different syntactic constructions the reciprocal sja verbs occur in and find a number of semantic differences between the two constructions. I conclude that the syntactic environment of a reciprocal expression can affect its semantics. I furthermore find that drug druga is restricted against occurring with the preposition s when it introduces a relation of accompaniment to a sentence.

My findings suggest that while reciprocal expressions convey a set of relations between individuals, they also contribute other semantic and pragmatic content that is sensitive to a number of factors. Furthermore, I argue that while reciprocal expressions exhibit some uniformity in their meanings, these meanings also differ. I provide a formal analysis based on those proposed for English each other by Dalrymple et al. (1998b), Sabato and Winter (2005) and Dotlacil and Nilsen (2008). My analysis extends this account to the Russian expressions and captures other semantic and pragmatic properties beyond relations between individuals. The core of the semantic analysis consists of proposed lexical entries for drug druga and the reciprocal sja verbs, whose truth conditions allow the right predictions about the behavior of these expressions in comparison to each other (and each other) and other reciprocal expressions.

Committee:

Andrea Sims, Dr. (Advisor); Judith Tonhauser, Dr. (Advisor); Daniel Collins, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Foreign Language; Linguistics; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

reciprocity; Russian; semantics; linguistic interfaces; pluractionality