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Kabengele, BlancheAn Intellectual History of Two Recent Theories of Racism
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Educational Studies
This dissertation examines the origin, evolution, facility, and effectiveness of Anti-racism and Whiteness Theory to eradicate racism in the United States during the last decade, 2000 - 2010. During the founding of the country, a sense of civic responsibility, and moralized manifest destiny sanctioned land conquest and enslavement of Africans for the achievement of personal gain. Society justified subjugating Africans into chattel slavery, considering color and cultural difference as confirmation and rationale to discriminate. Today, the U.S. Constitution prohibits discrimination and society at-large disapproves racist acts and behavior. Nonetheless, racist incidents continue. While undeniably, the issue of race in America is still a serious concern, many suggest civil rights and affirmative action redresses divide society, advancing one group, over others. Today, as civil rights, and affirmative action recipients, African Americans make up a significant number of the middle class, whereas whites, in contrast, comprise a considerable number of a middle class that is shrinking, from an economic recession, caused in part by globalization and the country’s transformation from industry to service. Conversely, the black underclass increases, as a result, of loss of unskilled work sent to overseas countries paying lower salaries, deficient labor laws, and environmental protections. Obfuscating the dialectical relationship existing between race and class, special interest groups incite and infuse racist rhetoric, to augment their own self-serving interest. Consequently, race baiting occurs to keep racism alive, preventing empowerment of a unified bi-racial group’s capacity to pressure political leaders to address the needs of the working and middle classes, over the interest of the wealthy. It is in this way that the capacities of anti-racist systems to eradicate racism are negated.

Committee:

Marvin Berlowitz, PhD (Committee Chair); Vanessa Allen-Brown, PhD (Committee Member); Eric Jackson, EdD (Committee Member); Stephen Sunderland, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education History

Keywords:

Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity;Racism;Whiteness Theory;Historiography of Race;Sociological Context of Race;Race Relations

Collier, Brian WhitneyI AM THE STONE THAT THE BUILDER REFUSED: SPIRITUALITY, THE BOONDOCKS AND NOT BEING THE PROBLEM
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Educational Leadership
It is visible in academic dialogue, specifically educational research, that there has not been any substantial research published that constructs or examines The Boondocks animated series in a capacity that extends the discourse past stereotypical issues and paradigms that are associated with the inferiority of African American males and the marginalized experiences they encounter. One primary purpose of this study is to offer a counter argument to the negative conversations that surround The Boondocks comic and animated series. Because most arguments about the text stem from the images and language, the conversations surrounding anything positive or hopeful as it pertains to being a Black male, are left out. Furthermore, this media text is currently not perceived as a reference that can be used as a pedagogical tool. In this qualitative critical media analysis, I sought to answer the question: How does the curriculum of The Boondocks represent issues of race, spirituality, and masculinity? Although The Boondocks is typically understood and critiqued as a Black Nationalist text, I intend to look at the animated series through the lens of race, spirituality and Black Masculinity. I specifically examine the text through the theoretical underpinnings of Critical Media Literacy and Critical Race Theory. Methodologically, Critical Media Literacy, Critical Race Theory and Qualitative Media Analysis help to contextualize The Boondocks animated series. I ultimately argue that the animated series can be understood and used as a curriculum text.

Committee:

Denise Taliaferro-Baszile (Committee Chair); Dennis Carlson (Committee Member); Sally Lloyd (Committee Member); Paula Saine (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology; Curriculum Development; Education; Minority and Ethnic Groups

Keywords:

The Boondocks, Spirituality, Black masculinity, Race, Critical Media Literacy, Critical Race Theory, Qualitative Media Analysis, Critical Race Media Analysis, Curriculum Theory

Clements, Philip JamesonRoll to Save vs. Prejudice: The Phenomenology of Race in Dungeons & Dragons
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Popular Culture
This thesis is a critical examination of how players of the fantasy role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons use the concept of race, both in and out of the game. The study of race in role-playing games has been neglected, and this is a tragedy, because these games offer a unique space where the concept of race, often a difficult and uncomfortable topic of conversation, is questioned, criticized, and reshaped by the players. Role-playing games are spaces of encounter between the players and a cast of imaginary others, and this requires a degree of empathy on the part of the players that makes role-playing games a space of ideological change, as players are forced to consider the world from viewpoints both familiar and alien. The theoretical framework within combines a phenomenological analysis of roleplaying games that allows non-gamers to understand the practice and importance of these games with critical race theorists such as bell hooks, Paul Gilroy, and Patricia Hill Collins that defines what race is and how it affects all of us on a day-to-day basis. This thesis is also based on interviews with geographically diverse set of gamers who demonstrate the highly personal nature of gaming, and how race takes on a multitude of meanings both within the fictional game settings and around the gaming table.

Committee:

Jeremy Wallach (Advisor); Esther Clinton (Committee Member); Marilyn Motz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Ethnic Studies; Recreation

Keywords:

race; critical race theory; critical race studies; phenomenology; roleplaying games; role playing games; RPG; RPGs;

Goings, Carolyn SmithRacial Integration in One Cumberland Presbyterian Congregation: Intentionality and Reflection in Small Group
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2016, Leadership and Change
Negative attitudes toward racial minorities and consequent maltreatment of non-Whites continue to be a crisis in America. The crisis of racism is still realized in phenomena such as residential segregation (Bonilla-Silva, 2014), health disparities (Chae, Nuru-Jeter, & Adler, 2012; Chae, Nuru-Jeter, Francis, & Lincoln, 2011), and in the not-so-uncommon unjust arrests and imprisonment of persons of color (Alexander, 2012). Improvement in race relations through the development of meaningful cross racial relationships in racially integrated settings is one avenue that may lead to reduction of racism (E. Anderson, 2010; Fischer, 2011; Massey & Denton, 1993). Christian congregations are common settings in America, and Christian teachings are primary sources of Western ethics and moral values. Historically, Christian practices have affected American attitudes such as with regard to elder care, have influenced legislation such as child labor laws, and have even swayed the contents of the United States constitution. Yet, racial segregation has been the norm in Christian congregations from the end of American slavery until today. Since there may be a relationship between the persistence of segregation in Christian congregations and the persistence of racism in America, racial integration in Christian congregations may impact racial attitudes and relationships. Using Participatory Action Research, this study explored ways to improve racial integration and race relations in Christian congregations. This study utilized volunteers in a 30-day exploration of racial integration in a congregation, a small church in one of the two Cumberland Presbyterian denominations. Data from observations, interviews, racially integrated events, reflection sessions, and participant journaling were collected and analyzed. Intentionality in racial integration in one congregation resulted in cumulative positive change, at times difficult and incremental. Findings revealed that adaptive, proactive leadership enabled cross racial dialogue leading to increases in transformative relations and learning. This dissertation is available in open access at AURA: Antioch University Repository and Archive, http://aura.antioch.edu/, and OhioLINK ETD Center, http://etd.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Laura Morgan Roberts, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jon Wergin, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Daniel J. Earheart-Brown, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Craig Keener, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; American History; American Studies; Behavioral Psychology; Behavioral Sciences; Bible; Biblical Studies; Black History; Black Studies; Clergy; Divinity; Ethics; Ethnic Studies; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Religion; Religious Congregations; Religious Education; Religious History; Social Research; Sociology; Spirituality; Theology

Keywords:

race relations; racial segregation; integration; churches; Christian congregations; participatory action research; Cumberland Presbyterian; leadership; Blacks; Whites; race in churches; segregated denominations; slavery and religion; race and religion;

Gavia, MiekoMieko Gavia : The Dog Project
BA, Oberlin College, 2011, Theater
This thesis chronicles my journey with my original theatrical piece, Dog, from inception to the end of its Oberlin College run, and includes a reflection of my experience and ideas for the future of the piece. I will provide both sociological and literary context for several important aspects of the show, as well as personal reflections on the process and discoveries made therein.

Committee:

Caroline Jackson-Smith (Advisor); Matthew Wright (Committee Member); Justin Emeka (Committee Member); Alicia Arizon (Advisor)

Subjects:

African Americans; Asian American Studies; Black History; Ethnic Studies; Hispanic Americans; Latin American Studies; Mental Health; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Native Americans; Performing Arts; Theater; Womens Studies

Keywords:

multiracial; race; mixed race; theater; original theater; interracial relationship; depression; bipolar; mental illness; race; play; mental health; playwright

Darrow, Shane G.Racial Representation in Advertising: A Content Analysis on Alcohol Advertising During the NBA and NHL Playoffs
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2014, Journalism (Communication)
This study is an initial attempt to investigate the relationship between alcohol advertising on television and sports programming with different racial viewership. A content analysis on the televised alcohol advertisements that were shown during the National Basketball Association and National Hockey League playoffs was conducted in order to determine whether or not alcohol advertisements were more prevalent during sports programming with a higher Black viewership and to further dissect the roles played in those commercials by African-Americans. It was not only concluded that there were significantly more alcohol advertisements shown during playoff games for the National Basketball Association, which had a higher Black viewership than the National Hockey League, but also that African-Americans played more important roles in those advertisements as well.

Committee:

Jatin Srivastava (Advisor); Bernard Debatin (Committee Member); Craig Davis (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Black Studies; Communication; Journalism

Keywords:

Alcohol Advertising; Racial targeting; race in advertising; african americans in advertising; race in sports; race in alcohol advertising; african american roles in commercials

Martinez , Karen M. USING THE RACE CARD: CONSTRUCTING REVERSE-RACISM WITHIN THE ANTI-IMMIGRATION DEBATE
MA, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Sociology
Immigration is one of the most polarizing issues in our society, despite the vital role it has played in the structuring of the United States. The literature surrounding immigration has primarily focused on the economic reasons that motivate both negative and positive attitudes towards immigration. Yet, very little research examines how post-racial America talks about immigration. Therefore, by conducting a secondary data analysis of 116 qualitative online threads, this paper explores how members of a self-proclaimed‚ nativist extremist group conceptualize the use of the `race card’ within the immigration debate. I find that ALIPAC members’ view the 'race card' as a form of reverse-racism in three unique ways: (1) as a token of affirmative action, (2) as a defense mechanism, and (3) as a way for politicians to push a liberal agenda. Through the use of colorblind racism, ALIPAC members’ successfully de-racialize the issue of immigration to avoid the stigma associated with being called a racist and focus instead on how this is an issue of law and order. However, this paper seeks to show how their argument against the `race card’ ignores how their own white privilege affects their feelings of victimization.

Committee:

Tiffany Taylor , PhD (Committee Chair); Nicole Rousseau, PhD (Committee Member); Katrina Bloch, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

Race, Racism, Race Card, Reverse-Racism, Immigration

MacĂ­as, Luis FernandoA LatCrit analysis of DACA recipients’ pursuit of a post-secondary education in Ohio
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, EDU Teaching and Learning
This qualitative study critically examines DACA recipients’ college access in Ohio. The testimonios of 18 racially, ethnically, and experientially diverse participants pursuing a higher education answers the research questions regarding what impact DACA and Ohio’s in-state tuition policies have had in participants college access and the role race and immigration status play when applying for college in Ohio. Critical Race Theory and Latino Critical Theory are frameworks ideal for the exploration of social and legal mechanisms that exclude some from educational resources. The critical race-grounded methodology of this research allows for a trans-disciplinary approach that centers experiential knowledge of People of Color when constructing a theoretical premise. A three-step coding process and collaborative data analysis with participants drove the theory formation and the results of the study. Findings include that DACA improved college access for some but in a way that is derivative. Improvements to in-state tuition consideration was largely the result of self and group advocacy by DACA recipients. Race and immigration status intersect because participants who are not Latina/o, or do not appear to be, commonly experience a temporal anonymity during their admissions process because admissions staff do not perceive them as possibly undocumented.

Committee:

Binaya Subedi, Dr. (Advisor); Cynthia Tyson, Dr. (Committee Co-Chair); Valerie Kinloch, Dr. (Committee Member); Theresa Delgadillo, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Hispanic Americans; Multicultural Education

Keywords:

DACA; undocumented; Latina-o; immigrant youth; equity; LatCrit; Critical Race Theory; Race; post-secondary education; first generation

Schneider, Leann GCapturing Otherness on Canvas: 16th - 18th century European Representation of Amerindians and Africans
MA, Kent State University, College of the Arts / School of Art
This thesis explores various methods of visual representation used to portray non-white Others by white European artists throughout the Age of Discovery and the dawn of colonialism. There are three major phases of visual representation of Others in European Renaissance and Baroque art. These will be examined and compared to suggest a visual manifestation of the shifting ideas of race throughout these centuries. The representation of black Africans in Europe and the New World, the court commissioned paintings of Albert Eckhout in Dutch Brazil, and lastly, the development of the casta genre in New Spain will be investigated in connection with a changing perception of race. When explored as a group, these representations of Others offer insight into the contemporary racial mindset and expand upon the understanding of the development of established races based on physical appearance in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. By following the introduction of the black African into the works of Renaissance painters, over the bridge of Albert Eckhout’s titillating Baroque works recording supposed ethnographic realities in Dutch Brazil, and ending in colonial Mexico with casta paintings, one can see European racial concepts forming, morphing, and leading to an almost explicitly visual understanding of race.

Committee:

Gustav Medicus, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; African History; African Studies; American Studies; Art History; Caribbean Studies; Comparative; Cultural Anthropology; Ethnic Studies; European History; Hispanic American Studies; Hispanic Americans; History; Latin American History; Latin American Studies; Modern History; Native American Studies; Native Americans; Native Studies; World History

Keywords:

Albert Eckhout; Otherness; colonialism; slavery; representation; race; race in art; european representation of otherness; others; non-western; brazil; portugal; art; art history; baroque art; renaissance art; medici; casta painting; casta; mexico; paint

Campbell, James HDJANGOS CHAINED: UNDERSTANDING THE NARRATIVES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE STUDENT ATHLETES PARTICIPATING IN DIVISION I BASKETBALL AT PREDOMINANTLY WHITE INSTITUTIONS
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Educational Leadership
Using Critical Race Theory as a conceptual foundation, this study examined the struggle and unique tensions encountered by African American males participating in Division I basketball in the United States. Particularly, it examines those tensions associated with the inequities these athletes experience as a result of eligibility requirements, their experience of otherness, and the lack of agency. This is a qualitative analysis that uses a template analysis. The primary research question is: How do Division I African American male intercollegiate basketball players narrate their university experience and what do those narratives reveal about their understanding of the material conditions of their labor? This question aims at understanding how the players understand their experiences at their university both on and off the basketball court, but it ended up being primarily interested in their experiences with their academic life. This dissertation also provides a brief history of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and covers the rules and regulations that apply to the student-athlete. The literature addressing black masculinity, "otherness," and persistence is also presented. Some of the main findings of this study were the African American male student athletes maintain complex and contradictory perceptions of self in the academic side of their experiences, reveal a fairly consistent agreement on the right for student athletes to receive some financial remuneration for all of the revenue they create, experienced both positive and negative moments related to being Black at a Predominantly White Institution including the complexity of interracial dating, but the central finding of the study is that while these young Black men have mostly positive memories of their college experiences, they found themselves having to subsume their academic ambitions to their basketball responsibilities.

Committee:

Richard Quantz (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

African Americans; Educational Leadership; Sports Management

Keywords:

African American Male; Student Athlete; Division I; Predominantly White Institutions; Django; Critical Race and Sport; Critical Race Theory; Black Masculinity; Otherness; NCAA; Basketball; Narratives

Humphrey, Robert ARepresenting Race, Gender, and Sexuality in Empire: (Counter)Hegemonic Masculinity, Black Fatherhood, and Homosexuality in Primetime Television
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Popular Culture
As a site of representational African-American culture, the television program Empire works to deconstruct many of the normative prejudices about masculinity and sexuality in the national community broadly, and in the Black community specifically. To do so, the series ties in issues of homosexuality with the traditionally heterosexist genre of hip-hop/rap music. Given that hip-hop is conventionally a Black, male, heterosexual space, it is significant that Empire creates a narrative around issues of masculinity and sexuality within this genre by prominently featuring someone of a marginalized group (i.e., the gay community) as being heavily entrenched in this particular music scene. Additionally, many of the ways in which Empire also deconstructs hegemonic ideals is through the portrayal of the character Lucious Lyon, who actually upholds hegemonic norms of masculinity and sexuality. It is when Lucious's heteronormative hypermasculinity is juxtaposed with other characters that much of Empire's cultural commentary comes through. While this can be seen in his interactions with women and his colleagues, a clear social critique of Black fatherhood is represented in Lucious's interactions with his three sons: Andre, Jamal, and Hakeem.

Committee:

Angela Nelson (Advisor); Becca Cragin (Committee Member); Jeff Brown (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; American Studies; Black Studies; Gender Studies; Glbt Studies; Mass Media

Keywords:

Empire; critical race theory; Black masculinity; Black fatherhood; homosexuality; hip-hop; rap; race; gender; sexuality; television; popular culture

Childers, Sara MelissaOn Their Own Terms: Curriculum, Identity, and Policy as Practice in a Successful Urban High School
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, EDU Policy and Leadership
This dissertation is the result of a year-long ethnographic case study of a nationally ranked high-performance, high- poverty college preparatory public high school in Ohio. As a multi-sited qualitative study, it brings together field work, interviews, and focus groups with historical and policy document analysis. Through a sociocultural analysis of policy as practice it examines how a complex set of federal and district policies are negotiated and re-appropriated by critical schooling actors as material practices aimed at supporting equity and excellence in urban student achievement. At the same time by unraveling the discourses that overburden urban educational identity with notions of disadvantage and risk, it uses an analytics of disruption to unfix urban students from these constructions to resituate them as educational agents on their own terms. This project makes apparent that even after Brown v. Board of Education and the No Child Left Behind Act, race continues to matter in school and hopes that bearing witness to such “difficult knowledge” will bring us closer to meeting our expectations for a more just and democratic education.

Committee:

Patricia Lather, PhD (Advisor); Antionette Errante, PhD (Committee Member); Sarah Fields, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

sociocultural policy analysis; poststructural theory; critical race theory; feminist theory;curriculum and instruction; race; Brown v. Board of Education; high school; ethnography

Geiger, Karen AudreyCross-Race Relationships as Sites of Transformation: Navigating the Protective Shell and the Insular Bubble
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2010, Leadership and Change
The context of leadership has evolved to incorporate greater social identity differences. Therefore, learning ways to navigate differences in social identity becomes important work leaders must now do. Because these differences surface in relationship with others, examining a relational framework helps us understand the nature of what happens between people (Ely & Roberts, 2008). This study explored the processes by which Black African American and White European American women enact leadership by creating and sustaining cross-race relationships as they work to change unjust systems around them. Using grounded theory methodology (Charmaz, 2006; Strauss & Corbin, 1990), a model was developed using the metaphors of "insular bubble," "protective shell," and "ecosystem" that illuminates the processes and strategies Black African American and White European American women use to create and sustain effective cross-race working relationships. The findings also generated a typology of tools, described as "nurturing the ecosystem" that each person in the relationship can use to create space in which to demonstrate positive ways of expressing social identity. These tools can be used in intrapsychic, interpersonal, and extra-relationship arenas. Focusing on race and gender as primary social identity differences, this question also took into account the systems that create patterns of domination and marginalization around those identities. Therefore, this study contributed to the leadership and change literature by illustrating the processes by which leaders can effectively incorporate a focus on social justice into their work, specifically in cross-race working relationships. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd.

Committee:

Lize Booysen, DBL (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Holloway, PhD (Committee Member); Stella M. Nkomo, PhD (Committee Member); Laura Morgan Roberts, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

African Americans; Gender; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Social Psychology; Social Research; Womens Studies

Keywords:

race; gender; racial identity; social identity; cross-race relationships; racial and ethnic differences; women; grounded theory; positive identity development; African-Americans; Whites; social justice; leadership

Johnson Pool, Jessica"Cultural Worldview, Religious Influence and Interpretation, and American Political Behavior"
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2012, Arts and Sciences: Political Science
Research on political behavior has shown that religion is often a major factor in the way that Americans identify politically and vote in elections. Christianity is the dominant religion in the United States, and a potent political and social force. However, the way that adherence to Christianity affects the vote differs according to not only Christian tradition, but race. Previous research has tended to treat race and religion separately, and only considers them jointly in the case of Black Americans. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this dissertation investigates how worldview based on culture and race, along with religious tradition – particularly interpretation of the Bible and clergy influence – combine to influence political stances, ideology, and voting behavior of religious White Americans. Drawing on insights from Critical Whiteness theory, this research centers on the value placed on individual, interpersonal, and social responsibility in the worldview of religious Americans and how that influences the political ideology, partisanship, and voting behavior of this set of constituencies.

Committee:

Stephen Mockabee, PhD (Committee Chair); Patrick Miller, PhD (Committee Member); Laura Jenkins, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

political behavior;race;christianity;religion;whiteness;critical race theory;

Goldberg, Leonard SeymourNegroid-caucasoid differences among college freshmen /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1970, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

African American college students;College freshmen;Caucasian race;Black race

McClellan, Patrice AkilahWEARING THE MANTLE: SPIRITED BLACK MALE SERVANT LEADERS REFLECT ON THEIR LEADERSHIP JOURNEY
Doctor of Education (Ed.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Leadership Studies
The purpose of this dissertation was to explore, understand, and profile the leadership experiences of Black male leaders residing in Northwest Ohio. The guiding question was “In what way do the racialized and spiritual experiences of Black men influence their leadership?” This study was an exploration of how these men navigated through personal and professional obstacles by relying heavily on spiritual relationships with others and/or a higher power as they lead through service. Portraiture was the biographical method utilized in this study. Portraiture is a qualitative method that blends art, science, and social critique with intent of storying as well as learning from the lives of the Black men in this study. Leadership is the influential relationship among leaders and followers directed through the communication process toward the attainment of goals by influencing through vision, values, and relationships. In this study, these men illustrate their leadership by employing spirituality, servant hood, and their identity as Black men. I presented in depth portraits that expand and illustrate elements of the conceptual framework. This study contributes to the understanding of leadership experiences from a Black male perspective. The overarching themes in this study were: (a) spirituality, (b) servant leadership, and (c) Black identity. The data illustrate these themes in addition to a reconfiguration and combination of the themes that produce what I have coined critical servant leadership. As critical servant leaders, these men merge spirituality, servant leadership, and Black identity into a visionary, empowering, prophetic soul force in an effort to lead and benefit those in their communities whose voice is muted. Lastly, this dissertation provides a framework and serves as a catalyst for future studies on leadership.

Committee:

Judy Alston (Advisor)

Keywords:

Servant Leadership; Spirituality; Black Identity; Critical Servant Leadership; Race; Critical Race Theory; Portraiture; Leadership

Weight, Matthew A.Confronting the Arms Race - Conference Commissioner Perspectives on Spending Within Intercollegiate Athletics
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies /Sport Administration
The commercial enticements of national exposure and lucrative television contracts in intercollegiate athletics have led to an increase in spending amongst National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) programs. This phenomenon has been referred to as the arms race of expenditures wherein athletic administrators outbid one another in an effort to gain a competitive advantage (DeBarros, Dougherty, Evans, Newman, & Palmer, 2009; Knight Commission, 2010; Luebchow, 2008). Intercollegiate conference commissioners fill integral roles as administrators that seek to preserve athletics within their conferences and can offer a unique perspective on the arms race phenomenon (Big Ten, 2011; Covell & Barr, 2010; “The 10 most powerful people,” 2007). The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of conference commissioners on the arms race within NCAA Division I (FBS) intercollegiate athletics in order to gain a deeper understanding of current practices and to supplement this void in the arms race literature. Therefore, four FBS conference commissioners, 17 associate commissioners, and four assistant commissioners (n=25) were surveyed. The inquiry was informed by institutional theory, which enabled an examination of the conferences as orbits of competition (Washington & Patterson, 2011). Results indicated that a majority of commissioners believed the arms race was having a negative effect on their conference, and they had a lack of faith in any suggested policy changes. A general discontent with the current BCS model was also expressed, especially from the commissioners of non-automatic qualifying conferences. Finally, the commissioners indicated feeling a lack of power toward curtailing spending, even if they united with conferences on a national level.

Committee:

Ray Schneider, Ph.D. (Advisor); Nancy Spencer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Amanda Paule, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sports Management

Keywords:

conference; commissioner; conference commissioner; arms race; arms race of expeditures;

Williams, Nicole V.Racial Identity Development in Prospective Teachers: Making Sense of Encounters with Racism
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, EDU Policy and Leadership

Prospective teachers bring to the classroom "interpretations of students and their communities, and their location within a hierarchical society that are informed heavily by assumptions about race and ethnicity" (Sleeter, 2005, p. 243). In his research on student-teacher relationships, Oates (2003) found these assumptions "strongly undermine academic performance," specifically for African-American students (p. 520).

How do prospective teachers believe their encounters with racism shape their past, present, and future experiences in teaching, learning, and interactions with others? How do prospective teachers make meaning of their encounters with racism? These were the primary questions addressed in this study. The researcher interviewed eleven prospective teachers in an urban education focused Middle Childhood Masters of Education Program at a large Midwestern university. The findings revealed the interview to be the first time participants discussed these encounters and reflected on the assumptions they hold regarding their students. The findings also demonstrate that the current teacher education curriculum does not provide prospective teachers with the opportunity to understand and challenge these assumptions. The primary recommendation of this study is a reconceptualization of the racial framework through which prospective teachers construct racism. The significance of this study is to present narrative evidence to support the necessity of curriculum reform in teacher education in respect to preparing prospective teachers for teaching students of diversity and to guide the development of teacher education curriculum to more accurately reflect the needs of the changing demographics of P-12 students.

Committee:

Beverly Gordon, PhD (Advisor); Adrienne Dixson, PhD (Committee Member); Sebnem Cilesiz, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curricula; Teacher Education

Keywords:

Teacher Education; Prospective Teachers; Race; Racial Identity Development; Critical Race Theory; Curriculum Studies

Burstion-Young, Michelle R.“Let’s Stay Together: Racial Separation and Other Coping Strategies Among African American High School Students Attending Predominately White Schools.”
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Arts and Sciences : Sociology

In this study, I explore what I call “coping strategies” – assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization – used by minority students who are in predominately White schools. Rather than being understood individually, I show in this study that these strategies are better understood as a social matrix. Depending upon the context, the majority of the minority student population will use more than one of these strategies at any given time. Further, we might gain a better understanding of micro-level race interactions if we can begin to map context. Are there times when minorities are more likely to engage in “separation” than other times? Why? Is there one strategy that seems to be more appealing overall, or are all tools equally useful?

The main goals of this study are fivefold: 1) to depart from binary models which treat the four coping strategies I have identified – assimilation, integration (or cultural “straddling” to paraphrase Carter 2005) marginalization, and separation as if they are mutually exclusive. I want to uncover how they are all constantly being used and begin mapping the process of when they are used: 2) to engage and challenge the two prevailing theories about acting White. I will challenge Fordham and Ogbu’s (1986) “acting White“ hypothesis which links low achievement to Black students who do not do well in school for fear of being labeled “White.” In addition I will engage Carter’s (2005) hypothesis that “acting White” is linked to social behaviors not academic ones: 3) To engage Tatum’s (1999) supposition that “all the Black Children are sitting together in the cafeteria” and add a sociological perspective to her psychological approach: 4) To begin mapping the process and context in which students become “cultural straddlers” (Carter 2005): 5) To examine potential gendered differences in how the coping strategies are enacted. If we do all these things; a) we can begin to map the contextual nature of collective racial identity, b) we can unlock how students successfully negotiate race, collective identity, and school success, c) we can chart a course that will allow us to better understand how we can create inclusive environments that allow students to be academically (or professionally) successful and stay culturally rooted.

Committee:

Annulla Linders, PhD (Committee Chair); Kelly Moore, PhD (Committee Member); Steven Carlton-Ford, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education; Educational Sociology; Secondary Education; Sociology

Keywords:

Race; self segregation; acting White; race and education; collective identity.

Prasad , Allison S.Lift Every Voice: The Counter-Stories and Narratives of First-Generation African American Students at a Predominately White Institution
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, EDU Teaching and Learning
Student populations at institutions of higher education across the United States are becoming increasingly diverse with more women, students of color, and students from low-income families enrolling in colleges and universities. Many of these students will be the first in their families to pursue and possibly obtain a college degree (Pascarella, Pierson, Wolniak, & Terenzini, 2004; Reid & Moore, 2008; Terenzini, Springer, Yaeger, Pascarella, & Nora, 1996; Vega & Moore 2012). According to Strayhorn (2008a), 75% of African American students attend predominately white institutions (PWIs). However, their attrition rates remain higher than whites and other ethnic minority college students (D'Augelli & Hershberger, 1993; Loo & Rolison, 1986). Therefore, it is important that research be conducted on first-generation African American students at predominately white institutions. The purpose of this research study was to critically analyze the academic and social experiences of first-generation African American students and their sense of belonging at a predominately white institution in the Midwestern region of the United States. A qualitative research design was employed that utilized one-on-one interviews in order to better understand the lived experiences of these college students. Additionally, critical race theory (CRT) was utilized as the theoretical framework, with specific emphasis on the tenet of counter-storytelling and narratives as a way to understand how race and racism impacted the experiences of first-generation African American students at a predominately white institution. In addition, critical race methodology particularly its attention to race and racism was utilized as a methodological approach for this research study. The following seven themes emerged from the data: (a) pre-collegiate academic and social experiences, (b) academic preparation in high school, (c) academic experiences/academic sense of belonging, (d) social experiences/social sense of belonging, (e) campus climate, (f) importance of financial aid, and (g) college as a way out. The findings revealed that racism and racial microaggressions within the campus climate negatively affected students' academic and social experiences and their sense belonging at a predominately white institution. Pre-collegiate and collegiate factors such as academic preparation, financial aid, and the opportunity to attend college both positively and negatively impacted the students' academic and social experiences and feelings of belonging.

Committee:

Valerie Kinloch, Dr. (Advisor)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education; Higher Education

Keywords:

First-Generation; African American; Predominately White Institution; Academic Experiences; Social Experiences; Academic Sense of Belonging; Social Sense of Belonging; Critical Race Theory; Counter-Storytelling and Narratives; and Critical Race Methodology

Steward, Tyran KaiIn the Shadow of Jim Crow: The Benching and Betrayal of Willis Ward
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, History
This dissertation provides a historical study of Jim Crow in the North via the interplay of race and sport. It analyzes the 1934 benching of Willis Ward, an African-American football player at the University of Michigan and reveals the racialized social order maintained by Michigan's famed Athletic Director Fielding Yost. This study probes how Ward's benching affected his career, especially his work directing hiring practices at the Ford Motor Company. It also explores Ward's conservative politics and his espousal of policies and practices aimed at maintaining the racial status quo. This project also chronicles how racism toward Ward shaped the politics of his teammate and future U.S. President Gerald Ford who supported affirmative action and civil rights legislation but opposed busing as a means to carry out school desegregation. A significant body of scholarship has examined the history of Jim Crow in the South. This dissertation, in contrast, provides an opportunity to examine the North's separate but unequal practices. This previously unstudied history of Ward and other black athletes at Michigan offer four significant insights regarding Northern race relations: it demonstrates how Northern institutions maintained segregationist practices without having the same legal underpinnings that existed in Southern states; it emphasizes the opposition that black athletes faced and exposes how institutions such as Michigan actively engaged in constructing racial barriers that constrained African American performance and compelled these players to exceed standard athletic expectations in order to earn spots on top college teams; it underscores how racial intolerance toward black athletes catalyzed resistance, created race advocacy and opposition, and contributed to a long history of black conservatism; and finally, it stresses how the racism black athletes met on the court and gridiron mirrored the racial prejudice they and other African Americans experienced in their interactions on campus, in the community, and throughout the country. By probing the entrenched restrictions that African Americans encountered in the North, this study provides a more comprehensive view of race relations in America.

Committee:

Hasan Jeffries (Advisor); Kevin Boyle (Committee Member); Judy Tzu-Chun Wu (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; History

Keywords:

Willis Ward; northern race relations; long history of black conservatism; Jim Crow in the North; race and sport; Gerald Ford racial politics; black conservatism; racial pioneering; racialized social order; Fielding Yost; University of Michigan racism

Walck, Pamela E.Reporting America's "Colour Problem": How the U.S. and British Press Reported and Framed Racial Conflicts during World War II
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2015, Journalism (Communication)
Race and ideologies of racial supremacy were at the very heart of World War II. U.S. troops did not have to look far to see how race influenced the American war machine as the country's military policies required African American and white troops to be processed, trained, and stationed at separate but supposedly equal installations across the country. Race determined whether one carried a rifle or drove a supply truck; operated the naval big guns or loaded munitions into Liberty-class ships; and even whether you would deploy or not. This study took an historical look at how the media reported race and race relations in a war fought over race. Specifically, it examined three events in the United States: the Detroit race riots, Harlem riots, and the Port Chicago explosion; and three incidents in the United Kingdom: the first racial incident in Antrim, Northern Ireland, the mutiny at Bamber Bridge, and the Bristol race riots, to reveal how mainstream newspapers and the American black press reported these events. Through an extensive examination of news coverage in twenty-four newspapers, U.S. and British government and military documents, and oral histories, this study examines how race was reported and framed in the media; and attempts to demonstrate how those frames and newspaper routines expand our understanding of race and race relations during this critical period of history. This study found that often the mainstream media in both nations downplayed race or at the very least attempted to minimize it during major news events, unless it was impossible to ignore. Sometimes this effort to curtail the role of race came from overt pressure from the government, as it was with the British press. Other times, news workers self-censored for fear that images of violence between Americans would fuel the Axis propaganda machine. Still other times, wartime censors severely delayed news reports. This study also found differences in how the U.S. and British press reported domestic incidents, particularly in terms of volume and tone of coverage.

Committee:

Michael Sweeney (Committee Chair); Patrick Washburn (Committee Member); Kathryn Jellison (Committee Member); Benjamin Bates (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; American History; Black History; History; Journalism; Military History

Keywords:

World War II press; race relations; black press; British press; wartime censorship; Detroit race riot 1943; Harlem riot 1943; Port Chicago; Bamber Bridge mutiny; Antrim stabbing; Bristol riots

Rickles, Michael LEXPLORING RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN INDIVIDUAL AND STRUCTURAL ATTRIBUTIONS, SELF-EVALUATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS OF INCOME FAIRNESS
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2013, Sociology
Background: Using the self-evaluation theory of legitimation (Della Fave, 1980; Shepelak, 1987; Shepelak and Alwin, 1986; Stolte, 1983, 1987) and the work of Matthew O. Hunt (1996, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2007; Hunt et al., 2000; Hunt and Wilson, 2009; Merolla, Hunt and Serpe, 2011), this study sought to understand the differences in the process of self-evaluation that emerge for different racial and ethnic groups, when taking several social-psychological constructs in to account. Methods: This study uses the Legitimation, Attribution and Self-Verification (LAS) Questionnaire (n= 1,107). These data were collected to measure people’s thoughts and feelings about social behavior, such as how people attribute success to themselves and others at work, the perceptions that individuals have about poverty in the United States, how education impacts the life chances of an individual and much more. Group Structural Equation Modeling (GSEM) was used to analyze the racial/ethnic group differences. Results: The group differences that were uncovered in the current research at as follows: First, for white respondents, demographic characteristics tend to be important for social psychological measures, namely mastery, but there does not seem to be an overriding pattern that determines how this group will self-evaluate. Black respondents as a group tended to place more emphasis on external measures, such as locus of control and reflected appraisals, for the process of self-evaluation. Latinos in this study were more influenced by internal social psychological processes – namely mastery – in their self-evaluative processes as a group.

Committee:

Matthew Lee, Dr. (Advisor); Richard Serpe, Dr. (Advisor); John Zipp, Dr. (Committee Member); Brian Pendleton, Dr. (Committee Member); Joelle Elicker, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

race; race identity; self-attribution; self-evaluation; social psychology; identity theory; white; black; Latino; legitimation

Laske, Mary ThereseHow Structural Disadvantage Affects the Relationship Between Race and Gang Membership
Master of Arts, University of Akron, 2007, Sociology
n/a

Committee:

Brent Teasdale (Advisor)

Keywords:

Gang membership; Race; Neighborhood disadvantage; Race and space

Carr, Thembi R.A Port in the Storm: An investigation of identity in a student race-based organization for African American student leaders
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2008, Education : Educational Studies

Scholars have noted that African American students have remained isolated on majoritiy White college campuses despite the increase in the diversity of the student body population (Sidanius, Levin, Van Laar, & Sinclair, 2004). It is being suggested that this isolation is exacerbated by student race-based organizations. However, scholars have also acknowledged the benefits that these organizations provide to African American students (Exum as cited by Williamson, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate how African American student leaders in race-based organizations experience their involvement in these organizations and how does these experiences influence their identity. This study also attempts to investigate how these students manage their relationships outside of the university by participating in student race-based organizations.

The findings showed that African American students who participate in race-based organizations experienced benefits, such as enacting social action and representing African American voices in White majority contexts. Experiencing these benefits also shaped their identity and their connections with others. This study also showed that through their participation in the race-based organizations, the students still held monolithic notions of identity, which increased their experiences of conflict. Overall, however, their identities were still positively shaped by these experiences.

This study has also identified implications for higher education. Educators and administrators need to reconsider their view on student race-based organizations and the students who participate in them. Because these organizations provide certain benefits to many African American students, educators and administrators should be able to identify these organizations that can further assist African American students throughout their collegiate career. With the campus community working together to create a diverse campus, all students will feel welcomed, appreciated, and supported.

Committee:

Roger Collins, PhD (Committee Chair); Annette Hemmings, PhD (Committee Member); Mark Gooden, PhD (Committee Member); Miriam Raider-Roth, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; Education

Keywords:

AAAOS; race-based organization; race-based; African American student; African American; Essentialism; African

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