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Thibodeaux, Lee A.Measuring the Diffusion of a Federal Drug Policy: Implementation of the Principles of Effectiveness in Ohio Public School Districts
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2008, Urban Studies and Public Affairs
Adolescent use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) is a continuing public health problem in the United States. The single largest source of funds for substance use prevention from the federal government is provided through the Safe and Drug- Free Schools and Communities Act (SDFSCA); administered by the United States Department of Education. In 1998, the Department introduced a planning framework, the Principles of Effectiveness, to guide school districts in establishing effective prevention programs. Those four Principles were: conduct needs assessment, establishment of measurable goals and objectives, selection of appropriate evidence-based prevention programs, and evaluate the impact of the program. This research study explored the degree to which the Principles of Effectiveness were implemented in Ohio public school districts. Data for the study were collected from prevention coordinators utilizing a web based survey. The survey collected information on the implementation of the four Principles and on organizational characteristics drawn from the theory of innovation that were hypothesized to be related to such implementation. In addition, the respondents were asked to identify obstacles and resources needed that influence the implementation of effective prevention programs. The results of this study indicate that the role of the prevention coordinator is significantly related to the implementation of the Principles of Effectiveness. More importantly, the tenure of the coordinator is an attribute that strongly points to the value of experience in the implementation process. Finally, limited funds and time demands were mentioned as the greatest obstacles that impede the implementation of the Principles of Effectiveness.

Committee:

Sonia Alemagno, PhD (Advisor); Peggy Stephens, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Public Administration; Public Health

Keywords:

school-based substance use prevention; federal drug prevention policy; diffusion of evidence-based prevention programs; Principles of Effectiveness; substance use prevention

Wandera, BonnieSexual Behavior of HIV-infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral therapy in Kampala, Uganda: A Prospective Cohort Study
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2009, Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Understanding sexual behaviors of persons on Antiretroviral therapy(ART) is critical designing and implementation of positive prevention programs.

559 HIV infected adults were enrolled in clinic based prospective observational study and sexual behaviors ascertained at ART initiation and semi-annually thereafter. Using Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, factors associated with sexual activity and unprotected sex were examined.

Over the first three years of ART, the proportion sexually active did not change at ~52% (χ2 Trend, p=0.94) while the proportion reporting unprotected sex decreased (χ2 Trend, p<0.0001). Men reported unprotected sex less often than women (p<0.0001). In all analyses, having no children and female gender (controlling for any other factors) was associated with the practice of unprotected sex.

The interventional effect of comprehensive HIV care resulted in marked reductions in unprotected sex particularly among men. Strengthening of positive prevention interventions, especially among females are needed in ART programs in this setting.

Committee:

Ajay Sethi, Phd,MHS (Committee Chair); Christopher Whalen, MD, MS (Committee Member); Jeffrey Albert, Phd (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biostatistics; Epidemiology; Health; Health Care; Virology

Keywords:

HIV; AIDS; Sexual Behavior; Antiretroviral Therapy; Positive prevention; Secondary HIV prevention; Prevention for positives;Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa;Heterosexual HIV Transmission; HAART; Sexual Transmission of Drug resistant HIV

CLUTTERBUCK, OWEN LEEA CASE STUDY OF AN EFFECTIVE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION PROGRAM FOR ADOLESCENT MALES WITH EMOTIONAL / BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS
EdD, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Education : Counselor Education
This study was designed to examine the dynamics and effectiveness of a formal substance abuse prevention program for adolescent males with emotional / behavioral disorders at a state chartered, non-public, independent alternative school. Through the themes of promotion, commitment and participation the process of collaboration between the action researcher ( program facilitator ) and school staff was documented. A desription of the direct impact of the substance abuse prevention program on student participants included themes of preparation, substance use / abuse, growth / development and follow-up. Finally, school administrators' and staffs' perceptions of the program value was assessed through the themes of outcome and plans. A naturalistic inquiry paradigm using the case study method was the research design adopted for this program and was particularly applicable in identifying and portraying the multiple patterns that emerged. The design was selected because there exists a critical need to document the components and related dynamics of substance abuse prevention initiatives for adolescents in general and adolescent males with emotional / behavioral disorders in particular. The data was in the form of anonymous responses to surveys and questionnaires, field notes collected during observation and semi-structured, open-ended interviews. The Hope Academy was purposely selected for this study. The site was chosen because it provided the researcher an opportunity to study a maximum variety of adolescent males with emotional / behavioral disorders from differing ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds as well as the unique design of an alternative educational setting. Through a thematic narrative an inductive comparative analysis of the data resulted in patterns, categories and themes which demonstrated the purpose of the research. The results of this study demonstrate the numerous benefits to be obtained from a formal school based substance abuse prevention program for all children and adolescents. In addition, the results provide a process model for instituting a substance abuse prevention program for all educators who wish to provide an invaluable addition to their curricula.

Committee:

Dr. Albert Watson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Guidance and Counseling

Keywords:

substance abuse prevention; primary prevention; adolescent males with emotional / behavioral disorders; life skills training; drug and alcohol education / prevention

DOWDALL, MARK PATRICKCOACHES' ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS TOWARDS ALCOHOL PREVENTION AMONG MALE HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES
MEd, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Education : Health Promotion and Education
A sample of 288 coaches completed a two page survey assessing their attitudes and behaviors towards alcohol prevention with the athletes they coach. Results indicated schools that require coaches to talk to athletes about the danger of alcohol use and have policies which prohibit alcohol of school grounds and at school sponsored events are more likely to have coaches which exhibit positive attitudes and behaviors towards alcohol prevention. Results also indicated that coaches who have taken a class, workshop or seminar on the dangers of alcohol use by student-athletes were more likely to act to prevent the athletes they coach from using alcohol. Recommendations are offered to help coaches and schools in preventing alcohol use among athletes.

Committee:

Dr. Keith A. King (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Health

Keywords:

high school athlete alcohol prevention; coaches and alcohol prevention

Roberts, Kelly Eileen CahillAn Evaluation of the Expect Respect: Preventing Teen Dating Violence High School Program
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2009, Counselor Education (Education)

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the Expect Respect: Preventing Teen Dating Violence program offered to high school students in one county in the state of Ohio. High school student participants in each treatment group provided demographic information, attitudes, and experiences of teen dating violence (TDV) via a background information form, the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI) (Wolfe, Scott, Reitzel-Jaffe, Wekerle, Grasley & Straatman, 2001) and the Attitudes Toward Dating Violence Scales (ATDV) (Price, Byers, & the Dating Violence Research Team, 1999) to determine the effect of the program directly after its completion and its short term effect three full weeks after the program concluded.

Only 141 valid cases were available for analysis using the CADRI, too few to determine statistical significance in immediate and short term effects of the program on participants' experiences. Two hundred seventy two students provided responses on the ATDV scales to determine effects of the program on participants' attitudes toward TDV.

A Repeated Measures MANOVA analysis resulted in a statistically significant difference between treatment groups' ATDV scores initially after the program and across time. This suggests that the program did lower participants' tolerance of TDV initially, and three weeks after the program concluded. In addition, male participants' scores were consistently higher than females' scores, suggesting that males have a consistently higher tolerance of TDV than females.

This research is the first step toward building an effective teen dating violence prevention program. With efficacy of the program indicated for the participants in this study, it is possible that other students in the county would benefit from this program. Additional research in other areas of the state and country are needed to continue to determine the efficacy of the Expect Respect: Preventing Teen Dating Violence program for high school students.

Committee:

Thomas E. Davis (Advisor); George Johanson (Committee Member); Yagen Pillay (Committee Member); Anthony Sallar (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Evaluation; Educational Psychology; Mental Health; Psychology; Public Health; Secondary Education; Social Psychology; Social Work; Statistics; Therapy; Womens Studies

Keywords:

teen dating violence; preventing teen dating violence; domestic violence; prevention; adolescents; prevention in schools;

Hinkelman, LisaWomen's self-defense training: an examination of assertiveness, self-efficacy, hyperfemininity, and athletic identity
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Educational Services and Research
This study examined the effects of a 10-week women’s self-defense course on levels of assertiveness, hyperfemininity, and three types of self-efficacy: interpersonal, activities, and self-defense among college students who register for a self-defense course at a large Midwestern University. A post-test only control group design was utilized. Students in the treatment group (n = 68) completed a questionnaire at the end of their training period that consists of demographic information, including information about perceived athletic identity, the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS), the Hyperfemininity Scale (HFS), and an unpublished instrument that measures interpersonal, activities, and self-defense self-efficacy. The control group (n = 75) completed the same instruments prior to receiving self-defense training. It was hypothesized that students in the treatment group would evidence an increase in assertiveness and interpersonal, activities, and self-defense self-efficacy. Additionally, it was hypothesized that women with higher levels of hyperfemininity would have lower scores on the RAS and lower self-efficacy scores, and that women who report higher levels of athletic identity will report lower levels of hyperfemininity, higher levels of assertiveness, and higher levels of self-efficacy. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) examined the effects of the treatment on the dependent variables and two MANCOVAs examined hyperfemininity and athletic identity as covariates. Following the multivariate analysis, univariate t-tests were run to examine the relative effects of each independent variable. Results indicated that the women’s self-defense course significantly affected women’s levels of assertiveness, activities self-efficacy, self-defense self-efficacy, and interpersonal self-efficacy. Hyperfemininity and athletic identity were not significant covariates. The implications of these results are discussed.

Committee:

Darcy Granello (Advisor)

Keywords:

self-defense; assertiveness; hyperfemininity; self-efficacy; athletic identity; rape prevention; sexual assault prevention;

Lai, Chwan-FuTHE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL LIGHTING, SHOE WEAR/TEAR AND LOAD CARRIAGE DURING DYNAMIC TASK PERFORMANCE ON SLIPPERY SURFACES
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2000, Medicine : Environmental Health Sciences
The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetic and kinematic aspects of slips associated with tasks performed while walking on a slippery surface under different environmental lighting and shoe wear/tear conditions. The effects of job-task, shoe wear/tear and environmental lighting on the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) to perform a job safely without slipping was researched. Forty healthy industrial workers were recruited for this study. There were five experimental conditions - surface slipperiness, lighting, shoe type, weight carriage, and walking path. Kinetic measurements which included the Maximum RCOF (RCOFmax ), and Coefficient of Friction provided by the shoe (COF shoe), x-excursion, y-excursion, and cycle time were collected using a strain-gauge type force platform. Using a video-based motion analysis system, the kinematic measurements of incoming velocity, sliding distance, sliding velocity, and heel contact angle were calculated. In addition, a subjective rating scale, Perceived Sense of Slip (PSOS), was administered immediately after each gait test to determine the subjective perception of slip during task performance. Test results indicated that the % of slip occurrence for walking on a turning path (63.7%)was greater than that of a straight path (56.3%). Slip occurrence also increased with the PSOS score. Results from the kinematic analysis indicated that there were behavioral changes associated with the slipperiness of the walking surfaces. The mean incoming velocity at heel strike was smaller (0.98 m/sec) in poor lighting condition than that in good lighting condition (1.06 m/sec). The mean sliding distance for a very oily surface was 3.4 cm, which was significantly longer than that for slightly oily (0.9 cm) or medium oily surfaces (1.9 cm). The sliding velocity was highest for very oily surfaces (0.15 m/sec) compared to medium (0.09 m/sec)or slightly oily (0.04 m/sec) surfaces. Results from this study indicate that slippery surfaces affect the kinematics of gait, while the effects of surface and path had detrimental impact on the kinetics of gait. Subjects modified their gait patterns while walking on the slippery surfaces and turning paths. Recognizing an impending danger of slipping and engaging appropriate strategies is not always possible. Reducing the sliding distance and velocity, once a slip is initiated, by better footwear and floor design may reduce the likelihood of a slip or fall incident.

Committee:

Amit Bhattacharya (Advisor)

Subjects:

Health Sciences, Public Health

Keywords:

Slip Prevention; Fall Prevention

Sackenheim, Adam MichaelINTERNSHIP REPORT Butler County Department of Environmental Services
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2004, Environmental Sciences
I interned with Butler County Department of Environmental Services (BCDES) from January to July, 2003. BCDES is a publicly-owned utility that provides water, wastewater treatment, solid waste management, and recycling and litter prevention services to the eastern portions of Butler County, Ohio. The Department provides environmental services to over 100,000 residents in West Chester, Liberty, Fairfield, Hanover and Ross Townships. As an Environmental Intern, I had a variety of job duties. I worked in a laboratory as an assistant analyst. I served on the Department’s Regulatory Compliance Team. I developed and implemented Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plans and Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure plans for BCDES’ two regional water reclamation facilities. I updated the Department’s biosolids land application program. I worked on issues related to Woodsdale Landfill, including leachate collection and explosive gas monitoring. I also managed a wetland creation project, and assisted in the development of an Environmental Management System.

Committee:

Jerry Green (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Sciences

Keywords:

Internship; Public Utility; Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan; Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure; Wetland Creation; Environmental Management System; Biosolids

Fishel, MarissaCollegiate Student- Athletes Knowledge of Injury and Injury Prevention
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Health Education
This study examined collegiate student-athletes' knowledge of injury, injury prevention, and barriers to seeking out an athletic trainer based upon basic demographic information (sex, sport, ever injured, ever visited an athletic trainer). A total of 100 collegiate student-athletes completed a valid and reliable survey. Results indicated the knowledge of injury prevention based on ever visited an athletic trainer to be statistically significant. Top barriers to seeking out an athletic trainer included the ability to self- treat, injury not serious enough to seek out athletic trainer, and not wanting coach to know injured. Information from this study may assist athletic trainers and other professionals working with collegiate student-athletes.

Committee:

Rebecca Vidourek, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Keith King, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Accounting

Keywords:

injury prevention;collegiate student-athletes;injury prevention barriers;athletic trainer

Townsend, Christy MarieDEVELOPMENT OF A FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION PROGRAM OF BEST PRACTICES FOR ADOLESCENT PREGNANCY PREVENTION
Master of Science, Miami University, 2003, Family and Child Studies
This thesis is focused on pregnancy prevention strategies targeting the adolescent population. A comprehensive and integrated overview of the relevant published research was provided. Social Learning Theory was utilized to examine the many changes and trying situations that occur during the developmental period of adolescence. Based on this literature review, a family life education curriculum for professionals was developed. The goal of this development was to gather a set of best practices of the most effective components that are included in existing programs and compose an actual program including the effective components.

Committee:

Charles Hennon (Advisor)

Keywords:

adolescent pregnancy prevention; teen pregnancy prevention

McCray, Kristy LeeAn Exploration of Knowledge and Attitudes About Sexual Assault Occurrence and Prevention Among Former Intercollegiate Athletes
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Kinesiology
The 1990s saw the development of research on sexual assault perpetrated by intercollegiate student-athletes, though empirical results were mixed and subject to criticisms from the field. Research on sexual assault in college athletics stagnated during the last 15 years, despite the fact that this time period has evidenced multiple high-profile, even fatal, cases of violence against women at the hands of male student-athletes. These events and others prompted the Office of Civil Rights to call upon universities to more appropriately investigate and sanction perpetrators of sexual assault. In April 2011, using Title IX as an imperative, the Office for Civil Rights issued a “Dear Colleague Letter” (DCL) as a call for universities to more swiftly and adequately address incidences of sexual assault by students. In the wake of the DCL, universities must have a fuller picture not only of student sexual assault in general but also of student-athlete involvement as they begin implementing or revamping programs to reduce sexual assault on campus. Due to the lack of current research, and considering past criticisms on methodology and theoretic frameworks, it is imperative to study the nature of sexual assault within intercollegiate athletics to adequately address the problem. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which former student-athletes understand sexual assault, as well as their perceptions of their athletic department’s response to occurrences and prevention. Drawing upon a grounded theory methodology, one goal of this research was to learn more about what student-athletes know sexual assault to be, so that practitioners and researchers alike can work toward creating and implementing more effective programs, ultimately leading to sexual assault-free college sports. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 15 former intercollegiate student-athletes from big-time athletics departments. Findings indicated three major themes: (1) Participant Knowledge of Sexual Assault; (2) Sexual Assault Within the Context of College Athletics; and (3) Creating Change in Athletic Department Culture, leading the creation of the Sexual Assault Prevention Paradigm for Athletic Departments. Relevant implications for athletic departments and universities are presented, including the curriculum for a model sexual assault prevention education program, A Zero Tolerance Approach: Sexual Assault Prevention Education for Student-Athletes (SAPES). Future research involves learning more about the nature of sexual assault within athletics, as well as testing the paradigm model and model education program.

Committee:

Donna Pastore, PhD (Advisor); Susan Sutherland, PhD (Committee Member); Brian Turner, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Sports Management

Keywords:

sexual assault; intercollegiate athletics; college sports; student-athletes; rape prevention education; sexual assault prevention; grounded theory; qualitative research; rape culture

COSS, BENJAMIN EDWARDDesigning Out Crime : Internal & External Aspects of Safety
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2008, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Architecture
The construction of many new public housing facilities makes its inhabitants feel vulnerable and offers very little physical or emotional security. This, in part, is due to the failure of the designer to take into account how people perceive spaces, resulting in buildings that are either monotonous and under stimulating, or ones that produce feelings of anger and fear which facilitate violent crime. Externally, the central notion of safety will be explored via Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design, making crimes so risky that they are averted. Internally, the solution to the problem involves using behavioral manipulators to purposefully influence behavior conducive to the notion of safety by creating meaningful spaces through the prescription of acceptable activity. The resulting building will serve as a model for multi-family housing by providing life-affirming conditions in which its occupants can live and thrive.

Committee:

Jay Chatterjee (Committee Chair); Michael McInturf (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

Crime Prevention; Architecture; Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

Branscum, Paul W.Designing and evaluating an after-school social cognitive theory based comic book intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity among elementary aged school children
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services: Health Education
During the past three decades the prevalence of child and adolescent obesity has tripled and currently 31.7% of children and adolescents are either overweight or obese. This is of concern due to the reported metabolic, psychological and social consequences associated with excess weight gain. While obesity occurs as the result of a sustained energy imbalance, there are many reported factors associated with its etiology. Interventions that can favorably impact such factors such as a healthy diet and physical activity could help prevent its onset early in life and spare children from reported metabolic and psychological consequences. Schools are one place intervention strategies are needed, however many obesity prevention interventions that have been implemented in this setting have produced mixed or modest outcomes. The after-school time frame is another excellent opportunity for such strategies, however less work has been done in this area compared with school-based interventions and more studies are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a social cognitive theory based childhood obesity intervention with children in the after-school environment. This study employed a group randomized controlled design, whereby a convenience sample of twelve after-school programs were randomized into either an experimental (social cognitive theory based) or comparison (knowledge-based) intervention. A pretest, post-test and three month follow up test was conducted to evaluate the programs effects on BMI-percentile, key obesity prevention behaviors (fruit & vegetable consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, sugar-free drink & water consumption, the engagement of physical activities, and the engagement of sedentary activities), and three constructs of social cognitive theory (self-efficacy, expectations (comprising of outcome expectations and outcome expectancies), and self-control) related to each behavior. Both interventions consisted of four-30 minute sessions that were implemented over a four-week period. Process evaluations were used during each session to evaluate program fidelity and dose. A convenience sample of 71 children (37 in the experimental and 34 in the comparison) completed the interventions and were used for the final data analyses in this study. Results indicated that study variables and demographic variables were not different for children in the assigned groups at baseline. Process evaluations suggested that both programs were implemented as planned. It was found that BMI-percentile, all obesity related behaviors, and social cognitive theory constructs did not change between groups over the course of the intervention. There was however a significant main effect, indicating an improvement in both groups for fruit and vegetable consumption, the engagement in physical activity, the engagement in screen time, water and sugar free beverage consumption and self efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. It can be concluded that the two interventions in this study may not have been very different from each other to discern changes. It is also likely that the experimental intervention may not have been of adequate length to truly produce the desired changes targeted in this study. More work is needed in this area to find appropriate, theory-based, health education programs that can complement larger health promotion efforts.

Committee:

Manoj Sharma, MBBSPhD (Committee Chair); Liliana Guyler, PhD (Committee Member); Leigh Lihshing Wang, PhD (Committee Member); Bradley Wilson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Education

Keywords:

Childhood Obesity;Obesity Prevention;Social Cognitive Theory;Comic Book Intervention;Primary Prevention

Volkenant, KristiLynn RChange in Coping Behaviors of Fourth-graders Following a 13-week Intervention
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Psychology/Clinical
Children’s coping behaviors were investigated in relation to stressful life events (e.g., parental separation/divorce, loss of a loved one) that are targeted in the I CAN DO program (a 13-week primary prevention coping program). At pre-intervention and at post-intervention, children reported on their coping strategies in response to a recently experience program-specific stressor and to a non-targeted stressor (i.e., a fight with a friend). Children’s responses were compared to a comparison group’s responses that did not receive the program. Four hypotheses were examined: 1) Children will use more active coping for stressors perceived as controllable; 2) Children in the intervention group will use more active coping for both stressors following the intervention as compared to the comparison group; 3) Children in the intervention group will improve on perceived control to solve and help themselves feel better about stressors, but will see stressors as less preventable; and 4) Changes in perceived control over time will be associated with changes in coping behaviors; that is, as children perceive problems as more controllable, they will engage in more active coping methods. Pre-intervention analyses indicated that children used more problem solving, social support seeking, and cognitive distraction strategies when they perceived problems as controllable. No significant changes in frequency of coping behaviors were found for the either stressor following the program. No significant improvements in perceptions of control were found for either stressor. However, the trend of the results was in the hypothesized direction; a larger proportion of children in the intervention group improved on their ratings of the I CAN DO stressor as preventable and a greater proportion of the intervention group children improved in their ability to help themselves feel better about a stressor. Finally, changes in Active coping were found in relation to changes in perceived ability to solve the I CAN DO stressor. Specifically when children’s perceptions changed from solvable to unsolvable, they used less problem solving and social support seeking. When children’s perceptions of the peer fight stressor changed from unsolvable to solvable, they used more problem solving and more social support seeking. Implications for primary prevention programs focusing on coping skills are discussed.

Committee:

Eric Dubow (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Clinical

Keywords:

coping; children; active coping; prevention; primary prevention; perceived control

Higginbotham, Harlan KeithA Psychoeducational Approach to Improving College Student Mental Health
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), Wright State University, 2013, School of Professional Psychology
Mental health problems among the college population continue to increase in terms of frequency and severity. At the same time, the number of high school graduates who enroll in institutes of higher learning is also increasing making the college years an ideal opportunity to address existing and emerging mental and psychological challenges. Traditional counseling center services--while shown to be effective--are not appropriate for all students and are too resource intensive to meet the full need of the college population. Creative strategies are necessary to address the growing need for mental health services among college and university students that are resource efficient, can reach a broader range of students by overcoming barriers to treatment, can effectively address current mental health concerns, and that effectively prepare students for the mental and emotional challenges they will face in today’s world. Available research supports the application of several psychoeducational approaches to the treatment of common mental health concerns as well as in the development of resiliency for the protection against future challenges. This project provides a potential solution to the growing need for mental health services by combining proven psychoeducational approaches into a semester class under the umbrella of effective stress management. This class integrates physiological and psychological understandings of stress and stress management with evidence-based skills including relaxation techniques, problem-solving, mindfulness, cognitive restructuring, and assertiveness shown to be effective not only in the treatment of stress but also in the treatment of common mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression. Further, this course encompasses a set of skills consistent with the positive psychology literature on the development of resilience. An instructors guide, course slides, course syllabus, and recommendations for readings, homework, and practices are provided and organized into separate modules to facilitate adaptation to various formats.

Committee:

Robert Rando, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Jeffrey Allen, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Daniela Burnworth, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mental Health

Keywords:

college student mental health; mindfulness; resiliency; psychoeducation; stress management; cognitive restructuring; assertiveness; relaxation; suicide prevention; barriers to treatment; stigma; bibliotherapy; workshop; seminar;

WIENER, FRIDA BDIETARY CONSIDERATION TO REDUCE RISK FOR SECONDARY PRIMARY ORAL CAVITY CARCINOMA
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Allied Health Sciences : Nutrition
Objective: Analyze intakes of dietary nutrients, fruits and vegetables (F&V) of oral carcinoma survivors. Subjects: Twenty-four oral carcinoma survivors. Methods: Three 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained over fifteen-days by telephone interviews. A Formative Questionnaire was completed as part of the first interview. Results: Subjects had significantly lower daily dietary intake means (all p<0.05) of energy, niacin, vitamin C, B6, B12, phosphorous, iron, and zinc compared with data from the 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). Compared to the Recommended Dietary Allowances/Dietary Reference Intakes (RDAs/DRIs) subjects had lower daily mean percentages of calcium, magnesium, vitamins D and E (<75% RDAs/DRIs). Significant correlation (p=0.01) was noted between F&V daily variety scores and dietary total carotenoids and vitamin C intakes. Conclusion: Subjects are deficient in energy and nutrients dietary sources when compared to the CSFII data and RDAs/DRIs. Cancer survivors may benefit from a diet rich in F&V variety.

Committee:

Dr. Grace Falciglia (Advisor)

Subjects:

Health Sciences, Nutrition

Keywords:

diet; variety; fruits and vegetables; oral cavity carcinoma; secondary primary cancer prevention

Bitar, Roger G.A software approach for hazard detection and collision prevention in pipelined SISD machines
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1987, Electrical Engineering & Computer Science (Engineering and Technology)

A software approach for hazard detection and collision prevention in pipelined SISD machines

Committee:

M. Celenk (Advisor)

Keywords:

Hazard Detection; Collision Prevention; Pipelined SISD Machines

Bakubi, IvanAn Investigation on the Knowledge level of Children Aged 10-14 about HIV/AIDS Prevention in Mukono Municipality Primary schools, Uganda
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2011, International Development Studies (International Studies)
HIV/AIDS knowledge is an important aspect of HIV/AIDS reduction. Although there has been research on the level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS among older youth in Uganda, there has been no study assessing HIV/AIDS related knowledge for adolescents aged 10-14. This study investigates HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among a representative sample of forty pupils living in Mukono municipality, Uganda.Participants for this study come from two primary schools in Mukono Municipality, and include male and female participants aged 10-14. The study used a qualitative method to interview participants. Participants were asked questions focused on their HIV awareness,information seeking, attitude and knowledge and risk reduction. Results showed that a good number of participants (42.5%) were aware that AIDS is the most serious disease,but only 20% knew a lot about the disease. Nearly all participants (95%) had positive attitudes towards people living with AIDS. Schools/teachers (45%) were identified as the main source of information followed by parents (17.5), hospital (15%), radio (7.5), and books (5%). The results also show that a loss of weight, red lips, diarrhea, herpes zoster and body weakness were identified as the main symptoms of an HIV infected person.Most of the participants had a good knowledge on transmission modes and prevention.Sexual intercourse, sharing sharp objects, blood to blood contact and mother to child transmission were the transmission modes commonly identified. Abstinence, being faithful and condom usage were identified as preventative measures. Although most of the pupils were knowledgeable about transmission and prevention, study identified some misconceptions. Thirty two percent (32%) of the pupils believed that having sex while standing could prevent getting AIDS, while 25% believed that having sex once with a virgin cannot transmit the virus. Others (15%) believed that sexual activity allows men to grow muscles and heal back pain. The results from the study show that improved knowledge about HIV/AIDS is still needed among primary schools in Uganda to ensure positive living. As a result, it is recommended that parent-child communication should be emphasized.

Committee:

Tania Basta, PHD (Committee Chair); Tom Smucker, PHD (Committee Member); Anthony Sallar, PHD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Sciences

Keywords:

HIV/AIDS Prevention Knowledge among Children Aged 10-14

Hensley, Ann-Drea RaStormwater Intern at Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2010, Environmental Sciences
This paper describes the projects and duties of the Stormwater Intern at the Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments in Toledo, Ohio. Each year, interns focus on one or several main projects for the Stormwater Coalition, a group of jurisdictions in Northwest Ohio. The internship focus was to assist local jurisdictions with the Pollution Prevention/Good Housekeeping Practices requirements of their stormwater permits. Other major projects of the internship that are covered in this report include creating a Stormwater Management Standards Manual brochure, assisting partnering organizations with projects, and helping fulfill the “Green Infrastructure” requirements of a federal grant.

Committee:

Catherine Almquist, PhD (Advisor); John Maingi, PhD (Advisor); Mark Boardman, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Science

Keywords:

stormwater; pollution prevention; Good Houskeeping Practices; Green Infrastructure; Stormwater Coalition

Holm, Jeannette E.Collision Prediction and Prevention in a Simultaneous Multi-User Immersive Virtual Environment
Master of Computer Science, Miami University, 2012, Computer Science & Software Engineering
Immersive virtual environments allow users to explore the virtual world by physically walking. Because users are fully immersed in the virtual environment, they have no visual reference to their physical surroundings. Since users only see the virtual world, collisions between users who are simultaneously in the tracking area are inevitable. Immersive virtual environments are thus limited in their ability to support concurrent users. A technique called redirected walking has been used to alter user paths by imperceptibly rotating the world users see, guiding them away from tracking area boundaries. Using this technique, users can walk naturally through virtual worlds for miles, unaware of the physical boundaries of the tracking area. This thesis describes the design and implementation of an extension to existing redirected walking algorithms. This extension is designed to predict and prevent collisions. If a collision between users is predicted, redirected walking techniques are applied to steer them away from one another.

Committee:

Dr. Eric Bachmann, PhD (Advisor); Dr. Eric Hodgson, PhD (Committee Member); Dr. Michael Zmuda, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

redirected walking; virtual reality; immersive; virtual environments; multi-user; collision prediction; collision prevention; collision avoidance

Bruck, Demaree K.Effectiveness of a Participatory, School-Based Program to Promote Nutrition and Physical-Activity Among Urban Elementary School Students
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Arts and Sciences: Psychology
The prevalence of obesity among children and adults has more than doubled since the 1970s, with prevalence even higher among low-income and minority youth (Wang & Beydoun, 2007; Ogden et al., 2010). Despite the increased rates among minority youth and the negative consequences associated with obesity, very few intervention programs have been conducted to improve their healthy lifestyles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based obesity prevention program that utilized student-driven media production to improve knowledge, behaviors, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity in a group of ethnically diverse students. A comparison group and pre/posttest measurements were used to assess the effectiveness of the 10-week program. The sample (N=66) included participants whose ages ranged from 9 to 13 and were predominantly Hispanic (45.5%) and African American (43.9%). The intervention group showed a greater increase in self-reported healthy lifestyle choices, F(1,62) = 5.59, p = .021, and greater decrease in perceived difficulty, F(1,62) = 6.41, p = .014, compared to those in the control group. In addition, the intervention group increased significantly from pretest to posttest on measures of healthy lifestyle choices, beliefs, and knowledge, and decreased significantly from pretest to posttest on measures of perceived difficulty. There were no significant changes from pretest to posttest on any of the outcome measures for the control group. This school-based obesity prevention program appears to be a promising participatory strategy for improving the knowledge, behaviors, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity among a diverse sample of students.

Committee:

Farrah Jacquez, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Monica Mitchell, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Lisa Vaughn, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

participatory;prevention program;minority youth;media creation;nutrition and physical activity;obesity

Kotzeva, Nevena KThe Application of the Hyogo Framework for Action in Thailand
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Community Planning
Global climate change is modifying the meteorological rhythms of places all over the world. These shifts are affecting the biological and economic compositions of regions and countries as growing seasons and water availability are affected. Other places experience increased exposure to hazards, intensification of damaging events or even unprecedented disasters. This shared hardship has created many international initiatives to slow the rate of pollution and combat the resulting consequences. The Kingdom of Thailand is an excellent example as it is located in Southeast Asia, which is the most hazard prone area in the world. Recent history has tested the resiliency of this country with the devastating Indian Ocean tsunami and floods of historic proportions. As a result, the many agencies active in disaster preparedness and response work very hard to minimize preventable losses and empower the affected people. Education programs for all levels and roles continue to be at the center of the national strategy, which employs decentralization as a means to cope with the wide variety of conditions present in the country. The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNODRR) has aided international efforts in developing the Hyogo Framework for Action. This document outlines goals and strategies for countries aiming to improve their ability to withstand the challenges of disaster. While this tool is very general and comprehensive, it allows for many forms of strategy to employ its recommendations and milestones for self-evaluation and improvement. The case study of Thailand will seek to compare the current state of preparedness and mitigation to the measurements and practices given in the Framework.

Committee:

David Edelman, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Christopher Auffrey, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Welfare

Keywords:

Hyogo Framework for Action;Disaster;Thailand;Mitigation;Prevention

NASH, JULIA CHRISTINEEARLY INTERVENTION AS A CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGY: ASSESSING THE EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2006, Education : Criminal Justice
Youth violence can be prevented. Despite the “get tough” rhetoric and the political and popular media depictions that juvenile “super-predators” are hardened criminals without possibilities of rehabilitation who should be caged and punished accordingly, we do know how to prevent and reduce crime and delinquency. Moreover, the “get-tough,” punishment-oriented crime policies of the last twenty-five years do not reduce crime—and in some cases are counterproductive. However, the knowledge base for life-course criminology and early intervention has drastically expanded in the last two decades. There is a substantial body of evidence that exists in support of early intervention programs to appreciably prevent and reduce criminality in our society. Early intervention is the preferred strategy for addressing the causes of crime explicated by life-course criminology. Life-course criminology postulates that, in order to prevent crime, we must first understand how antisocial behavior develops so as to enable us to construct effective intervention strategies that interrupt the adverse life trajectory. Specifically, life-course criminology has found that early childhood factors are significant precursors of future behavior—that is, youths exposed to certain risk factors predictive of criminality in their families, in school, among peers, and in their environments are at high-risk for becoming serious, violent, and chronic offenders. Early intervention endeavors to address these correlates of crime as early in the life-course as possible in order to intercede prior to the accumulation of multiple problems and offenses. This project reviews the empirical data pertaining to early intervention. Risk-factors and protective factors in the individual, family, peer group, school, and environment that are predictive of, or insulate from, the development of antisocial behavior are described. Reviews of the relevant early intervention strategies—within the family, in schools, in multiple systems, and in the juvenile justice system—are discussed, including narrative descriptions of the most effective programs. The “principles for effective intervention” and proper program implementation are presented. Many early intervention programs have demonstrated positive, long-term effects for preventing and reducing serious, violent, and chronic delinquency. In light of this finding, far too many years have been squandered away on “get-tough” harsh, punitive policies that have not reduced crime—and at times have made matters worse by increasing recidivism rates. It should be instructive that no reputable doctor would impose a medical treatment that had not been shown to be effective. Similarly, no practical business would invest enormous sums of money into a venture that was not profitable. The juvenile and criminal justice systems should not be involved in such “correctional quackery” either. “Get-tough” has not worked; therefore, it is time to “get-smart.” The time is now to design a broader, more comprehensive crime policy that encompasses families, schools, neighborhoods, and the juvenile justice system. The principal objective of the present project is to summarize what is known about early intervention, to discover if there is a need for early intervention programming, to review current early intervention approaches and their effectiveness, and to determine, based upon the empirical evidence, if early intervention—“child-saving”—is a prudent correctional practice strategy.

Committee:

Dr. Francis Cullen (Advisor)

Keywords:

early intervention; crime prevention; Functional Family Therapy; Multisystemic Therapy; Juvenile Justice System; Juvenile Justice; Cost Effectiveness; Public Policy; cognitive behavioral

Li, MinInteraction of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate with serum albumin in the presence or absence of glucose
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2014, Chemistry
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) has been epidemiologically associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases. The health benefits of EGCg are greatly affected by interactions with plasma proteins. To better understand EGCg bioactivities, this work investigated the site-specific interaction between EGCg and bovine serum albumin (BSA), the effects of EGCg on human serum albumin (HSA) glycation, the effects of EGCg on heme-HSA complexation under glycemic pressure, and the preparation of (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) from green tea extract. This dissertation is composed of four parts. First, I characterized the site-specific interaction between EGCg and BSA. Fluorescence intensity and lifetime showed that the binding site for EGCg was located in the hydrophobic pocket on subdomains IIA and IIIA. Circular dichroism and molecular simulation confirmed a requirement for both flavan-3-ol and galloyl moieties and suggested a potential mechanism for the stabilization of EGCg by serum albumin. In the second part, I evaluated the anti-glycation/glycation activities of EGCg in a HSA/glucose model. Levels of carbonyls, fluorescence and native PAGE indicated that EGCg bioactivities were dictated by glucose level, and were secondarily affected by EGCg concentration and time of exposure to EGCg. This work provides a comprehensive evaluation of EGCg bioactivities and highlights the potential value of EGCg treatment in patients under severe glycemic pressure. In the third part, I investigated the effects of EGCg on heme-HSA complexation under glycemic pressure. I used spectrophotometric titration to determine the dissociation constant for heme-HSA complexation. Treatments by physiologically relevant concentrations of EGCg protected and reversed the heme binding affinity of HSA. Fluorescence measurement suggested that EGCg-HSA specific interaction was important for the restorative effect on heme-HSA complexation. In the last part, I describe the preparation of EGC from green tea extract. I isolated crude EGCg from the extract by silica gel chromatography, and then hydrolyzed crude EGCg by tannase. EGC was isolated and purified by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography using the hydrolysis products that were extracted by ethyl acetate. Purified EGC was characterized by HPLC and ESI-MS.

Committee:

Ann Hagerman, E (Advisor); Carol Dabney-Smith (Committee Chair); Neil Danielson, D. (Committee Member); Rick Page (Committee Member); Annette Bollmann (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biochemistry

Keywords:

green tea, antioxidant, HPLC, polyphenols, protein-ligand interaction, protein glycation, secondary prevention

Nyman, EdwardThe Effects of an OpenNI / Kinect-Based Biofeedback Intervention on Kinematics at the Knee During Drop Vertical Jump Landings: Implications for Reducing Neuromuscular Predisposition to Non-Contact ACL Injury Risk in the Young Female Athlete
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2013, Exercise Science
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate the validity and effectiveness of a prototype real-time Kinect-based biofeedback and screening system (KBBFSS) during drop vertical jump (DVJ) ACL injury prevention training in young female athletes. We hypothesized that KBBFSS would be both valid and reliable as compared with traditional MOCAP, and that a four-week intervention using KBBFSS would be effective at improving landing kinematics. Methodology: 24 female gymnasts were randomized into control (CTRL) or Kinect-based biofeedback (KBF) groups. Eight of the subjects were additionally randomized into a validation subset. Subjects were grouped as high risk or normal risk using a novel risk stratification algorithm. Custom KBBFSS software afforded on-screen representation of limb and joint segments responding intuitively and immediately to subject movement. Subjects performed twenty 30cm drop landings three days per week for four weeks, wherein KBF subjects used the KBBFSS to augment landing mechanics, while CTRL subjects did so without KBBFSS. Alpha-level was set a priori at p≤0.05. Results: KBBFSS results were valid for pre (r=0.963) and post (r=0.897) knee flexion, and pre (r=0.815) and post (r=0.916) knee separation distance as compared with MOCAP. Knee flexion change score was statistically different between groups (p=0.001) and effect size was large (d= 1.618), power of 0.93. Knee separation distance change score was statistically different (p=0.024) between groups, with moderate effect size (d=0.99) and power of 0.73. KBF group reduced peak vGRF more than controls, with large effect size (d=1.84). KBF decreased peak bilateral frontal plane valgus knee moment more than controls, with moderate effect size (d=0.44). Correlations between pre-training RQS and changes in knee flexion and separation distance for high risk subjects were moderate. Conclusion: KBBFSS kinematic values are valid and KBF intervention significantly improved non-contact ACL injury risk knee kinematics. The RQS algorithm moderately predicted outcome measures, supporting previously established postulations that individuals who are at greatest functional risk of non-contact ACL injury stand to gain the greatest benefit from intervention. Though further research is warranted, in particular longitudinally, this new clinically-deployable tool may be effective in combating non-contact ACL injury in female adolescent athletes.

Committee:

Barry Scheuermann, PhD (Committee Chair); Charles Armstrong, PhD (Committee Member); Martin Rice, PhD (Committee Member); Vijay Goel, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomechanics; Computer Science; Health Sciences; Kinesiology; Rehabilitation; Sports Medicine

Keywords:

ACL; Kinect; OpenNI; Biofeedback; Knee Injury; Gymnastics; Female Athlete; Injury Prevention; Biomechanics

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