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Zu , GuoFraming Pollution: An Analysis of the Coverage of Air Pollution in China in 2013 by ChinaDaily.com
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2015, Journalism (Communication)
Air pollution has become a serious problem of the Chinese government in recent years. In 2013, the pollution level hit a historic high record. As the official website of China Daily, the largest English newspaper in China, how ChinaDaily.com frames this issue to global readers is of great significance. This thesis content analyzes all air pollution related news stories published in 2013 by ChinaDaily.com from text elements and visual images aspects. The results show that the consequence and responsibility frame are the two main frames ChinaDaily.com uses in its coverage of the air pollution. Compared with these, contradiction and human-interest frames are used much less.

Committee:

Kevin Grieves (Committee Chair); Bernhard Debatin (Committee Member); Jatin Srivastava (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Journalism

Keywords:

framing; framing pollution; air pollution; pollution; environmental problems; China; content analysis, China Daily

Tully, Jennifer L.An Electron Microscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy Investigation of Great Miami River Sediment Pollution in the Industrialized Landscape of Hamilton, Ohio
Master of Science, Miami University, 2013, Geology & Environmental Earth Science
The section of the GMR which flows through the city of Hamilton, Ohio is representative of many post industrial cities throughout the Midwest. Sediment samples were collected along the banks of the river and analyzed by ICP-MS, SEM, TEM and STEM. Bulk chemical analysis indicated that anthropogenic metals were concentrated in the less than or equal to 40 µm size fraction. SEM analysis identified multiple pollution particulates including lead, barium sulfate, antimony, PbCrO4 and coal spherules. Additional complexity in the sediment is observed in STEM where correlations between anthropogenic metals and Mn and Fe were observed on clay particles. Statistical analysis of the sample set further confirmed the higher concentrations in the fine fraction of the sediment and identified six metals which were significantly above the concentrations observed in the reference materials: Zn, Sn, Sb, Cu, Pb and Sr. Overall, this study lays the groundwork for a more extensive investigation into the source and extent of pollution within the GMR.

Committee:

Mark P.S. Krekeler, PhD (Advisor); Jonathan Levy, PhD (Committee Member); Jason Rech, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Earth; Environmental Geology; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geochemistry; Geology

Keywords:

SEM; STEM; ICP-MS; Anthropogenic Pollution; River Sediment; Lead Chromate; Coal Spherules; Urban River Pollution Study; Yellow Road Paint; Great Miami River; Metal Pollution

Wright, Sarah E.Sample Frequency, Duration, and Spatial Representation Considerations of Great Lakes Beach Sanitary Survey Data at Three Beaches in Racine, Wisconsin
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2014, Environmental Studies (Voinovich)
Great Lakes beaches have a high number of beach action days (advisory or closure of beach) each swimming season, many of which are inaccurate. Sampling design and data analysis methods therefore need to be optimized to improve pollutant source identification and accelerate remediation efforts. The effect of sampling frequency (once-weekly versus four times-weekly), sampling duration (one to three years), and spatial representation (individual transects versus an average of all transects) of routine beach sanitary survey data was investigated at three beaches in Racine, Wisconsin to determine differences in microbial pollutant source identification. Virtual Beach 3.0, primarily utilized for predictive modeling, was found to have limitations for routine beach sanitary survey data analysis, but is the best current option. This study determined that more frequent data collection, for longer duration, at the maximal spatial representation provided more consistent and increased microbial pollutant source identification.

Committee:

Natalie Kruse Daniels (Advisor); Holly Raffle (Committee Member); Willem Roosenburg (Committee Member); Julie Kinzelman (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Water Resource Management

Keywords:

Great Lakes beaches; beach sanitary survey data analysis; E coli; beach pollutant source identification; microbial pollution; Virtual Beach; sampling design; sample frequency; sample duration; spatial representation; freshwater pollution

Dirksing, Douglas MichaelUrban Stormwater Quality Management and Education with an Emphasis in Erosion and Sediment Control: An Internship with Butler Soil and Water Conservation District
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2007, Environmental Sciences
The purpose of this report is to describe the activities and accomplishments of my internship with the Butler Soil and Water Conservation District (Butler SWCD) from February to August 2006. This internship focused on natural resource conservation, primarily through erosion and sediment control, stormwater management, and water quality protection in urban and urbanizing areas of Butler County, Ohio. Applications of natural resource management in an urban setting are fully discussed as well as primary position responsibilities such as stormwater pollution prevention plan reviews and development site inspections to ensure compliance with local and state regulations. Strategies to enhance existing natural resource management, such as the revision of County erosion and sediment control regulations and the creation of a riparian setback ordinance, in addition to the implementation of best management practices (BMPs) of the Butler County Phase II Stormwater Management Plan are explained.

Committee:

Mark Boardman (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Sciences

Keywords:

Erosion and Sediment Control; Stormwater Management; Soil and Water Conservation; National Pollution Discharge Elimination System; Stormwater Best Management Practices; Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan; Natural Resource Conservation

Chang, Ching-HsingEssays on Environmentally Friendly Practices
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Agricultural, Environmental and Developmental Economics

This dissertation consists of three applied econometrics essays. These essays focus on Environmentally Friendly Organic Food and Voluntary Environmental Programs. In Essay 1, the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) is used to investigate empirically the purchasing patterns of suburban and inner-city residents for conventional and organic milk. Conventional milk products are disaggregated into four classes based on fat content: whole, 2%, 1%, and skim; organic milk is disaggregated into these same classes, but missing observations for some classes required the aggregation of classes for empirical estimation. Descriptive statistics show that suburban consumers, relative to inner-city consumers, purchase more organic and lower-fat conventional milk. These same consumers pay higher prices for conventional and organic milk, save for conventional 1% and skim. Econometric results indicate that suburban consumers are price insensitive toward the purchase of all conventional and organic classes of milk; inner-city consumers are price sensitive toward conventional whole and 2% milk –products that constitute 89% of their milk expenditure; these same consumers are price insensitive toward all other classes of conventional and organic milk.

Essays 2 and 3 explore empirically the nature of the relationship, if any, between voluntary pollution reduction programs (VPR) and environmental innovation. Several papers, both theoretical and empirical, have explored the causal effect of mandatory pollution reductions on environmental innovation. While mandatory regulations remain the central tenet of US environmental policy, the regulatory landscape has changed in recent years with federal and state agencies seeking to employ VPR programs. Two of the most popular VPR programs are 33/50 and Energy Star. Consequently, Essay 2 seeks to test the independent effects of both voluntary and mandatory pollution reductions on environmental research and development using an unbalanced panel of 105 US manufacturing firms over a 13-year period, 1992-2004. Empirical results indicate that the mandatory approach is far more effective at stimulating environmental research with an estimated impact at least ten times larger than the impact of identical pollutant reductions achieved on a voluntary basis. Essay 3 studies the casual effect between EPA-sponsored Pollution Prevention (P2) Practices and environmental innovation using a large sample of US manufacturing firms from year 1995 to 2000. The counts of successful environmental patent applications are treated as measures of firms’ innovations. Econometric results suggest that environmental research activities are spurred by the adoption of P2 practices, but the magnitude of effect is economically small; the adoption of an additional P2 practice only brings about 0.023 successful patents.

Committee:

Abdoul Sam, PhD (Advisor); Eugene Jones, PhD (Committee Member); Brian Roe, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Economics; Environmental Economics

Keywords:

Organic milk; Environmental policy; Pollution reduction; Almost Ideal Demand System; Count data; Pollution prevention; Environmental innovation

Mitchell, Stephanie BiancaSediment Dispersal Processes and Anthropogenic Impacts at Rex Lake, Summit County, Ohio
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2015, Geology
The sediment in Rex Lake, a kettle lake in Northeast Ohio, preserves a record of modern sedimentation processes and past anthropogenic impacts to the lake and its watershed. Rex Lake is connected to a series of kettle lakes and human-made reservoirs that forms the Portage Lakes System, a popular recreational area. Rex Lake is affected by sediment focusing processes and has a wave base of 2 m. Sands and gravels having high dry bulk density and low organic content are present in water less than 2 m deep. Organic mud and calcareous mud are present in water depths greater than 2 m. The acoustic properties of the lakefloor were used to remotely determine differences between sands/gravels and muds. Because of differences in matrix lithology and pore geometry of the organic muds and calcareous muds, this study shows that caution must be exercised when using acoustics to remotely sense lakefloor sediment grain size. The upper 4 m of mud, from the middle of the lake, was cored and measured for physical properties, sedimentology and trace metal content. Four time periods having distinct sediment characteristics were identified and related to changing anthropogenic activities. The Pre-settlement Period characterizes organic mud below 135 cm core depth, having low sediment density, magnetic, and trace metal content. This sediment is inferred to have accumulated while the watershed was forested prior to Euro-American settlement of the area in 1805. In the Settlement Period, between 135 and 70 cm core depth, organic content decreases, magnetic content and sediment density increase slightly, and trace metal content remains low. These sediment changes are inferred to reflect increased erosion as the watershed was deforested for agricultural activities. In the Recreation Period, between 70 and 20 cm core depth, organic content decreases to its minimum value whereas the trace metal, magnetic content, and sediment density increase greatly. During this period increased human activity (e.g., boating) resulted in the greatest amount of trace metal contamination to the lake. Trace metal concentration in an area is influenced by the amount and the type of anthropogenic activity. Within Summit County, Ohio more lake sediment pollution occurs in heavily populated areas (urban or industrial) than in less populated (rural) areas. In the Environment Regulation Period, between 20 and 0 cm depth, the sediment has low organic content and declining magnetic and trace metal content. This decline likely reflects a decrease in both manufacturing and industrial output in Northeast Ohio and the effectiveness of the Clean Air (1970) and Water Acts (1972) to limit pollution input to the environment.

Committee:

John Peck, Dr. (Advisor); David Steer, Dr. (Committee Member); James McManus, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Geology; Geology; Geophysics; History

Keywords:

Sediment Record; magnetics; history; kettle lake; anthropogenic; trace metals; combustion particles; flux; acoustics; remotely sense; sediment focusing; Ohio; Summit County; pollution proxy; seismic reflection; coring; pollution; environmental regulations

Velagapudi, SrikarCharacterization of the gaseous pollutant behavior over a period of three years inside a public transit bus
Master of Science in Civil Engineering, University of Toledo, 2011, Civil Engineering

This study presents a comprehensive three year trend analysis of the indoor gaseous pollutants in public transit buses running on bio-diesel (B20) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in the city of Toledo. Additionally, mass balance modeling of carbon dioxide pollutant inside the public transport buses has been conducted. The pollutants monitored in this study are carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Two comfort level parameters of the passengers: temperature and relative humidity are also measured inside the buses.

Yearly variations of the five gaseous pollutants are studied and the accumulation of pollutant concentrations inside the bus was observed to be a result of variation in different parameters and not due to variation of a single parameter. The in-vehicle pollutant concentration trends are observed to be highly influenced by heavy traffic on the road. Over the three study period, relatively higher pollutant levels are observed for all the pollutants during winter season. Regression analysis has been used to identify the various factors that influence pollutant concentrations inside the bus. It was found that the pollutant levels are affected mainly by ventilation conditions of the bus, passenger activity inside the bus, vehicular traffic around the bus, and ambient meteorological conditions. The study identifies the important variables that affect in-vehicle pollutants in each season across different years. For example, ambient temperature, wind speed, passengers, trucks, and run/close are identified as influential factors affecting the in-vehicle CO2 concentrations in winter 2009.

A mass balance approach was used in modeling the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) inside buses running on B20 and ULSD fuels. The model was tested over different seasons for one year period. The mixing factors for the model were calculated for both B20 and ULSD buses using a reverse approach on a seasonal basis. The infiltration rate, outdoor concentrations, and source emission rate were estimated from the literature review when developing the mass balance model. The model evaluation showed that the proposed mass balance model is capable of predicting the CO2 levels in both B20 and ULSD fueled buses in all the seasons with limited accuracy. The predictions of the proposed model heavily depend on the accurate knowledge of ambient CO2 levels.

Committee:

Ashok Kumar, PhD (Committee Chair); Andrew G Heydinger, PhD (Committee Member); Dong-Shik Kim, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

Indoor pollution; vehicle indoor pollution; gaseous pollutants; mass balance approach; modeling;

Denning, Robert V.The Creative Society: Environmental Policymaking in California, 1967-1974
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, History
California took the lead on environmental protection and regulation during Ronald Reagan’s years as governor (1967-1974). Drawing on over a century of experience with conserving natural resources, environmentally friendly legislators and Governor Reagan enacted the strongest air and water pollution control programs in the nation, imposed stringent regulations on land use around threatened areas like Lake Tahoe and the San Francisco Bay, expanded the size and number of state parks, and required developers to take environmental considerations into account when planning new projects. This project explains why and how California became the national leader on environmental issues. It did so because of popular anger toward the environmental degradation that accompanied the state’s rapid and uncontrolled expansion after World War II, the election of a governor and legislators who were willing to set environmental standards that went beyond what industry and business believed was technically feasible, and an activist citizenry that pursued new regulations through lawsuits and ballot measures when they believed the state government failed. The environment had a broad constituency in California during the Reagan years. Republicans, Democrats, students, bureaucrats, scientists, and many businessmen tackled the environmental problems that threatened the California way of life. Their solutions inspired other states and the federal government to follow California’s lead.

Committee:

Paula Baker, PhD (Committee Chair); William Childs, PhD (Committee Member); Mansel Blackford, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Environmental Law; Environmental Studies; History; Political Science

Keywords:

California; environmental history; political history; Ronald Reagan; air pollution; water pollution; environmentalism; Norman Livermore; conservatism; conservation

Kariisa, Mbabazi M.Measuring the Effects of Air Pollution among Persons with Severe Emphysema: The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT)
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Public Health
Background: Emphysema is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that affects approximately 5 million people in the US. For subjects with severe emphysema, few effective treatment options exist; however, the recent adoption of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is considered as a promising alternative to traditional therapy. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) was a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of LVRS and medical therapy versus standard medical management among participants with severe emphysema. Results from the trial demonstrated less morbidity and mortality among participants receiving LVRS. We evaluated the effects of air pollution on the health of NETT participants. Methods: Data from the NETT study (1998-2003) included 1218 subjects, men and women ages 39-84. We also obtained data from the US Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality Systems database, which included daily values of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone. ZIP code specific exposures were spatially interpolated with the use of log-normal kriged models. This methodology was employed in order to assign exposures in areas with few nearby air pollution monitors. We investigated whether there was evidence of differential air pollution exposure by individual and area-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES). We assessed both the short- and long-term health effects of air pollution on the respiratory morbidity of NETT participants using mixed linear and Poisson models, which accounted for the daily (repeated) measures of air pollution data. In addition, we constructed survival models to investigate the impact of air pollutant exposures on post-LVRS mortality. Results: NETT participants experienced varying levels of exposure to ozone and PM2.5 and increasing cumulative pollutant exposures were associated with decreasing values of area-level SES. We found that PM2.5 and ozone significantly worsened respiratory function in these subjects. There also appeared to be evidence of a differential effect of ambient air pollutants on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms according to their randomization arm. Mean ozone concentrations were significantly associated with increased post-LVRS mortality risk. The benefits reported for participants who received LVRS surgery did not persist in the presence of ambient air pollutants, suggesting that the surgery may not have conferred a protective survival effect for those participants who underwent the procedure. Conclusion: There were significant adverse impacts of ambient ozone and PM2.5 on the respiratory health and survival of NETT participants. LVRS subjects were more likely to experience worsened air pollution-related lung function outcomes. Implications from our analyses could lead to the recommendation of lowered acceptable PM2.5 and ozone limits for individuals with existing respiratory disease.

Committee:

John Wilkins, III (Advisor); Randi Foraker (Committee Member); Michael Pennell (Committee Member); Timothy Buckley (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Health; Epidemiology

Keywords:

emphysema; air pollution

Bain, Emily CClean Air in South Texas: An Estimation of Biogenic Tropospheric Ozone Precursors Using Various Models
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2002, Environmental Studies (Arts and Sciences)

The Clean Air Act stipulates tropospheric ozone compliance. As a result, states monitor and quantify sources of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution. As biogenic pollution is difficult to measure, models estimate biogenic emissions. The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Biogenic Emissions Inventory System 2.3 model and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commissions’ Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System (GloBEIS) 2 model provide emission estimates for the Corpus Christi area in Texas. Comparing model estimates, GloBEIS provides a more refined analysis of the area as it incorporates more localized data, allows for greater spatial resolution, and uses state-of-science algorithms. Two GloBEIS GIS grids, 16 and 4 square kilometers, depict variation in the spatial resolution of emissions. Regulations stipulate the application of a single day’s (i.e., State Implementation Plan Day) estimates to the remaining year. Expanding the estimates to include two three day periods, high and low ozone, and two single days, random and SIP, demonostrates the temporal variability of the model’s emission estimates. Yienger and Levy’s model provides a more refined analysis of nitrogen oxide emissions.

Committee:

Kevin Crist (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Sciences

Keywords:

Biogenic Hydrocarbons; Beis 2.3; Clobeis; Air Pollution; GIS

Lawrence, Timothy JamesDevolution and collaboration in the development of environmental regulations
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Environmental Science
Using the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System Phase II Storm Water Program (NPDES) as a model, 69 jurisdictions were investigated to discover how well they met the challenge of local control for environmental protection. Using a mixed methods approach, both qualitative and quantitative data were collected looking at the value local officials place on the environment, their views of local control and regulatory approaches, knowledge and understanding of the program, confidence in the Ohio EPA, and willingness to collaborate with others. Other factors considered included collaboration with other jurisdictions on submission of a storm water master plan; existing environmental conditions; political affiliation; the presence of a state funded watershed coordinator; and median income in the jurisdiction. These were measured against the “stringency index” developed to measure the likelihood of the storm water master plans to improve water quality based on the opinion of national experts. The study also looked at the role of watershed groups in plan stringency. The analysis indicated the dominant factor in predicting the level of stringency for the storm water management plans was collaboration with other jurisdictions. The primary reason for collaboration with other jurisdictions was cost savings and the availability of technical expertise. While these findings are supportive of the general idea of watershed management, the key boundary used for collaboration was traditional political lines (counties) rather than ecological boundaries (watersheds). Other factors affecting plan stringency included support for the environment and prior environmental conditions. The presence of a state funded watershed coordinator was inconclusive in terms of its relationship with stringency. However, the local officials see a limited role for watershed groups, primarily focused on education and environmental awareness. The study supports the concept that local government ability and willingness to provide adequate protection for environment varies greatly across jurisdictions. Moreover, it suggests a rethinking of the watershed-based approach to storm water management. Rather than crossing political boundaries, watershed management may be more successful if it is localized within existing county-based jurisdictions. Greater emphasis should be placed on cross-jurisdictional collaboration, and educating local officials about funding mechanisms to support environmental protection programs.

Committee:

Tomas Koontz (Advisor)

Keywords:

Collaboration; Federalism; Devolution; Local Government; Environmental Policy; Water Quality; Stom Water Mangement; Pollution Control

Kitheka, Bernard M.INVENTORY OF STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE CITY OF OXFORD, OHIO
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2010, Environmental Sciences
This report is an inventory of types of stormwater management practices, both the poor and the best, in the City of Oxford. A structure or practice is regarded as a “poor stormwater management practice” if it increases peak flow, decreases base flow, increases or does not eliminate pollution, exacerbates erosion and degrades aquatic habitats. These practices include connected impervious surfaces, poorly designed or poorly managed stormwater infrastructure, uncollected trash and pet waste. A structures and practices is regarded as a stormwater “best management practice” if it reduces peak flow, increases baseflow, eliminates or does not contribute to stormwater pollution and does not degrade streams and aquatic habitats. Such practices include pervious pavers, filter strips, storm drains, rain gardens, disconnected impervious surfaces, street sweeping, vegetated depressions and retention gardens. This study does not attempt to uncover issues of policy regarding stormwater management in the city. Some recommendations on how the City of Oxford could encourage stormwater best management practices are given in the end. A glossary of key stormwater terms is also provided.

Committee:

Mark R. Boardman, PhD (Advisor); David L. Prytherch, PhD (Committee Member); Donna S. McCullom, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Hydrology

Keywords:

Impervious cover; baseflow; peakflow; GIS; NPDES; watershed; biofilter, retention pond, vegetated swale; pervious paver; infiltration; point-source pollution

BLAKE, ELLEN M.THE EVALUATION OF TWO CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR THE REMOVAL OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTANTS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2001, Engineering : Environmental Science
Two constructed wetlands of differing designs were evaluated for the removal of non-point source pollutants over a study period of nine months. The basins were evaluated during low-flow periods for the removal of total suspended solids, ammonia, nitrate, orthophosphate and turbidity. The effect of the basins on the following parameters was also evaluated during low-flow conditions: dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and bacteria. The basins were also evaluated during storm-flow conditions for all the above parameters excluding bacteria. Lastly, the basins were compared, during low-flow and storm-flow conditions to each other and to a traditionally designed stormwater retention basin. The traditionally designed basin removed or neutralized greater percentages of constituents than the two treatment basins for all parameters excluding temperature during non-storm events. This is most likely due to the longer flow path of the traditionally designed basin. Under storm conditions, with higher loading amounts of the constituents under study, the two treatment basins removed higher percentages of pollutants. It is surmised that physical, rather than chemical or biological, processes dominate in these two treatment basins.

Committee:

Dr. Pasquale Scarpino (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Sciences

Keywords:

wetlands; non-paint source pollution constructed; water quality; nutrients

Kim, YoungkookImpacts of Transportation, Land Uses, and Meteorology on Urban Air Quality
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, City and Regional Planning

Criteria air pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM), and ozone (O3), are characterized by temporal and locational hot spots in urban areas, frequently violating pollution standards, and, as a result, threatening the health and well-being of the population. Several factors, such as the intensity and duration of emissions, the chemical reactions among pollutants, the uptake and assimilation of pollutants by urban vegetation, and the meteorological factors that induce chemical reactions and atmospheric dispersion, have been considered as explanatory variables in air quality models. Among them, emissions from motor vehicles turn out to be a key determinant of the spatial and temporal patterns of ambient pollution concentrations.

The purpose of this research is to formulate and estimate (1) metropolitan-wide time-series air quality models and (2) land-use regression (LUR) air quality panel models, in order to explain spatio-temporal variations in pollution concentrations. Using the Seoul Metropolitan Area as a case study, traffic counts, vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT), land uses, and meteorological factors, such as solar radiation, temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction, are used as explanatory variables. An extensive understanding of atmospheric pollutants chemistry is reflected in the formulation of these models. Differences in concentrations measured at air quality monitoring stations (AQMs) across the week (weekdays vs. Sunday) and geographical locations (roadside vs. background), are also investigated using dummy variables and the product of these variables with the original variables.

The results of the time-series models and panel regression models indicate that traffic counts and VKT are significant in explaining the concentrations of both directly emitted pollutants, such as NO2, CO, SO2, and PM, and O3, a secondary pollutant. The concentrations of the directly emitted pollutants are positively correlated with vehicle flows. In the case of O3, however, vehicle emissions have a negative impact on O3 concentrations. Since solar radiation, temperature, humidity, and wind speed influence both chemical reactions and physical dispersion, these factors are closely correlated with pollution concentrations. In particular, solar radiation plays a critical role regarding NO2 and O3 concentrations. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes the photodissociation of NO2, providing favorable conditions for the generation of O3 in the troposphere. The estimated models confirm that solar radiation have a positive effect in the O3 models, and a negative one in the NO2 models.

Reduced traffic flows on Sunday increase the ratio of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to NOx and, consequently, lead to favorable conditions for O3 generation. Less O3 titration and less HNO3 formation occur on Sunday as compared to weekdays, resulting in higher O3 concentrations on Sunday. For directly emitted pollutants, reduced traffic flows on Sunday induce a decrease in concentrations. The locations of the AQMs turn out to be critical. Traffic flows closer to AQMs have larger impacts on pollution concentrations. The product terms between VKT and roadside dummy variable display the expected results: for directly emitted pollutants, the coefficients are significant and positive, suggesting that the impacts of roadside VKT are greater than those of background VKT. In the case of O3, the estimated coefficients are negative, indicating that the negative impacts of VKT on O3 concentrations are increased at roadside areas. Nitric oxide emissions from commercial and residential areas have a negative impact on O3 concentrations. Plants have an O3 assimilation capacity, but also emit biogenic VOC during the growing seasons, generating simultaneous negative and positive impacts. The overall vegetative areas impact on O3 concentrations is positive. For directly emitted pollutants, however, vegetative areas have a negative impact. Since residential, commercial, and industrial areas generate anthropogenic emissions, the coefficients of these land uses are positive.

Committee:

Jean-Michel Guldmann, PhD (Committee Chair); Steven Gordon, PhD (Committee Member); Philip Viton, PhD (Committee Member); Gulsah Akar, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

air pollution; time-series model; panel model; land-use regression

Clark, Brenda RoseDevelopment of an Air Pollution Asthma Risk-Screening Model for Ohio Elementary Schools
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Public Health

Background: According to data from the most recent Ohio Family Health Survey (2008), 15.4 percent of Ohio children have been told that they have asthma. Asthma-related school absenteeism has been linked with environmental factors in indoor settings, which may include schools.

Objective: Recognizing the significant impact of asthma on Ohio’s families, the importance of the school environment, and the paucity of relevant air quality data for schools, this study developed an Asthma Risk Screening Indicators (ARSI) predictive model for school indoor air quality (IAQ) and asthma risk based on indoor and outdoor air pollution data.

Methods: The outdoor air arm of the ARSI was derived from two extant databases of outdoor air toxic releases: the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model, which quantifies TRI emissions; and the 2005 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessments (NATA), which quantifies both industrial chemical emissions and risk due to traffic (onroad mobile sources). The indoor air component was closely modeled after recommended school inspection guidelines previously used in Ohio schools under Jarod’s Law and developed with assistance from a trained sanitarian. Indoor and outdoor air monitoring in 13 central Ohio elementary schools representing a range of ARSI scores was conducted to validate the two submodel components of the ARSI model. Allergens (n=8) in indoor settled dust were analyzed, and particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and endotoxin over five days during each of two seasons, fall and winter or winter and spring, were also measured. Physician-diagnosed asthma (PDA) prevalence and respiratory morbidity were assessed by surveying fourth graders in 13 central Ohio elementary schools during the 2010-2011 school year using a validated questionnaire. The ARSI model indicators were compared to measured indoor and outdoor air pollution levels and to asthma prevalence and respiratory morbidity to test their predictive significance.

Results: 10.2% of students surveyed in 13 schools reported PDA. An additional 37% without PDA reported symptoms consistent with asthma potentially suggestive of undiagnosed asthma. Of students with PDA, 76% reported symptoms suggestive of poorly controlled asthma. High levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure were associated both with PDA (p=0.05) and with respiratory symptoms (p<0.0001). Both School RSEI Score (p=0.05) and NATA ORMPC (p=0.006) were found to be predictive of school-level PDA. Nearly 50% of classrooms inspected had CO2 levels exceeding the American Society for Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard of <700ppm above outdoor levels. Further, these high CO2 levels were associated with objective indoor air measures as well as with student reported respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: This study provided evidence-based research that informed the generation of an asthma risk-screening indicators (ARSI) model developed from extant data and school inspection data. Once validated, the ARSI model may be used by local, state, and national government and communities to both screen for at-risk schools and inform mitigation strategies.

Committee:

Timothy Buckley (Advisor); Rebecca Andridge (Committee Member); Song Liang (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Science; Public Health

Keywords:

air pollution; asthma; respiratory morbidity; traffic; predictive model

Beydoun, MustaphaVehicular characteristics and urban air pollution: socioeconomic and environmental policy issues
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, City and Regional Planning
The primary goals of this research were to clarify the relationships between vehicular emissions and (1) vehicular and socioeconomic characteristics, and (2) ambient pollution concentrations. To this end, the study utilizes data from three inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs, the US Census, and the US Environmental Protection Agency’s National Emission Inventory and Air Quality System. The study finds that vehicle characteristics do affect vehicle emissions. Model-year, fuel economy, mileage, and engine size are the most significant vehicle characteristics, although other characteristics, such as vehicle weight, make, and certain engine attributes are also found to influence emissions. The dirtiest 10% of the vehicular fleet, the high-emitters, are responsible for a disproportionately large percentage of CO, HC, and NO emissions. For example, high-emitters account for more on-road CO emissions than the cleanest 75% of the vehicle fleet. High emitters are found to be a problem for all makes, model-years, and vehicle types. A strong connection between fuel efficiency and emissions is found in all vehicle makes and for all model-years. The current regulatory disconnect between vehicle fuel economy and emission standards thus needs to be bridged. This can be done by changing the way vehicle emissions are regulated: by regulating emissions in grams/gallon, rather than the current grams/mile standard. The socioeconomic characteristics of vehicle owners have an important effect on vehicle emissions. Both income and education are the most important socioeconomic variables with regard to emissions, although education proves to be a slightly better explanatory variable than income. Race and the urban character of an area are also found to be important predictors of vehicle emissions and emission test failure. Lastly, the study finds that the NET on-road car and truck emissions estimates and those derived from the study’s Massachusetts I/M data to be fairly consistent with one another. Although a relationship is found between vehicular CO emissions and ambient CO, none was found between NO emissions and ambient NO. The analysis of the relationship between vehicular NO and HC emissions and ambient ozone levels led to confounding results, due to data limitations and the long-distance character of ozone pollution.

Committee:

Jean-Michel Guldmann (Advisor)

Keywords:

Air pollution; Emissions; vehicles; I/M programs; Fuel efficiency; Socioeconomic characteristics

Hensley, Ann-Drea RaStormwater Intern at Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2010, Environmental Sciences
This paper describes the projects and duties of the Stormwater Intern at the Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments in Toledo, Ohio. Each year, interns focus on one or several main projects for the Stormwater Coalition, a group of jurisdictions in Northwest Ohio. The internship focus was to assist local jurisdictions with the Pollution Prevention/Good Housekeeping Practices requirements of their stormwater permits. Other major projects of the internship that are covered in this report include creating a Stormwater Management Standards Manual brochure, assisting partnering organizations with projects, and helping fulfill the “Green Infrastructure” requirements of a federal grant.

Committee:

Catherine Almquist, PhD (Advisor); John Maingi, PhD (Advisor); Mark Boardman, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Science

Keywords:

stormwater; pollution prevention; Good Houskeeping Practices; Green Infrastructure; Stormwater Coalition

Apeaning, Fred KAir Pollution Exposure and Mortality in Middletown, Ohio and Surrounding Cities
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2005, Environmental Sciences
This study examined possible health effects associated with pollution from the AK Steel plant in Middletown, OH. I fit Generalized Linear Models to mortality data from 1999-2002 using zip code or exposure (low/high) groups whilst adjusting for season, year and age at time of death. Cause specific cardiovascular and respiratory diseases age–adjusted mortality rates were determined for each zip code in our study area. The results of the model using location indicate mortality pattern, which could not be attributed to the location of the Steel plant. A model using exposure indicates that cardiovascular mortality in the high exposed groups was significantly higher than mortality in low exposed group at p < 0.05 with relative risk = 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.58) but respiratory mortality was not significantly different. Age-adjusted mortality rates indicated higher levels in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality rates compared to the US population generally.

Committee:

Vincent Hand (Advisor)

Keywords:

Air Pollution exposure and mortality

Huff, David AllanWater Quality of the Upper Little Miami River Watershed in Ohio: Impacts of Natural and Anthropogenic Processes.
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2015, Earth and Environmental Sciences
Stream water quality is increasingly threatened by expanding anthropogenic activities, mainly through point source discharges and urban and agricultural runoffs of contaminants getting through a water body’s watershed resulting in pollution. Concerns developed as to whether urban or agricultural type activities were causing most water quality impairment issues in the upper Little Miami River watershed in southwest Ohio. Characterizing the upper Little Miami River (LMR) watershed with respect to water chemistry and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) while evaluating the sources of any higher than expected natural parameter concentrations, with a strong emphasis on the nutrients phosphorus and nitrate, serves as this study’s purpose. Efforts are made to determine the greatest non-point source nutrient contribution by specific LULC type watersheds and compare findings with known point source nutrient contributions. Up to 23 sites were sampled during dry weather conditions covering all seasons except winter, ranging from July 2009 to November 2010. Sampling began near the head works of the upper LMR watershed at LMR mile 102, site #1 and ended with site #23 at LMR mile 51.3. Data obtained from the analysis of these samples has been comparatively graphed, spatially and statistically analyzed, and worked into loading calculations for comparisons to available online data, such as point source information. General water chemistry measurements show trends of specific ion concentrations, such as sodium and chloride, in relation to LULC drainage areas connected to sampled pour points. Nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrate have concentration amounts significantly influenced by non-agricultural anthropogenic activities. Statistical analyses of the generated data support the observed trends through correlation coefficients. Estimated stream/river flows at the sampled sites provide loading value development of specific parameters that further support significant trends and correlations even when at times the site concentration values of specific parameters drop downstream due to dilution by incoming natural waters. Observations of most significance involved the nutrient phosphorus and the salt NaCl, which showed the highest concentrations to be associated with urban type Land Uses/ Land Covers, such as residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, urban grasses, and drainage classes. Further study revealed that Water Reclamation Facilities (WRF) residing within the urban areas, provided the major source of phosphorus. Where WRF discharge loadings could be separated from estimated loadings calculated at the sample sites, though only in a small section of the whole study area, Agricultural as well as Urban Grasses LULC watershed types show to be at least a secondary source of the nutrients phosphorus and nitrate.

Committee:

Songlin Cheng, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Abinash Agrawal, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Doyle Watts, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Education; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geochemistry; Geographic Information Science; Hydrologic Sciences

Keywords:

water quality; water chemistry; river; stream; pollution; LULC; Land Use Land Cover; nitrogen; nitrate; phosphorus; total phosphorus; Little Miami River; Ohio National Scenic River; upper Little Miami River watershed; watershed; delineated sub basins;

Bollmer, Kathleen A.The Influence of Balanced Growth in the Ohio Lake Erie Watershed
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Community Planning
The health of a natural body of water is inextricably linked to the condition of its watershed. Land cover and land use activities within a watershed are the sources of nonpoint source pollution, the greatest water quality problem facing U.S. waters today, and are influenced by such wide-ranging entities as governmental agencies, industries, conservation groups, farmers, and private property owners. Because traditional regulatory measures have been inadequate in curbing nonpoint source pollution, collaborative watershed management has emerged as a means to improving and protecting water bodies. This study examines one collaborative watershed management program, the Lake Erie Balanced Growth Program, in terms of its effectiveness at developing multi-jurisdictional watershed plans that will likely be implemented in a widespread and consistent manner throughout the watershed. The study identifies the roadblocks encountered by the Balanced Growth Program pilot projects, such as mistrust among participants, the influence of politics, and governmental fragmentation, and offers recommendations as to how the program may be improved to overcome these roadblocks in the future. The study found the most significant problem emerging from collaborative watershed management is that of indifference towards healthy watershed behavior and cooperation in a collaborative effort. Future watershed management efforts should allocate more resources towards education and motivation of local governments particularly to encourage them to participate in collaborative watershed management and follow through on the implementation of the resulting watershed plan.

Committee:

Menelaos Triantafillou, MLA (Committee Chair); Allison Roy, PhD (Committee Member); Lois McKnight, MA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Urban Planning

Keywords:

watershed planning;balanced growth;nonpoint source pollution;collaborative watershed planning;watershed management;Lake Erie

Mercer, Carly TaylorThe Regional Outsourcing of Pollution: Investigating Urban and Rural Discrepancies in Industrialization and Environmental Degradation in China
Artium Baccalaureus (AB), Ohio University, 2010, Sociology
This study examines differences in indicators of industrialization and environmental degradation between urban and rural provinces in China. As China has developed, disparities have surfaced between these two regions, specifically in pollution levels, waste treatment capabilities, and characteristics such as gross regional product and ethnic minority population. To explore this inequality, this study comparatively analyzes variables from urban and rural provinces through the use of independent-samples t-tests. Unequal regional development and globalization have forged a “path of least resistance” for pollution, shifting environmentally harmful industry and waste sites to rural areas. This trans-regional outsourcing mirrors the larger trend of waste flows traveling from the global North to the global South and ultimately raises questions of sustainability and environmental justice.

Committee:

Stephen Scanlan, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

China; pollution; environment; urban; rural

Taylor, Michael A.Tradable permit markets for the control of point and nonpoint sources of water pollution: technology-based v collective performance-based approaches
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, Interdisciplinary Programs
The United States Environmental Protection Agency has begun to encourage innovative market-based approaches to address nonpoint source water pollution. These water quality trading programs have the potential to achieve environmental standards at a lower overall cost. Two fundamental questions must be answered before these benefits can be realized: How will trades between point and nonpoint sources be monitored and enforced?; and, How will nonpoint sources be included within a trading market? Point-nonpoint source trading can be accommodated through either a technology-based or performance-based approach. The technology-based approach accommodates trading through the use of a proxy for unobservable, individual nonpoint source emission reductions. While trading ratios can effectively deal with the uncertainty associated with using a proxy for actual abatement, they are inefficient and ineffective for dealing with problems of hidden action. The alternative use of performance-based trading approaches requires the use of team contracts that provide individual incentives linked to the performance of the entire group. Such contracts must be designed to overcome both adverse selection and moral hazard problems. Performance-based approaches promise efficiency gains in terms of reducing the problems of asymmetric information, and by introducing flexibility into the choice of nonpoint source abatement technologies and practices. Nonpoint sources are exempted from direct regulation under the polluter-pays-principle. As a result, their participation in trading markets is voluntary, thus preventing a baseline cap on pre-trade emissions. To determine whether this arrangement should be changed, we must ask if there something that morally prohibits the direct regulation of nonpoint sources of pollution. While a morally relevant distinction can be made between point and nonpoint sources of emission based on differences in the ability to observe individual emission levels, this relevance is limited to the case of performance-based policy instruments. The moral legitimacy of applying the polluter-pays-principle to nonpoint sources of pollution must be made on a case by case basis, as it is dependent upon existing social, economic, and other practical factors. However, it can be stated that there is no general moral barrier to prohibit the application of the polluter-pays-principle to nonpoint sources of pollution.

Committee:

Alan Randall (Advisor)

Keywords:

tradable permit markets; nonpoint source pollution; water quality; mechanism design; applied ethics

Huddleston, Brian J.An Internship in Environmental Compliance and Water Management with Duke Energy Cincinnati, Ohio
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2011, Environmental Sciences
The purpose of this report is to describe my internship experience with Duke Energy, an investor owned gas and electric utility company in Cincinnati, Ohio. The duration of the internship was from March, 2010 through December, 2010. The focus of my internship included assistance in filing the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and in completing a Wastewater Effluent Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Steam Electric Generating Industry, both for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This required obtaining an understanding of the operations, pollution control devices, wastewater treatment methods, and pollutant discharges at coal-based generating stations. Several site visits were conducted to generating stations in order to observe these operations in person. The primary responsibilities included the operation of modeling software, data acquisition, data synthesis, documentation, field measurements, and familiarity with USEPA reporting methods. This report attempts to summarize the projects, activities, training, and experiences I was involved in during my internship at Duke Energy.

Committee:

Dr. Sandra Woy-Hazleton, PhD (Advisor); Dr. Mark Boardman, PhD (Advisor); Robbyn Abbitt, MS (Advisor)

Subjects:

Energy; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Management; Environmental Science

Keywords:

Pollution control devices; Toxics Release Inventory; NPDES permitting; Wastewater effluent guidelines ICR; LARK-TRIPP modeling software; power plant operation

Perugu, Harikishan CIntegrating Advanced Truck Models into Mobile Source PM2.5 Air Quality Modeling
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2013, Engineering and Applied Science: Civil Engineering
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is concerned about fine particulate matter (also called as PM2.5 as the average particle size is less than 2.5 µm) pollution and its ill effects on public health. About 80 percent of the mobile-source PM2.5 emissions are released into the urban atmosphere through combustion of diesel fuel by trucks and are composed of road dust, smoke, and liquid droplets. To estimate the regional or local air quality impact of PM2.5 emissions and also to predict future PM2.5 concentrations, we often utilize atmospheric dispersion models. Application of such sophisticated dispersion models with finer details can provide us the comprehensive understanding of the air quality problem, including the quantitative effect of pollution sources. However, in the current practice the detailed truck specific pollution estimation is not easily possible due to unavailability of a modeling methodology with applied supporting data to predict the link-level hourly truck activity and corresponding emission inventory. In the first part of this dissertation, we have proposed a methodology for estimating the disaggregated link-level hourly truck activity based on advanced statistics in light of the AERMOD based dispersion/pollution modeling process. This new proposed truck model consists of following sub models: (a) The Spatial Regression and Optimization based Truck-demand (SROT) model is developed to predict truck travel demand matrices using the spatial regression model-output truck volumes at control locations in the study area. (b) The hourly distribution factor model to convert daily truck volumes to hourly truck volumes (c) The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) based highway assignment model for assigning the hourly truck travel demand matrices. In the second part of dissertation, we have utilized the link-level hourly truck activity to predict the typical 24-hour and maximum 1-hr PM2.5 pollution in urban atmosphere. In this AERMOD based dispersion/pollution modeling process, the gridded hourly emission inventories are estimated based on bottom-up approach using link-level hourly truck activity and emission factors from MOVES model. The proposed framework is tested using the data for the Cincinnati urban area and for four different seasonal weekdays in the analysis year 2010. The comparison with default results has revealed that the proposed models anticipate higher PM2.5 emission contribution from the heavy duty trucks. The innovation of the current research will be reflective of the following aspects: (a) An enhanced comprehensive truck-related PM2.5 pollution modeling approach and also consistent estimation of heavy-duty trucks apportionment in urban air quality (b) More reliable estimation of spatial and temporal truck activity which takes care of peak hour congestion through application of advanced modeling techniques (c) The gridded emission inventory is better estimated as detailed truck activity and emission rates are used as part of the bottom-up approach (d) Better ground-truth prediction of PM2.5 hot-spots in the modeling area (e) A transferable methodology that can be useful in other regions in the Unites States.

Committee:

Heng Wei, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Hazem Elzarka, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mingming Lu, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Ala Tabiei, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Transportation

Keywords:

Truck Activity Modeling;Mobile Source PM2 5 Pollution;MOVES;AERMOD;Spatial Regression Modeling;Fractional Response Modeling

Struffolino, Pamela S.Identifying Sources of Escherichia coli to Maumee Bay, Oregon, Ohio
Master of Science, University of Toledo, 2010, Biology (Ecology)

Densities of Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the beaches of Maumee Bay State Park (MBSP), located in Ohio on Lake Erie, are often in excess of the state-mandated maximum of 235 CFU/100 ml during the summer recreational season. The research reported here was conducted to determine the most likely source of E. coli for MBSP by examining the lakebed sediments and fresh inputs of sediment from local tributaries, both of which, theoretically, contribute to the bacterial load.

Samples of suspended sediments were collected over the 2003-2004 recreational season using specially designed devices placed throughout Maumee Bay at the entrance of its major tributaries; lakebed sediments were collected adjacent to these devices. Sediment grain sizes were classified and quantified using ASTM methods D412-85 and D422-63. Suspended sediments in all of the study sites had comparatively higher percentages of clay (42.1% to 52.2%) than those of the adjacent lakebed (5.5% to 19.9%). Densities of E. coli were measured as the most probable number (MPN) per gram dry weight (gdw) of sediment using ColilertTM (IDEXX, Inc.); values in suspended sediments ranged from 52 to 5,479 MPN/gdw, which were significantly higher (p = 0.01) than in the adjacent lakebed sediments (1 to 354 MPN/gdw). Genetic profiles for populations of E. coli attached to sediment samples were generated by density gradient gel electrophoresis for the uidA gene, which is specific to E. coli. The two populations, i.e. from lakebeds and entrapped sediments, had distinct banding patterns. Indicating unique populations of E. coli were collected in the traps.

The data for comparative grain sizes and genetic profiles indicated that sediments in the entrapment devices contained more clay and unique DNA profiles than the samples from the lakebed and were probably tributary-derived. The corresponding differences in densities of E. coli indicated that these tributaries were a significant source of bacteria to Maumee Bay. To test this hypothesis further, samples of sediments from the tributaries that discharge into Lake Erie on the east and west side of MBSP's beach were analyzed for densities of E. coli. The highest densities were obtained in the east; the densities decreased along the beach in a westward progression, which paralleled the movement of sediments on the southern shore of Maumee Bay indicating the source was Berger Ditch. As a result of this study, the United States Department of Agriculture is funding a study to obtain data within the eastern tributary that will be used to design and construct a wetland to intercept sediments from Berger Ditch and protect the Lake Erie swimming beach.

Committee:

Daryl, F Dwyer, PhD (Advisor); Johan, F Gottgens, PhD (Committee Member); William, Von Sigler, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ecology; Environmental Science

Keywords:

E. coli; Eschrichia coli; beach; western Lake Erie; fecal pollution; suspended sediment

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