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Grimmer, Jessica HFrom Femme Ideale to Femme Fatale: Contexts for the Exotic Archetype in Nineteenth-Century French Opera
MM, University of Cincinnati, College-Conservatory of Music: Music History
Chromatically meandering, even teasing, Carmen’s Seguidilla proves fatally seductive for Don Jose, luring him to an obsession that overrides his expected decorum. Equally alluring, Dalila contrives to strip Samson of his powers and the Israelites of their prized warrior. However, while exotic femmes fatales plotting ruination of gentrified patriarchal society populated the nineteenth-century French opera stages, they contrast sharply with an eighteenth-century model populated by merciful exotic male rulers overseeing wandering Western females and their estranged lovers. Disparities between these eighteenth and nineteenth-century archetypes, most notably in treatment and expectation of the exotic and the female, appear particularly striking given the chronological proximity within French operatic tradition. Indeed, current literature depicts these models as mutually exclusive. Yet when conceptualized as a single tradition, it is a socio-political—rather than aesthetic—revolution that provides the basis for this drastic shift from femme ideale to femme fatale. To achieve this end, this thesis contains detailed analyses of operatic librettos and music of operas representative of the eighteenth-century French exotic archetype: Arlequin Sultan Favorite (1721), Le Turc genereux, an entree in Les Indes Galantes (1735), La Recontre imprevue/Die Pilgrime von Mekka (1764), and Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail (1782). Taking cues from Edward Said’s concept of Orientalism as a reflection of the collective fears of western society, it places them within a socio-political and cultural context via appropriate primary and secondary sources. It applies the same method to operas representative of the nineteenth-century French exotic archetype: L’Africaine (1865), Carmen (1875), Samson et Dalila (1877) and Lakme (1883). To account for the nineteenth century’s break with eighteenth-century exotic plot archetypes, this study documents the socio-political backlash against female liberties following the French Revolution. Such documentation includes a combination of primary-source historical accounts, political documents—most importantly the 1804 Code Napoleon—and secondary source commentary. The resulting history presents a continuous—though malleable—lineage of French exotic opera that responds to shifting socio-political and cultural fluctuations.

Committee:

Jonathan Kregor, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); bruce mcclung, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Mary Sue Morrow, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music

Keywords:

Exoticism and Orientalism;Eighteenth-Century French Opera;Nineteenth-Century French Opera;Opera Archetypes;French Revolution;Exotic as Feminine

Weber, Charlotte E.Making common cause?: western and middle eastern feminists in the international women’s movement, 1911-1948
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2003, History

This dissertation exposes important junctures between feminism, imperialism, and orientalism by investigating the encounter between Western and Middle Eastern feminists in the first-wave international women’s movement. I focus primarily on the International Alliance of Women for Suffrage and Equal Citizenship, and to a lesser extent, the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. By examining the interaction and exchanges among Western and Middle Eastern women (at conferences and through international visits, newsletters and other correspondence), as well as their representations of “East” and “West,” this study reveals the conditions of and constraints on the potential for feminist solidarity across national, cultural, and religious boundaries. In addition to challenging the notion that feminism in the Middle East was “imposed” from outside, it also complicates conventional wisdom about the failure of the first-wave international women’s movement to accommodate difference.

Influenced by growing ethos of cultural internationalism during the interwar period, Western feminist attitudes toward Middle Eastern women were characterized less by overt racism and hostility to Islam than by a belief in the universal applicability of Western standards of progress. Some of the assumptions on which the discourse of feminist orientalism was based were shared by Middle Eastern feminists, who appropriated liberal ideals of national sovereignty and linear progress to articulate an autonomous vision of feminism that both challenged and affirmed loyalty to male nationalists. The common aspiration of modernity provided a fragile basis for solidarity between Western and Middle Eastern feminists, for whom the notion of sisterhood retained real meaning. But they understood its obligations differently. While Western feminists frequently invoked their responsibility to “lead” their less fortunate sisters, their Middle Eastern counterparts sought sisterly help from Western women in combating colonialism. The question of Palestine finally exposed the cracks in the foundation on which their unity had been built. It was around this issue that Western feminist orientalism collided most forcefully with Middle Eastern feminist nationalism.

Committee:

Leila Rupp (Advisor)

Keywords:

international women's movement; Middle Eastern feminism; International Alliance of Women; Women's International League for Peace and Freedom; orientalism

Thalheim, Sabina M.A Hundred Million Messages: Reflections on Representation in Rodgers and Hammerstein’s Flower Drum Song
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2013, Music
Rodgers and Hammerstein’s Flower Drum Song stands as one of the first and one of the only Broadway musicals about the lives of Asian Americans. Premiering as a stage musical in 1958 and a film in 1961, it was a landmark in the entertainment industry, opening opportunities for Asian actors to play substantive roles written by one of the most famous writing teams in American musical theater. However, Flower Drum Song has effectively fallen out of mainstream memory. There are several possible reasons for this disappearance; one of the most salient causes is the use of stereotypes in the construction of characters, dialogue, and music. The aim of this thesis is to reopen and reconsider musical theater as an important and revealing genre of entertainment that is birthed in the politics and history of the society from which it emerges. A reading through the libretto and score, listening to cast recordings, and viewing the film reveal Flower Drum Song as a product of its time. It is filled with stereotypes of Chinese and Chinese American characters—stereotypes that were commonly propagated in the mid-twentieth century and viewed, in this setting, as innocently humorous. Looking back at Flower Drum Song through a more culturally sensitive lens, one observes the offensive stereotypes presented therein. However, studying any piece of artwork necessitates understanding that art in its particular point in history. In order to historically situate Flower Drum Song, this discussion highlights some of the relevant events and legislation affecting immigrants to the US beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, focusing particularly on Asian immigrants. Through a close reading of the libretto and an analysis of the score, one is able to identify elements used by Rodgers, Hammerstein, and Fields to construct their own versions of China and America—of Chineseness and Americanness. Through music, dialogue, staging, and costumes, the writing team constructs images of Asians and Asian Americans, thereby taking upon themselves the authority to represent a group of people through the show they wrote. In the mid-twentieth century, Richard Rodgers, Oscar Hammerstein II, and Joseph Fields crafted a musical comedy based on the novel by C. Y. Lee that gently prodded the theater world forward in terms of openness and acceptance of characters, actors, and stories of diverse backgrounds. Yet, as well-intentioned as the team may have been, they still drew on Orientalist and Exoticizing tropes, constructing an artificial understanding of “China” and “Chinese Americans”—images that would influence the theater going public. In 2002, David Henry Hwang, a Chinese American playwright, sought to salvage this musical by rewriting the book in a more culturally conscientious perspective. His version of the show, however, did not achieve much success. It seems as if Flower Drum Song is doomed to be forgotten. Yet, the issues surrounding the play are fruitful for discussion and vital to the history of American musical theater.

Committee:

Udo Will, Dr. (Advisor); Arved Ashby, Dr. (Committee Member); Stratos Constantinidis, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music; Theater

Keywords:

Music; Musical Theater; Theater; Chinese American; Chinatown; Orientalism; Rodgers and Hammerstein; David Henry Hwang; C. Y. Lee

Tang, QiForeigners’ Archive – Contemporary China in the Blogs of American Expatriates
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Communication Studies

In this study I scrutinize blogs written by American expatriates in China of the 21st century. Two primary objectives are involved. One is to explore how China is represented in such blogs. The other is to understand the discursive processes through which the American bloggers utilize the blogging technology to narrate their (mis)conceptions of the Chinese realities. Equally important to these two focuses is an emphasis on revealing a delicate interplay between the production of the digital discourses about contemporary China in blog sphere, the bloggers’ assumptions of the Chinese government’s encompassing control of the Internet, and the surging nationalism exhibited by the Chinese readers of the blogs.

Drawing from the postcolonial and discursive perspectives of Edward Said, Mary Louise Pratt, David Spurr, and Nicolas Clifford, I see those blogs not merely as a platform for self expression, an open field of identity experiment, or a grassroots journalistic outlet. Rather, I argue that the blogs examined here consist of a distinct discursive space of cultural representation and contestation. They are also interpreted as a digital extension of conventional Euro-American travel writing as they share with the genre a set of rhetorical conventions and face the same set of problems of representing the cultural Other. These assumptions guided the multimodal discourse analyses of the blogs by three American individuals. The study revealed that the bloggers used three prominent metaphors to convey their perceptions of contemporary China, which echo the conventional Western knowledge of the county. During the process, the bloggers are concerned with the Chinese censorship of the Internet and give little attention to the challenge voiced by nationalistic Chinese readers.

Committee:

Radhika Gajjala, PhD (Committee Chair); Donna Nelson-Beene, PhD (Committee Member); Bettina Heinz, PhD (Committee Member); Canchu Lin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

China; Weblogs; Orientalism; Cultural Representation; Travel Writing; Discourse Analysis

Barnes, Maribea WoodingtonEthnographic Research in Morocco: Analyzing Contemporary Artistic Practices and Visual Culture
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Art Education

Over the last several decades numerous scholarly articles and books have been published on Moroccan art forms. Yet, these studies have consistently examined Morocco's traditional works or its older forms of artistic practices. Specifically, Morocco's ceramics objects and textiles are among the most commonly examined works. As a result of this emphasis, only a partial view of Morocco's rich artistic production has been presented. Currently, Moroccan Art is consistently viewed as static and the 19th century western Orientalist image of Morocco has more or less remained. Visual Culture within the country and beyond its border continues to reinforce these antiquated perceptions.

To identify the range of works of art produced within Morocco, a multi-method ethnographic approach was utilized. Using information drawn from fieldwork conducted in Morocco in 2002, 2004, and 2006, contemporary artistic practices were examined and analyzed within a social and historical context. Personal narratives from my fieldwork in 2006 added layers of information to enrich my study of Moroccan art and culture. My findings revealed that Morocco's rich historical past includes a multiplicity of cultures and influences. As a result, the country's contemporary artistic production mirrors the complexity of this past. Additionally, works produced today address current social and political issues within a global environment. Moroccan Art is not static, but diverse and fluid. By studying a range of contemporary works of art and visual culture produced within the country, perceptions about Morocco's art forms and its people will be redefined.

Committee:

Patricia Stuhr, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Art Education; Art History

Keywords:

Ethnography; Morocco; Contemporary Art; Visual Culture; Art Education; Tourist Art; Orientalism

Ceon, HyecunAre We Still Exotic?: Examining Korean American Ethnicity Through the Music of Young Jean Lee's Play, Songs of the Dragons Flying to Heaven
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Music Ethnomusicology
This thesis is an analysis of music used in, Songs of the Dragons Flying to Heaven, a 2006 theater work written and produced by a Korean American playwright, Young Jean Lee. Music in Songs of the Dragons Flying to Heaven (SDFH) is a unique window into contemporary Korean American thinking on ethnicity and gender. Although SDFH is discussed in insightful academic writings by Karen Shimakawa (2007), Seunghyun Hwang (2010), and Jisoo Chung (2010), their discussions are mainly bound to Young Jean Lee's theatrical techniques of ethnic representation that attempt to cast away the stereotypes of Korean/ Korean American people. Music and sound, which are carefully deployed to illuminate Young Jean Lee's criticism of Koreans' self-exoticism and Americans' exoticism of Asia, are little discussed by the above scholars. The musical repertoires used in SDFH include a Korean traditional music genre (p'ansori), a Korean children's song, a Korean church tune, a Korean popular song, and American popular music. By analyzing the use of these musics in conjuncture with social and staged conflict, I will examine the problems of exoticism and ethnicization of immigrants addressed in the play. First, I will provide a summary of the music used in selected Korean American theater works to locate Young Jean Lee's use of music in the history of Korean American theater works. Two main characteristics: 1) music to express Korean Americans' rootedness in Korea, and 2) music in the new wave Korean American theater works in the 1990s and 2000s, will be discussed in order to grasp the relationship between the incidental music and the message of the play. Then, I will explore the characteristics of Young Jean Lee's musical use in general, focusing on her preferred musical style (alternative rock), and her unique theatrical style that allows the rich use of music. The next chapter, the main body of my thesis, will be an analysis of music used in SDFH. First, I will give a summary of SDFH in order to provide a theatrical context to her musical choices. Then I will examine the music in SDFH under the four main subjects: 1) music to set up exoticism, 2) music representing oppression, 3) music to critique self-exoticism, and 4) music to convey universal messages (in comparison with other music's pertinency to the subject of ethnicity). Building on the theories such as Edward Said's Orietalism (1978), Homi Bhabha's colonial stereotype (1994), Graham Huggan's self-exoticism (2001), and Herbert Gans's symbolic ethnicity (1979), I will locate Korean/ Korean American women's self-exoticism as a site of conflict between their resistance to patriarchal and colonial history, and desire to gain power through their ethnic and gendered performances in the multicultural American society. In the last chapter, I will propose another way to look at Koreans' Korean Americans' self-exoticism as an indicator of cultural confidence and tolerance. Recognizing younger generations' understanding of ethnicity that is little confined by colonial memory and victim mentality, I will suggest that self-exoticization is a practice of cultural diversity, which is gaining significance in contemporary Korean and Korean American culture. Using a thorough textual analysis of the play, both the script (Lee, 2009) and the recorded performance (2006, Young Jean Lee's Theater Company, HERE Art Center, New York), as a main methodology as well as supplementary interviews and autoethnography, I will examine how each musical entry in SDFH reveals a web of power relations between the cultures of Koreans, Korean Americans, and mainstream Americans. My research will deepen understanding of the discourses surrounding contemporary Korean American ethnicity as well as the conditions of American society as a reflexive mirror of Korean American community.

Committee:

Katherine Meizel (Advisor); Kara Attrep (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ethnic Studies; Gender Studies; Music; Theater Studies

Keywords:

Ethnomusicology; Exoticism; Orientalism; Young Jean Lee; Theater Incidental Music; Korean American Theater

Zuo, Julie QunChinoiserie: Revisiting England’s Eighteenth-Century Fantasy of the East
MS ARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2004, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Architecture
The social and political implication of Chinoiserie, and its potential relationship with Colonialism, have not been thoroughly studied by historians in recent decades, as it has generally been dismissed as merely a stylistic novelty. In contrast, the Gothic Revival has been proven to be a contributor to Modernism and scholarly exploration of it has continued. Recent research has shown that patrons employed Gothic Revival in art and architecture for political and social reasons in eighteenth-century England. The aims of this thesis are to examine Chinoiserie beyond the stylistic meaning through a comparison with the contemporary Gothic style, and to discover a new interpretation of eighteenth-century British Chinoiserie phenomenon in relationship to nineteenth-century European Colonialism. Literary works on Chinoiserie, Gothic Revival, Picturesque and Orientalism indicate that it is an extraordinary phenomenon that in the eighteenth-century England, Chinoiserie, Gothic Revival and many other historical revival styles existed simultaneously. However, Chinoiserie never gained entire public acceptance, while the Gothic style developed into the major English domestic style of the nineteenth-century. Two case studies are examined: “Chinese Chippendale” furniture of the 1750’s and 1760’s, and the Chinese Room at Claydon House (1757-1771), in Buckinghamshire, England. In the first case study, “Chinese Chippendale” furniture is considered. This includes an exploration of Thomas Chippendale’s inspiration, the changes of the Chinese style in the three editions of Chippendale’s The Gentleman and Cabinet Maker’s Director (1754, 1755, and 1762), an investigation of his commissions, and an inquiry into its stylistic and cultural meanings. In the second case study, the history of the Verney family and Claydon House in England is explored. The 2nd Earl Verney (1712-1791)’s intentions of rebuilding Claydon House are also investigated, revealing definite social and political implications, which are similar to those of the contemporary Gothic Revival. Thus, Claydon served as a cipher for the larger cultural failure of the Chinoiserie movement. Chinoiserie, as well as Gothic Revival, was employed by the Whigs for political reasons. The Chinoiserie phenomenon was explored as an alternative “other” for political ends in later European Colonialism.

Committee:

Patrick Snadon (Advisor)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

Chinoiserie; Gothic Revival; Orientalism; Chinese Chippendale; Claydon House; 18th-century England

Vlisides, James CRendering the Other: Ideologies of the Neo-Oriental in World of Warcraft
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2013, American Culture Studies/Popular Culture
Considering video games as sites of semiotic play, I argue that video games are a commodity that inscribes the consumer into various subject positions that often participate in the replication of ideology in simulated spaces. Applying Louis Althusser, Edward Said, and many other pertinent scholars, I consider World of Warcraft, the world’s largest online video game, and what our digital production and consumption of this gamic space says about our identities and place in a larger cultural ideological framework. It is with this understanding that I see ideology in video games as both an illusion that informs our understanding of the world, as well as an allusion to our very real subject positionings within the real world. Focusing first on the capitalist fairytale that is recreated in the virtual economy and gaming ludology, I briefly discuss “gold farming” and how this real world aspect of WoW bridges the Oriental ideology in both real and virtual spaces, as both spaces benefit from this process. Focusing specifically on the recent World of Warcraft expansion, Mists of Pandaria, I argue that by making Pandaria and the Pandaren race so stereotypically Asian, so bluntly Othered, and so vividly exotic merely encapsulates the idea that diversity, difference and especially the East are all now more easily consumed by a world entrenched in such a clash of ideology and clash of cultures, where all facets of identity and play have been transformed into consumable products in the virtual world as potently as they also have in the real world. Ultimately I argue that through digital reinscription, video games render the region, the geographies and the people of the Orient as meaningful only through the subjective Western gaze that comes to understand these geographical, material, and human spaces through a stereotyped and Western-centric cultural lens. Further, I show how video games have the capacity to reinscribe dominant Western ideological trends that through the art of immersion and play become more than abstract paradigms reserved for academia, and instead are inscribed as common consumer understandings of foreign territories, peoples and histories through a new subject-positioning of the player.

Committee:

Radhika Gajjala (Committee Chair); Robert Sloane (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Asian American Studies; Asian Studies; Computer Science; Cultural Anthropology; Ethnic Studies; Information Science; Information Systems; Information Technology; Mass Communications; Mass Media; Rhetoric; Social Research; Sociology; Technical Communication; Technology

Keywords:

American Cuilture Studies; Video Games; Ideology; Althusser Said; Asia; Orientalism; World of Warcraft; Play; Thesis; Race; Materialism; Capitalism; Gold Farming; Play; Immersion; Postmodernism

Mechehoud, MeriemU.S. Cultural Diplomacy in the Middle East and North Africa: The Impact of the MEPI Program on Youth Political Involvement and Civic Engagement.
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2016, American Culture Studies
This research analyzes youth political involvement and civic engagement in the Middle East and North African (MENA) regions and the impact of the U.S. -Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI) cultural exchange programs on MENA-U.S. relations after September 11, 2001. Specifically, this study will examine how such programs shape mutual understanding between the U.S. and the countries of the MENA region. The study is informed by the researcher’s direct experience through the MEPI program in Leadership, Civic Activism and Citizenship at Georgetown University in 2007. This study also analyzes the impact of leadership styles, conflict resolution and group dynamics, political and social change initiatives, and the role of civil society in democratic processes in the MENA region. This thesis also surveys the cultural exchange experiences of several young people from the MENA region through demonstrating the MEPI program’s development, and analyzing the planning and design of different activities included in the program since its inception in 2002. Participants from five MENA countries (Tunisia, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, and Lebanon) responded to a targeted online survey regarding the relationship between interest in political and civic engagement and the citizen uprisings in any of the five target countries before and after their participation in the program. One of the key findings of this study clearly correlates with Edward Said’s theory of Orientalism; studying the MEPI program, using textual analysis, highlights clear implications of superiority and dominance from the host culture, in this case the United States.In addition to the theoretical outcomes of this research, the results also demonstrate that participation in the MEPI program is likely to increase interest in political issues among participants after they return to their home countries, particularly with younger participants. Gender, on the other hand, does not seem to affect the rate of political involvement among participants upon their cultural exchange experience. Finally, this thesis calls for more interdisciplinary research on the impact of U.S. cultural diplomacy in the MENA region, particularly in the area of youth political and civic engagement.

Committee:

Khani Begum, Ph.D (Advisor); Lara Lengel, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Middle Eastern Studies

Keywords:

Cultural diplomacy; cultural exchange programs; US-Middle East relations after September 11, 2001; Orientalism; political involvement and civic engagement in the Middle East and North Africa

Padilla, Roberto RamonScience, Nurses, Physicians and Disease: The Role of Medicine in the Construction of a Modern Japanese Identity
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2009, History
This is a history of the emergence of a modern Japanese identity in the latter half of the nineteenth century as seen through the lens of scientific medicine. This study makes the argument that Japanese physicians’ construction of a modern identity was a two-fold process that identified Japan in line with Western imperialism and Western fields of knowledge, while conceptually distancing the island nation from nearby Asian neighbors. This perspective, which reflected the growing understanding among Japanese of their country’s emerging place in the world in the Meiji era (1868-1912), occurred within the context of the broad social, political, economic and military reforms that defined this period. Western medicine based on the rational proofs and perceived universality of scientific inquiry, positioned Japanese physicians as agents of modernity. I examine the way scientific medicine informed Japanese modernity in two ways: I begin by looking at how the Japanese Red Cross Society nurse came to be perceived as a national heroine, then I explain the Japanese Army Medical Bureau’s struggle to prevent beriberi, a nutritional deficiency illness in its ranks. These case studies offer a window into the interplay between modern medicine and traditional social values and underscore the reality that a field of knowledge is not adopted, but rather adapted and negotiated. In this case identity formation in Japan was not merely the result of scientific medicine transforming Japan, but was also influenced by Japanese society’s impact on scientific medicine. For Japanese physicians it was not enough to assert a modern identity they were also compelled to draw clear distinctions between a modern Japan and what they perceived to be a “backward” Asia. They did this by using disease categories related to cholera and other contagious illnesses to define the Asian continent as a particularly dangerous epidemiological space. In addition, Japanese practitioners of scientific medicine examined, studied and reported on Chinese and Korean food items, sanitation habits, medical practices and body types to demonstrate what they understood to be social, cultural and physical differences between Japanese and other Asians. This study is supported by the qualitative analysis of an array of primary source materials related to nineteenth century medicine in Japan. These include writings in medical journals, Army Medical Bureau reports, Japanese Red Cross Society reports and the Home Ministry’s Central Sanitary Bureau reports, as well as the writings of influential physicians like Ishiguro Tadanori, the founder of the Japanese army’s system of military medicine in the period, and Mori Rintarō, Ishiguro’s protégé who rose to the rank of Surgeon-General of the Japanese army.

Committee:

James Bartholomew, PhD (Advisor); Philip Brown, PhD (Committee Member); Cynthia Brokaw, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

History; Japan; Medicine; Disease; Identity; Nurse; Red Cross; Orientalism; Cholera; Beriberi

DeVito, Elizabeth J.Orientalism and the Photographs of Eugène Delacroix: An Exploration of Vision, Identity, and Difference in Nineteenth Century France
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2011, Art History (Fine Arts)
This thesis investigates some of the experimental Orientalist photographs of Eugène Delacroix from 1854. I explore these works through a post-colonial, feminist, and Lacanian psychoanalytical perspective, in order to understand how these unusual photographs operate in nineteenth century, bourgeois France. The first chapter discusses the images of Delacroix, who is canonized as a painter, as they both create and are produced by a newly emergent Spectacle culture supported by the rapidly proliferating, fairly young, medium of photography. The second chapter recognizes the bodies of the nude female figures as sites of imperialist and misogynistic ideologies to develop, which in turn justifies colonial enterprises in the Near East. The final chapter seeks to explore the materiality of the photograph, or more specifically, the nude female image, seen as both Romantically traditional and erotic via the gaze. This thesis is therefore a theoretical study of Delacroix’s photographic objects as producers of Orientalist and imperialistic ideologies, formulated out of the Western imagination.

Committee:

Jaleh Mansoor (Committee Chair); Joseph Lamb (Committee Member); Laura Larson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History

Keywords:

Delacroix; Photography; Orientalism; Psychoanalysis; Postcolonialism; Feminism

Liu, XiaodongCollaborative Orientalism: From Hollywood’s “Yellow Perils” to Zhang Yimou’s “Red Trilogy”
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2010, English/Literature
Cultural hegemony is not a set of theories or academic disciplines confined within the scholarly circle or philosophical sphere; nor is it being created to make Europeans feel good or superior. It is, in fact, a very practical means to gain control over the Other politically, economically and culturally. In a way, it is a crucial complementary aid to the military and political powers of Europeans. But how can European powers maintain their cultural hegemony after all of the former colonies have gained their independence? By exploring Edward Said’s theory of Orientalism as well as Robert Young’s Postcolonialism, this thesis proposes that cultural hegemony with its cultural values has never ceased to be an integral part of European dominance, and it continues to exercise its power even after decolonization. Both Said and other post-colonial theorists emphasize that Orientalism or cultural hegemony is a discourse between the West and the Rest. It is therefore a two-way traffic: a collaboration, either consciously or unconsciously, of the recipients of cultural hegemony. The study of Orientalism should not only focus on how the West uses different measures to gain control over the Rest, but also should examine how the recipients react to cultural hegemony. The author of this thesis provides a comparative study of the practice of cultural hegemony through an analysis of films produced by directors from both the West and East, namely D. W. Griffith in the U.S. and Zhang Yimou from China aiming in order to explore why cultural hegemony not only lingers in the post-colonial era, but can also be discerned among those who were colonized.

Committee:

Khani Begum, PhD (Committee Chair); Erin Labbie, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Literature

Keywords:

Orientalism; cultural hegemony

Abu-Attiyeh, Jamal Hassan DaoudArabophobia and Multicultural Education: A Case Study of the Battle Over Cultural Representation in Detroit in the Post-9/11 Period
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2012, Educational Leadership
This dissertation study explores some of the responses of Detroit’s Arab American community to 9/11 and its aftermath which led to the intensification of Arabophobia in the U.S. The Arab community immediately reacted by marshaling its resources to counter dominant images and perceptions of Arab Americans in the press and popular culture as possible un-American terrorists and “the enemy within”. By exploring how leadership groups in the Arab American community in Detroit mobilized in response to “Arabophobia”, this study will help illuminate cultural battles over images and narratives that “Other” various groups, and how marginalized communities of difference struggle to represent themselves in a different light. It documents two important interrelated initiatives and analyzes texts and materials associated with each. They include: (1) workshops begun in 2004 and held annually since then on “Images and Perceptions of Arab Americans,” organized and conducted by Arab America along with (2) the Arab American National Museum (AANM) and its exhibits of the history of Arab Americans, its library of materials and field trip opportunities for public schools.

Committee:

Dennis Carlson, Dr. (Committee Chair); Denise Baszile, Dr. (Committee Member); Sheri Leafgren, Dr. (Committee Member); Steven Thompson, Dr. (Committee Member); Matthew Gordon, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education

Keywords:

Postcolonialism; Orientalism; Multiculturalism; Hybridity; Resistance strategies; Assimilation; Identity

Abowd, Mary R.Atavism and Modernity in Time's Portrayal of the Arab World, 2001-2011
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Journalism (Communication)
This study builds on research that has documented the persistence of negative stereotypes of Arabs and the Arab world in the U.S. media during more than a century. The specific focus is Time magazine's portrayal of Arabs and their societies between 2001 and 2011, a period that includes the September 11, 2001, attacks; the ensuing U.S.-led "war on terror" and the mass "Arab Spring" uprisings that spread across the Arab world beginning in late 2010. Using a mixed-methods approach, the study explores whether and to what extent Time's coverage employs what Said (1978) called Orientalism, a powerful binary between the West and the Orient characterized by a consistent portrayal of the West as superior--rational, ordered, cultured--and the Orient as its opposite--irrational, chaotic, depraved. A quantitative content analysis of 271 Time feature stories and photographs revealed that Time's coverage focused predominately on conflict, violence, and dysfunction. Nations that received the most frequent coverage were those where the United States was involved militarily, such as Iraq, as well as those that receive the most U.S. foreign aid or are strategically important to U.S. interests. These findings coalesce with the study's qualitative portion, a critical discourse analysis of approximately 20 percent of the data set that employs metaphor and framing theory. This thread of the study reveals an overarching Orientalist binary where Arabs are portrayed either as "atavistic"; or "modern." As "atavistic," they are backward and irrationally violent, possessing corrupt and failed leaders and terrified, preyed-upon women; as "modern," they strive to look, dress, act, and think like Westerners. Arab moderns oftentimes apologize for their societies'; atavistic ways. Media scholars have noted an apparent shift in coverage of Arabs after the events of September 11, with more favorable or complex portrayals found in journalism, television, and film. However, this study revealed no such shift in Time. In fact, as Time, a weekly, struggles to compete amid a transformed media environment of cable channels and 24-hour news cycles, the 90-year-old icon of American journalism now appears to cling ever more tightly to sensationalism and longstanding negative stereotypes of America's perceived enemies.

Committee:

Anne Cooper, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Marilyn Greenwald, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Duncan Brown, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Jaclyn Maxwell, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sholeh Quinn, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Journalism

Keywords:

Time magazine; Arabs; Arab world; Orientalism; anti-Arab stereotypes; anti-Muslim stereotypes; metaphor theory, critical discourse analysis, content analysis; framing

Butera, Laura E.Height, Power, and Gender: Politicizing the Measured Body
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Popular Culture
In the last couple of decades, feminist research on the body has experienced a tremendous upsurge. Despite the high level of academic interest in bodily issues such as fat and disability, scholars and other feminists have been curiously silent on the subject of height. In this thesis, I politicize height by critically exploring its place within gendered networks of power, informing my arguments with the work of Michel Foucault and feminist work on the body. Positing my argument against the evolutionary biological theory that dominance is the natural consequence of greater height, I contend in my first chapter that the association of power with height is a socially constructed phenomenon: taller bodies are institutionally and discursively imbued with power. Grounded within what I term “the mythology of tallness,” systemic heightism – the unequal system of power based on height – privileges the tall body and oppresses the short, while also intersecting with other systems of oppression. Recognizing that heightism cannot be separated from considerations of gender and patriarchy, I devote a chapter each to the tall woman and the short man, both of which are non-normative bodies. I discuss the tall woman’s inadvertent challenges to patriarchy, including her carnivalesque potential, while pointing out their important limitations. Paralleling the short man to the tall woman, I examine the hegemonic punishment of the short male body for the patriarchal anxiety he creates by occupying little space and therefore embodying femininity. I show how this anxiety is manifested in representation, where the short male is emasculated and vilified. I also look at the controversial practice of “treatment” of the short boy with human growth hormones to make his body taller. Following my case studies, I deconstruct Western discourses of limb-lengthening surgery in China, a nation currently the focus of Western anxiety. Applying Edward Said’s theory of Orientalism, I argue that these discourses construct the West as rational and civilized and the East – specifically China – as the overly consumerist, barbaric, and, most importantly, feminine Other. I conclude by offering several strategies for resisting heightism.

Committee:

Marilyn Motz, PhD (Committee Chair); Jeannie Ludlow, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology; Social Research; Social Structure

Keywords:

gender; power; China; height; body politics; body studies; feminism; foucault; feminist studies; body; tall women; short men; social construction; oppression; heightism; privilege; limb-lengthening surgery; Orientalism; carnivalesque

Dowell, Remona JeannineCulture, Gender, and Agency: What Anthropology of the Arab World Offers Conflict Management
BA, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Anthropology
This thesis discusses the intersection between gender and the Arab world through the lens of anthropological theory and conflict management. The first chapter identifies the dominant streams of universalism and relativism within conflict management and anthropology. The second chapter traces gender through anthropological theory of the late twentieth century. The work of scholars Leila Ahmed, Saba Mahmood, and Lila Abu-Lughod are used in the third chapter to analyze how certain ideas about relativism and culture can be used in a variety of contexts dealing with communities of Muslim women and concluding with a series of questions revolving around how conflict management can utilize and benefit from these ideas and the works of the three scholars.

Committee:

Richard Feinberg, Dr. (Advisor); Landen Hancock, Dr. (Committee Member); Jung-Yeup Kim, Dr. (Committee Member); Susan Roxburgh, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cultural Anthropology

Keywords:

Universalism; relativism; Leila Ahmed; Leila Abu-Lughod; Saba Mahmood; Orientalism; Edward Said; Worldview Analysis; Islam; gender; anthropology; conflict management; liberal imaginary; agency; Arab world

McClanahan, Emily DDiscourse and the North African Berber Identity: and inquiry into authority
Bachelor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2006, School Of Interdisciplinary Studies - Interdisciplinary Studies
Society is replete with authoritative voices. Proceeding from figureheads such as political or religious leaders, from social fixtures such as education systems and economic structures, or from texts whether sacred, academic, or literary, these voices—often imperceptibly—determine our relationship to the world around us. By creating and maintaining discourses that shape our notion of what is natural, logical, and privileged, authority permits the creation of hierarchy. This seductive condition passes from one society to the others it intersects, and is inherited by even those most subjugated because of it. Under the rule of French colonization, Moroccans and Algerians were forced to adapt their self-identities to the one designated to them by the French; one that, in form and in practice, yielded racism and repression. The burden of this discourse was thrown off as a result of the Algerian revolution and subsequent decolonization, but the condition persisted, as the new Arab authorities assumed the responsibility for the dissemination of hierarchical discourse. The pursuit of national identity was termed ‘Arabization,’ thus excluding from collective redefinition the Berbers, a people indigenous to the region. Their language and culture have encountered repression and discrimination in the decades following independence, despite their prevalence and historical presence in both countries. While the Berbers have been the focus of Western academic reports, ethnographies, and efforts at preservation, their position as ever the ‘studied’ reinforces their position as one constantly bound to be defined by another with more authority than they. The reason for this dynamic is, however, as arbitrary as the identities of the humans that comprise the categories of ‘studier’ and ‘studied,’ ‘colonizer’ and ‘colonized’; all categories are composed of human beings, just as all discourse is created by humans, and all authority is ordained and maintained by humans. By attaching a face and the constraints of social context to the capacity of individuals to define the reality of other individuals, I hope to offer the means to doubting, and eventually dismantling, authority.

Committee:

Terry Perlin (Advisor)

Keywords:

Berber; authority; discourse; orientalism; French colonization

Bagnole, Rihab KassatlyImaging the Almeh: Transformation and Multiculturalization of the Eastern Dancer in Painting, Theatre, and Film, 1850-1950
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2005, Art (Fine Arts)

This dissertation explores the images of the Middle Eastern and North African dancer, also known as raqisah sharqi, almeh, and belly dancer, and the role of Western and Eastern male artists in developing her persona. It argues that Jean-Léon Gérôme, Oscar Wilde, and Farid al-Atrash position the dancer according to their own agendas and persuade the viewers to gaze at her to advance their art. Al-Atrash, however, enables the dancer to suggest elements other than her sexuality when she dances to his music. The artworks of these artists are examined through the theory of the gaze, the postcolonial double marginalization of women, and the discourse of Orientalism.

The representations of the almeh in Gérôme’s paintings are also explored via methods of feminist art historians that advocate interpretation through the examination of cultural and political context. This methodology reveals the effect of the Middle East in the development of Gérôme’s realistic style and exposes his bourgeois inclination, which is similar to Ingres and Delacroix, in portraying nude women and prostitutes. Gérôme’s almeh complements the representations of Eastern women by other Orientalists.

The exotic dancer also attracted Western women, who liked her freedom and at the time were demanding their rights in the early twentieth century. Consequently, these women forced the film industries to cater to their needs. In response, the silent cinema offered them Rudolf Valentino as a sheik to satisfy their emotional and sexual wishes and to restore patriarchal power. Such films portray destructive aspects of Eastern cultures and emphasize Western supremacy. Other films reveal the special circumstances whereby a Western woman is permitted to adopt the Eastern dancer, who represents the femme fatale, as her ideal.

The Egyptian cinema imitates Western art and presents the early Eastern dancer as an Arab femme fatale. Farid al-Atrash changes this image by presenting Samia Gamal as an artist worthy of international recognition. She, however, succeeds because al-Atrash’s dance-music influenced her to borrow from Western choreography to express her art. The Western and Eastern artists motivate the Eastern dancer and globalize her performance.

Committee:

Charles Buchanan (Advisor)

Keywords:

Almeh; Belly dance; Eastern dance; Arabic culture; Arabic Dance; Arabic Entertainment; Samia Gamal; Farid al-Atrash; Orientalism; Gerome; Arabic Films; Silent films; Western films; Egyptian Women; Salome; Egyptian Musicals; Arabic music

Vincent, Michael F.Shifting Sands of Identity: Salome and Select Early Twentieth-Century Interpretations
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Music History

Richard Strauss’s Salome constitutes an operatic adaptation of Oscar Wilde’s 1891 play. The popularity of this biblical account spans several hundred years with portrayals in mediums including folk tales, poetry and musical adaptations. The identities of the characters evolved over time, with emphasis on different personalities and relationships with each variation. Beginning with Gustave Flaubert’s short story Hérodias (1877), retellings dramatized the exoticism of the characters by virtue of their ethnicities and geographical location. By the end of the nineteenth century, Salome had developed into the Oriental femme fatale of Wilde’s and Strauss’s renderings.

Early twentieth-century audiences became familiar with Salome’s story through a multitude of interpretations including Strauss’s opera. In this thesis, I examine the identities of the main characters of the tale. The characteristics of previous realizations betray the origins and meanings of these identities. Although the characters differed in each interpretation, audiences always saw them as part of a faraway time and place. The Orientalist underpinnings of early twentieth-century interpretations demanded that the characters be constructed to conform to exotic stereotypes.

Chapter 1 reveals the development of the story, with an emphasis on Salome’s identity and her relationships with John the Baptist and Herod. Chapter 2 compares the Salomes of modern dancer Maud Allan and composer Richard Strauss. Chapter 3 demonstrates that the characters in Salome were understood mainly through contrasts of identity.

Committee:

Eftychia Papanikolaou, PhD (Advisor); Mary Natvig, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music

Keywords:

Salome; Richard Strauss; Maud Allan; modern dance; Orientalism; exoticism; identity; alterity

Oweidat, Lana A. Disrupting the Western Gaze: An Arab-Islamic Intervention in Rhetoric and Composition Studies
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2014, English (Arts and Sciences)
Feminist rhetoricians, such as Wendy S. Hesford and Eileen E. Schell, criticize the field of Rhetoric and Composition for its limiting U.S. perspective and they call on scholars in the field to be more reflective on the American aspect of their works. They argue that many ironies have become evident in the field when taking into account transnational feminist rhetoric and postcoloniality. Answering their call for expanding the field's scope and focus, in this project I examine a series of cross-cultural encounters between the West and the Arab and Muslim worlds in the past and present and their ideological, political, and historical contexts, uncovering traces of discursive colonialist and Orientalist legacies disguised under the umbrella of multiculturalism. My examination reveals the prevalence of Islamophobia in the U.S. political, cultural, and thus academic scenes. I argue that encounters with Arab and Muslim Others are entangled in discourses of reduction, appropriation, Orientalism, and imperialism. Using a blend of rhetorical, postcolonial, and transnational feminist theories as my overarching theoretical lens, I explore the discursive construction of the Arab and Muslim agency through Western eyes, especially in the act of veiling. I examine the Muslim veil as site for the convergence of cross-cultural empathetic identification and the rhetoric of saving, which are both motivated by the imperial binaries of neoliberal feminist rhetoric. Against the backdrop of personal, statistical, anecdotal, and historical accounts of Islamophobia as a working discourse that affects the realities of Muslims and Arabs in the U.S. and around the world, I explore how the figure of the Muslim and Arab Other has been constructed as the West's new racial Other. I argue that little attention has been given to examining Islamophobia as a rhetorical racist discourse within which U.S. students are functioning. Therefore, it has become an ethical imperative for educators who are committed to issues of social justice and anti-racism to chart a new epistemological landscape by utilizing anti-Islamophobia pedagogical practices. I propose pedagogical conceptualizations that uncover the social, structural, and ideological dimensions through which Islamophobia as a racist discourse is constructed and enacted.

Committee:

Mara Holt (Committee Chair); Sherrie Gradin (Committee Member); Albert Rouzie (Committee Member); Ghirmai Negash (Committee Member); Julie White (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ethics; Multicultural Education; Rhetoric; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Multiculturalism; Transnational feminist rhetoric; Muslim veil; Orientalism; Islamophobia

McFarland, Kelly M.All About the Wordplay: Gendered and Orientalist Language in U.S.-Egyptian Foreign Relations, 1952-1961
PHD, Kent State University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History

Most historians writing on U.S.-Egyptian foreign relations during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations have focused on policies’ external causes. These scholarly discussions do not extend to the internal, or more specifically cultural, sources of U.S.-Egyptian foreign relations throughout the years 1952 to 1961. This dissertation will help fill a gap in the historical literature by delving into the cultural aspects of this important and often tense relationship.

Specifically, this dissertation will explore the shifting language that U.S. officials from 1952-1961 used regarding Egyptians as well as the meaning behind that language and its relationship to America’s strategic interests. Articles from major periodicals will be used in order to show that these language changes were part of a larger cultural pattern. Studying how language changes correlated with U.S. policies toward Egypt will demonstrate how words and their meanings were used to place Egypt at one end of the political spectrum or the other.

The gendered and Orientalist language that U.S. officials and the media used when describing Egyptian leaders was part of a cultural belief-system that placed “others” in a unique and different category then the United States and its leaders. This language could and did take on both negative and positive meanings throughout the time period under review, and this dissertation will demonstrate specifically how that language changed over time according to circumstances. When Egyptian leaders were following U.S. advice and otherwise acting in ways that comported with American, or Western, norms, the language used to describe them was positive. Once they started acting counter to those norms and policies, the language used to describe them would become derogatory in order to place Egypt in the camp of the “other.”

This dissertation uses a wide variety of primary sources, both published and unpublished. For the Truman administration, the Papers of Harry Truman and Dean Acheson will be studied in order to discern the administration’s initial views and language on the new Egyptian regime that came to power in the last months of Truman’s presidency. The largest portion of primary documents will come from the Eisenhower administration. These will include the Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower, John Foster Dulles, Richard M. Nixon, and Christian A. Herter, and the Ann Whitman Files, all of which are housed at the Eisenhower Presidential Library in Abilene, Kansas. I will also undertaken numerous trips to the Library of Congress and the National Archives in order to look into the papers of other key official and documents pertaining to the National Security Council, Congress, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Pertinent media sources, such as Time and Newsweek will also be used.

Committee:

Mary Ann Heiss (Committee Chair); Clarence Wunderlin (Committee Member); Elizabeth Smith-Pryor (Committee Member); Steven Hook (Committee Member); Christopher Tudda (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History

Keywords:

U.S. foreign relations; U.S.-Egyptian relations; gender; Orientalism; Eisenhower foreign policy

Winters, Nathan S.Schoolgirls with Katanas: Appropriating Japaneseness and the Postmodern Cool in Sucker Punch
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Popular Culture
Cool has become the central tenet of postmodern consumption, defining the ways consumers interact with popular culture. Yet, the drive to produce cool media is not without its issues. Producers continue to push the envelope relying on spectacle and violence in order to capture the increasingly divided attention of an oversaturated market. These producers have started to return to an outdated worldview that stresses essentialism and otherness in an attempt to capitalize on global trends. In this thesis, I intend to explore how the recent film Sucker Punch utilizes images from Japanese popular culture in an attempt to be viewed as a cool film. In doing so, the film engages in a larger cultural discourse surrounding this idea of cool. The use of cool as a means of obscuring yet reinforcing ideology, Orientalism in particular, and the ways in which postmodernism assists in this process are key issues that I explore. In particular, I examine how Japanese imagery is contextualized within American media, the ways in which postmodernism functions as a cultural model that is still applicable today, and how cool has become the central issue within popular culture. By exploring these issues, this thesis addresses the dangers of the ideology of cool and the means by which it distracts audiences from underlying biases.

Committee:

Kristen Rudisill, PhD (Committee Chair); Jeremy Wallach, PhD (Committee Member); Satomi Saito, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Mass Media

Keywords:

Orientalism; Sucker Punch; Postmodernism; Cool; Japan

Sung, Ying-Wei TiffanyTurandot's Homecoming: Seeking the Authentic Princess of China in a New Contest of Riddles
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2010, Music History
The negative portrait of Chinese culture in Puccini's Turandot hindered this opera's acceptance in China. Wei Minglun's Sichuan Opera performance Chinese Princess Turandot (1995) and Zhang Yimou's collaboration with Zubin Mehta on Puccini's Turandot premiere in Beijing, however, brought Turandot home at the end of twentieth century. This thesis explores Turandot's transformation and reception in China by analyzing the Chinese cultural representation and authenticity of these two Chinese versions. To provide a historical context, the thesis traces Turandot's origin from Nizami's Haft Paykar (1197) to Puccini's opera. It also includes discussion of varied Chinese adaptations from 1995 to 2010. Ultimately, this thesis investigates issues of Orientalism, Occidentalism, authenticity, and hybridism in Turandot's homecoming. Because the Orientalist image of Turandot has been modified by cross-cultural context, I propose that Orientalism and Occidentalism can be distinguished by how a work is made and how it is perceived.

Committee:

Vincent Corrigan, PhD (Committee Chair); Mary Natvig, PhD (Committee Member); Per F. Broman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music

Keywords:

Turandot; Zhang Yimou; Wei Minglun; Orientalism; Occidentalism; Sichuan Opera