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Biroschak, Bart A.Mobilization and Youth Political Engagement: An analysis of mobilization efforts utilizing political ads aimed at youth during the 2000 and 2004 fall presidential election campaigns
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Arts and Sciences : Political Science
Despite historically low turnout rates youth showed up in the 2004 presidential election at a rate 13 percent higher than in the 2000 presidential election. This study explores the factors related to the increase in turnout specifically in terms of mobilization in the form of political ads through a comparison of political ads sponsored by candidates, parties and interest groups in 2000 and 2004 presidential elections. The findings indicate that in the 2004 presidential election youth issues were given greater attention than in 2000. This increase in activity towards youth issues was associated with an increase in youth interest in the election and thus an increase in youth turnout.

Committee:

Barbara Bardes, PhD (Committee Chair); Stephen Mockabee, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Margolis, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

political advertising;youth engagement;youth apathy;youth voting;youth turnout;mobilization

Mohan Kumar, DipuInsights into the Host Cell Entry of Ehrlichia chaffeensis: Roles of the Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein EtpE
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Comparative and Veterinary Medicine
Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), is an obligatory intracellular rickettsial pathogen that replicates in the membrane-bound compartment (inclusion) in monocytes/macrophages. Entry into mammalian host cells is essential for an obligatory intracellular pathogen to sustain its life and consequently to manifest disease associated with the infection. Although some information regarding the host cell invasion of E. chaffeensis have been known, crucial information about the identity of its invasive ligand or cognate host cell receptor used for binding and entry was unknown. In this study, we report, a novel entry triggering protein of Ehrlichia named EtpE that functions as an invasin. Antibody against EtpE (the C-terminal fragment, EtpE-C) greatly inhibited E. chaffeensis binding, entry, and infection; EtpE-C-immunization of mice significantly inhibited E. chaffeensis infection. EtpE-C-coated beads entered both phagocytes and non-phagocytes, and the entry was blocked by compounds that block E. chaffeensis entry. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that DNase X, a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored mammalian cell-surface protein binds EtpE-C. Antibody against DNase X or reduction of DNase X by small interfering RNA impaired E. chaffeensis binding, entry, and infection. In experimentally infected DNase X-/- mice, E. chaffeensis load in peripheral blood was significantly lower than in wild-type mice. Using affinity pull-down of host cell lysates with rEtpE-C followed by LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified two additional interacting mammalian proteins: a transmembrane glycoprotein CD147 and a cytosolic protein hnRNP-K. Far-Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis showed that CD147 interacts with rEtpE-C and is recruited to E. chaffeensis entry foci. Functional neutralization of surface-exposed CD147 with monoclonal antibodies or knock-down of CD147 using shRNA inhibited E. chaffeensis internalization and infection, but not binding. Functional ablation of cytoplasmic hnRNP-K significantly hampered E. chaffeensis entry and subsequent infection. We found that chemical inhibitors of actin dynamics drastically inhibited E. chaffeensis entry and infection of host cells. Actin and N-WASP was seen directly recruited to E. chaffeensis entry foci. By affinity column-based pull down and co-immunoprecipitation N-WASP was shown to be present in the protein complex, formed during E. chaffeensis invasion of host cells, along with EtpE, DNase X and CD147. EtpE-C was able to polymerize actin in an in vitro pyrenyl-actin polymerization assay. This activity was specific for EtpE-C but not for EtpE-N and was specifically mediated by DNase X in an N-WASP dependent manner. The phagosomes with rEtpE-C coated beads inhibited assembly of NADPH oxidase components on its phagosomal membrane and rEtpE-C coating of beads inhibited ROS generation by BMDM cells where as non-coated cells or rEtpE-N coated beads induced significant response. Thus, DNase X mediated entry pathway seemed to be evolutionarily selected by E. chaffeensis entry since this route of entry provided definitive survival advantage for the pathogen. This study is the first to demonstrate the invasin, its mammalian receptor and their in vivo relevance in any ehrlichial species, a novel upstream mode of pathogen-induced potential actin cytoskeletal mobilization, establishes the unique advantage of this infectious entry route and multifunctional role of EtpE in E. chaffeensis entry and thus in HME pathogenesis.

Committee:

Yasuko Rikihisa, PhD (Advisor); Michael Oglesbee, DVM, PhD (Committee Member); Xin Li, PhD (Committee Member); Mingqun Lin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Immunology; Medicine; Microbiology

Keywords:

Ehrlichia chaffeensis; Human monocytic ehrlichiosis; EtpE; DNase X; GPI-1anchored protein; receptor, ligand; invasin; receptor-mediated endocytosis; CD147; hnRNP-K; actin; cytoskeletal mobilization; vaccine; N-WASP; ROS; NADPH Oxidase; lysosomes; vaccine

Liu, WeiRational targeting of Cdc42 in hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and engraftment
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2011, Medicine: Developmental Biology
Cdc42 is a member of Rho GTPase family. Cdc42 integrates signals from multiple cell surface receptors including c-kit, CXCR4 and ß1-integrin, thus regulating cytoskeleton dynamics which impacts on cell adhesion and migration properties. All these are crucial for the retention of hematopietic stem cells (HSCs) in their bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Our laboratory has shown that conditional deletion of Cdc42 in BM led to massive egress of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) into circulation, a phenotype of HSPC mobilization, attributable to deficiencies of Cdc42-/- BM HSPCs in F-actin polymerization, adhesion and migration. This and other related studies allow us to hypothesize that Cdc42 might be a valid target for HSC mobilization. In chapter 2, we characterize a Cdc42-specific inhibitor, termed CASIN (Cdc42 Activity-Specific Inhibitor). CASIN inhibits Cdc42 activity of BM progenitors specifically and reversibly. Administration of CASIN in mice and a mouse model of human xenograft leads to significant mobilization of HSPCs transiently. Serial transplantations of CASIN-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) demonstrate a better long-term reconstitution capacity than those mobilized by AMD3100. Recent studies have suggested that mobilization can be used as a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) without myeloablation. This allows us to further hypothesize that deletion/inhibition of Cdc42 might be able to facilitate the engraftment of transplanted HSPCs without myeloablation. In chapter 3, we demonstrate that both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of Cdc42 allow efficient engraftment of murine HSPCs and human cord blood progenitors in mice. This CASIN-facilitated engraftment can be applied to FA model of Fanca-/- mice in settings of both allogeneic HSCT and gene therapy using autologous HSCs. Taken together, our studies identified a lead Cdc42-specific inhibitor that is efficient in HSC mobilization, and thus able to facilitate HSC engraftment in HSCT without myeloablation. The thesis work presents a valuable tool to bridge our more and more enriched understanding in molecular mechanisms from bench to bedside.

Committee:

Yi Zheng, PhD (Committee Chair); Hartmut Geiger, PhD (Committee Member); Jose Cancelas-Perez, MD (Committee Member); Tim Cripe, MD, PhD (Committee Member); James Mulloy, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Surgery

Keywords:

hematopoietic stem cell;mobilization;engraftment;Rho GTPases;Cdc42;HSC niche

Uhrig, Megan NicoleThe Andean Exception: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Absence of Large-Scale Indigenous Social Mobilization in Peru
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2013, Latin American Studies
The study of “new” social movements in Latin America has inspired the work of many scholars from numerous disciplines over the past two decades. In particular, Peru is known among scholars of Latin American indigenous peoples as an exception in the Andes, due to the country’s historical lack of large-scale indigenous movements. It is strange that Peru, the heart of the Inca Empire and a country with similar demographics and ethnic composition as Bolivia and Ecuador, does not exhibit any examples of national-scale indigenous social mobilization. Scholars put forth three frequent arguments to explain this absence: 1) Peruvian ethnic fluidity and fragmentation, 2) historical consequences of the violence associated with Sendero Luminoso, and 3) internal and external organizational dynamics of social movements in Peru. I argue that inter-organizational governance structures and the relationship between local and regional level participatory schemes account for why Peru’s indigenous movements have not ascended to the national scale. The ascendance of participation from the local to regional levels of government is more difficult in Peru due to the peculiar ways in which governmental consolidation was implemented historically. This thesis makes an important contribution to the burgeoning literature on indigenous social mobilization in the Andes by looking specifically at the links between local and regional levels of political institutions, and the way these processes inhibit movements from ascending from the local level to higher level participatory spaces. Academic literature is most valuable when it can be interpreted by scholars and practitioners alike.

Committee:

Abril Trigo, Dr. (Advisor); Kendra McSweeney, Dr. (Committee Member); Jos Raadschelders, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Comparative; Latin American History; Latin American Studies; Native Americans; Native Studies; Public Administration

Keywords:

indigenous; social movements; Peru; governance; ethnicity; mobilization; subnational government; native populations; Latin American; collective action; organizations

Huang, Emily Chi PingEffect of Pharmacological Calcium Mobilization as a Co-signal Regulating IL-12 Production by Murine Dendritic Cells
MS, Kent State University, 2014, College of Arts and Sciences / School of Biomedical Sciences
A critical dendritic cell (DC)-produced factor for polarizing Th1 immunity is the heterodimeric cytokine IL-12. Although IL-12 production can be triggered by stimulation of DC with single Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, optimized production requires that multiple signals be delivered to the DC. These include dual TLR ligands, single TLR ligands paired with the cytokine interferon gamma or CD40L combined with these other signals. Although calcium mobilizing signals have been shown to induce phenotypical maturation of DC, they have never been shown to synergize with TLR or cytokine signals to enhance IL-12 production. Murine bone marrow-derived DC treated with calcium ionophore and TLR ligand significantly enhance IL-12p70 production by DC. Thapsigargin, a compound that enhances intracellular calcium levels by a different mechanism, had similar effects. The drugs cyclosporine A and ascomycin, which antagonize the activity of the calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase, calcineurin, suppressed the IL-12-enhancing activity of calcium mobilization. When murine T cells were co-cultured with allogeneic DC activated with calcium ionophore, TLR ligands, or both, paired activation stimulation induced DC with superior T cell stimulatory capacity as measured by IFN gamma output (ELISA). Calcium mobilization may therefore provide a method for superior activation of Th1-polarizing DC for clinical testing.

Committee:

Gary Koski, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biomedical Research

Keywords:

Dendritic Cells, Th1, IL-12, calcium mobilization

Schmidt, Michael AftonTannins in Natural Soil Systems
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2012, Chemistry

Polyphenols comprise a large percentage of plant detritus such as leaf litter, and polyphenols released from plant matter can affect many soil processes. To fully understand the roles of tannins in soil ecology, this work investigated the sorption / desorption of tannins from soil, the effects of tannins on microbial communities, and the mobilization of soil metals by polyphenols.

This dissertation is divided into three parts. First, I studied the sorption and desorption of tannins from soils. I determined that tannin polarity plays the most important role in dictating sorption of tannins to soil by examining six specific polyphenols with a range of polarities and differing molecular structures. The maximum amount sorbed and the rate of sorption were determined for the six model compounds. Using the concept of polarity an extraction method was developed that allowed reliable determination of the amount of tannin in soils even for tightly sorbed compounds.

In the second part of my dissertation, I describe how microbial communities are affected by different tannins. This was tested by amending soil with three different model polyphenols and evaluating soil microbial populations with molecular and physiological methods. The abundances of three genes that reflect populations of total microbial species, ammonia oxidizing bacteria, and ammonia oxidizing archea were measured using DNA extracted from soils and qPCR. Changes in physiology as determined by Community Level Physiology Profile indicated that the small polyphenol, methyl gallate had the greatest affect on community physiology.

In the last part of my dissertation, I determined the effects of tannins on soil metal mobilization. This was tested by determining the maximum binding and binding affinities of two model polyphenols to Al(III) and Fe(III) using micelle-mediated separation and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The larger polyphenol (oenothin B) was able to bind more metal then the small polyphenol (EGCg). I then built a model of how each polyphenol would bind to Al(III) and Fe(III) in a multiple metal model system and used that model to predict metal mobilization in soils. The effect of tannins on soil process can be related to the chemical properties of the compound.

Committee:

Ann Hagerman (Advisor)

Subjects:

Agriculture; Biochemistry; Environmental Science

Keywords:

Tannin; Polyphenol; Soil; Sorption; Metal Mobilization; Microbial Community Structure

J Haddadian, AfsanehSocial Movements' Emergence and Form: The Green Movement in Iran
Master of Arts (MA), Wright State University, 2012, International and Comparative Politics
Theories of social movements suggest that ‘objective' changes in the structure of political opportunities and their interaction with mobilizing and framing mechanisms render a system vulnerable to mass protest. By examining the variables relevant to such interaction, this study seeks to account for the emergence and form of the 2009 Green Movement in Iran. This research uses the congruence method and process traces the movement adherents' activities, mainly their use of Information Communication Technologies, and investigates the so-called opposition leaders' activities and statements.The study argues that in accounting for emergence and form of the Green Movement, we need to attribute the central role to the bottom-up framing processes that gave value and meaning to the movement's goals and strategies. Political opportunity structures only appear in terms of ‘perceptual' rather than ‘objective' changes in the structure of the system. Further, the research investigates implications for other authoritarian settings and, more generally, for theories of social movements.

Committee:

Laura Luehrmann, PhD (Committee Chair); Donna Schalgheck, PhD (Committee Member); Vaughn Shannon, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

Social Movements; political opportunity structures; resource mobilization; framing processes; democracy; Green Movement; Iran; Information Communication Technologies

Heidemann, Erik DavidNew Voters in American Elections: Participation, Partisan Mobilization, and the Future of Representative Democracy
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Political Science
Every election witnesses the exit of many habitual voters from the electorate through the natural completion of the life-cycle, making the new voters who fill this electoral void integral to sustaining the democratic system of government. As turnout in American elections dipped to historically (and some say dangerously) low levels in recent decades, a “crisis of democracy” literature emerged to sort out the root causes of this decline and its consequences. Scholars blamed psychological deterrents, institutional barriers, and societal changes for this growing civic disengagement. But one of the biggest culprits became the parallel decline of political party organizations and their mobilizing function in American politics. The modest rebound of voting turnout—and party organizations—in recent years has given political scientists the luxury of diverting their attention to other avenues of inquiry. But this study suggests that, while presently stable, American democracy is not “out of the woods.” Using primary and secondary source data gathered over the 2004-2006-2008 electoral timespan, I compare new voters to more established voters in terms of their demographics, political attitudes, and actual voting behavior. My findings reveal a mixed picture for the future. While turning out to vote in high-stimulus presidential elections does not seem to be a particular problem for new voters, voting in lower-stimulus sub-presidential elections is an activity they more or less leave to others. However, party mobilization drastically reduces the tendency of new voters to abstain; the same effect is more muted for established voters. This suggests that the political parties have an important role to play in turning today’s new voters into tomorrow’s established voters, thus helping to sustain the democratic system of government.

Committee:

Paul Beck, PhD (Committee Chair); Herbert Weisberg, PhD (Committee Member); Kathleen McGraw, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

new voters; partisan mobilization; party contact; voting behavior

Oyakawa, MichelleBuilding A Movement In The Non-Profit Industrial Complex
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Sociology
Today, democracy in the United States is facing a major challenge: Wealthy elites have immense power to influence election outcomes and policy decisions, while the political participation of low-income people and racial minorities remains relatively low. In this context, non-profit social movement organizations are one of the key vehicles through which ordinary people can exercise influence in our political system and pressure elite decision-makers to take action on matters of concern to ordinary citizens. A crucial fact about social movement organizations is that they often receive significant financial support from elites through philanthropic foundations. However, there is no research that details exactly how non-profit social movement organizations gain resources from elites or that analyzes how relationships with elite donors impact grassroots organizations’ efforts to mobilize people to fight for racial and economic justice. My dissertation aims to fill that gap. It is an ethnographic case study of a multiracial statewide organization called the Ohio Organizing Collaborative (OOC) that coordinates progressive social movement organizations in Ohio. Member organizations work on a variety of issues, including ending mass incarceration, environmental justice, improving access to early childhood education, and raising the minimum wage. In 2016, the OOC registered over 155,000 people to vote in Ohio. I conducted 55 semi-structured interviews with staff members of OOC and allied organizations, including funders. I also observed 330 hours of OOC meetings and events and collected over 1300 documents pertaining to OOC’s history and fundraising. Using funds from foundations, the OOC has made progress toward their goal of building social movement infrastructure in Ohio. However, the OOC faces tension between the demands of its elite funding sources on one hand and its mission to organize communities on the other. This work illuminates the mechanisms through which elites impact efforts to organize poor people and people of color. Non-profit organizational fields, often referred to by social movement leaders as the non-profit industrial complex (NPIC), are governed by a technocratic political logic wherein elite experts determine strategy and decide what issues to prioritize. The Ohio Organizing Collaborative, on the other hand, is governed by a populist political logic, which holds that political leaders should prioritize the demands of ordinary people. I find that the NPIC limits nonprofit organization leaders’ ability to build trust and authentically engage ordinary citizens in the political process. The structure of the NPIC distorts accountability, making organizers beholden to elite funders instead of grassroots leaders. Issue-based funding and short-term grants make it difficult for organizers to focus on their primary mission, which involves recruiting and mentoring community members and building relationships across race, class and geography to strengthen social movement infrastructure.

Committee:

Korie Edwards (Advisor); Andrew Martin (Committee Member); Lopez Steve (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

social movements; politics; elites; organizing; race; mobilization; non-profit organizations; philanthropy; elections

Slaten, Kevin RichardObscure Terrain: The Rights Defense of Qingdao Internal Migrant Workers
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, East Asian Languages and Literatures
China’s sociological world is somewhat lacking of research that explores the collective consciousness during collective rights defense of the manufacturing industry’s internal migrant workers. This is even truer of research that looks at the collective consciousness of Qingdao’s internal migrant workers. Additionally, Chinese civil society organizations are in their infancy, and there are few organizations that aid internal migrant workers in their rights defense, especially in China’s northeast region. There is even less research that attempts to understand the effectiveness of these organizations in aiding workers’ right defense. Using Political Process Theory as its analytical framework, this study has two main aspects: 1) survey methodology that explores the collective consciousness in rights defense of internal migrant workers in Qingdao’s manufacturing sector and 2) case analysis methodology that seeks to understand effects of Qingdao’s LMN Organization on Internal migrant workers’ rights defense. This study has found that the regional consciousness of Qingdao’s internal migrant workers possesses a dualistic quality, they have a strong rights defense consciousness, and their collective action has shown a trend toward cross-factory cooperation. LMN Organization, the subject of the case analysis, has not only played a large role in the success of internal migrant workers’ right defense, but it has also played a role in mobilizing workers for rights defense. However, LMN Organization exists in an exploitable crack in the surrounding political environment, and because of this, its future development is uncertain.

Committee:

Galal Walker (Committee Chair); Xiaobin Jian (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Sociology

Keywords:

collective action; internal migrant workers; China; collective consciousness; civil society organization; mobilization organization; political process theory; labor rights defense

Zheng, Jing-ShengATP receptors and regulation of the ATP-induced calcium ion mobilization response in cardiac myocytes
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1992, Physiology and Biophysics
ATP receptors are present on several cell types including cardiac myocytes. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that extracellular ATP transiently increases the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in cardiac myocyte suspensions. Pretreatment with norepinephrine (NE) greatly potentiates the ATP-induced Ca2+ response. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of the potentiation. We used adult rat ventricular myocytes to determine the changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration by measuring the florescence of fura-2 and to determine the intracellular adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels by radioimmunoassay (RIA). We also used voltage-clamp and current-clamp techniques to study the effects of ATP and NE on the transmembrane inward currents and the slow action potentials in myocytes. We found that forskolin (an activator of adenylate cyclase), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase) and permeable cAMP analogues mimicked the potentiation effect by NE. The potentiation effect induced by these agents was accompanied by an increase of the intracellular cAMP level. These data suggest that cAMP is the second messenger involved in the potentiation by NE. Patch clamp studies have shown that neither NE nor forskolin altered the inward current elicited by ATP, but rather they increased the duration of slow action potentials elicited by ATP. They also increased L-type Ca2+ current (I Ca). Therefore, the potentiation by NE involves cAMP as a second messenger and cAMP increases the inward Ca2+ current during the slow action potentials. In the present study, we also investigated whether activation of protein kinase C (PKC) modulates the ATP-induced Ca2+ response. Activation of PKC attentuated the ATP-induced Ca2+ response and suppressed the potentiation of the Ca2+ response by NE and other cAMP-modifying agents. PKC also decreased the basal cAMP level and the cAMP level elevated by NE and forskolin. The inhibitory effects of PKC were reversed by the PKC inhibitor, staurosporine. We found that PKC did not modulate the inward current elicited by ATP, but rather it decreased the basal I Ca and the I Ca stimulated by ISO. Activation of PKC also diminished the duration of slow action potentials elicited by ATP. These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of PKC is achieved at least partially by decreasing the intracellular cAMP level and I Ca. We used the whole cell voltage-clamp technique to study the signal transduction of ATP in cardiac myocytes. ATP induced a non-selective cation inward current (I ATP) and enhanced I Ca. We found that the I ATP and the enhancement of I Ca involve two different mechanisms. I ATP appears to be generated via receptor-operated channels, whereas the enhancement of I Ca by ATP requires a G-protein mediated second messenger.

Committee:

Antonio Scarpa (Advisor)

Keywords:

ATP receptors regulation ATP-induced calcium ion mobilization response cardiac myocytes

Christman, Calvin L.Ferdinand Eberstadt and economic mobilization for war, 1941-1943 /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1971, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

World War;Industrial mobilization

Woldegies, Belete DeribieEconomic Empowerment Through Income Generating Activities and Social Mobilization: The Case of Married Amhara Women of Wadla Woreda, North Wollo Zone, Ethiopia
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Leadership and Change
Wadla Woreda is located in North Wollo Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. The woreda is predominantly agrarian and the population produces mainly subsistence food crops with small amounts of cash crops. Access to basic social and economic services such as health, education, and employment for rural communities is limited due to poor development of rural infrastructure. Wadla is one of the food insecure woredas in the region. As a result some of the people are internally displaced and a portion of the population is included in safety-net programs. The Wadla Woreda is prone to famine due to severe droughts, soil degradation, primitive modes of production, religious and cultural attitudes toward work, and bad governance. Due to male domination, women are victims of social discrimination, gender-based violence, and other socio-economic barriers. In the woreda women have limited access to resources. Their employment rate and representation in local government are low. Their economic status is marginal. At times, their income generation is negative, meaning their returns are less than what they invested, leading them into absolute poverty. To redress existing economic problems and tendencies in relation to women, there are some initiatives organizing women in the woreda into groups and clusters so they can better tackle poverty themselves. The purpose of the study is to add empirical evidence to existing knowledge on Income Generating Activities (IGA) by identifying opportunities for women in the woreda and by sharing success stories of women’s advancement while also identifying barriers. It is hoped that the results of this study will provide information to concerned stakeholders for scaling up IGAs and for enhanced social mobilization. The dissertation builds upon an earlier project I conducted that included income generating activities and advancement among the women. In this follow-up research study a qualitative methodology is used based on case study interviews of 10 married women entrepreneurs already benefiting from Nurture Education and Development (NED) and other similar NGOs and stakeholders. Focus group discussions including their supporting family members are also used. The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Philomena Essed, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Laura Morgan Roberts, Ph.D (Committee Member); Norma Romm, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Studies; Area Planning and Development; Economics; Finance; Gender Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

married women; income generating activities; economic empowerment; entrepreneurship; Ethiopia; Amhara; Wadla; North Wollo; wives; gender equality; micro-finance; human rights; gender; leadership; social mobilization

Gomez-Soto, Franz M.Deposit facilities and consumption smoothing: a dynamic stochastic model of precautionary wealth choices for a credit-constrained rural household
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics
This dissertation examines impacts of convenient access to safe deposit facilities on a poor rural household’s precautionary wealth and consumption smoothing. Access is measured by transaction costs. Safety results from the probability of bankruptcy of the deposit-taker in case of a local systemic shock. Two exercises are developed. First, transaction costs are incorporated in Samuelson’s (1969) two-period stochastic model on asset portfolio decisions. A critical value for transaction costs makes the household indifferent between investing only in a risky asset and diversifying at a transaction cost. The magnitude of this critical cost reveals a high willingness to pay for diversification. Second, a dynamic, stochastic, infinite horizon model of wealth choices for a credit-constrained household with a precautionary motive is developed. Labor income is stochastic, precautionary wealth can be diversified between two risky assets, and there is a covariance between labor income, the price of livestock, and the effect of a local systemic shock on the solvency of the deposit-taking institution. Numerical methods are used to approximate a solution for the Bellman equation. Simulations are performed for the transaction cost parameter, bankruptcy risk, environmental riskiness, risk aversion, and discount rate. In the certainty-equivalent steady state, only livestock is held, but introducing risk generates level and composition effects on precautionary wealth. Lower transaction costs increase the level of wealth and the share of deposits, allowing consumption smoothing (reduced variance). Reductions that leave transaction costs high have insignificant effects, but beyond a threshold further reductions rapidly increase deposits. The risk of bankruptcy greatly discourages holdings of deposits and livestock. Risk aversion and impatience -associated with poverty- influence deposit holdings in opposite directions. The more risk averse and less impatient the household is, the more it demands deposit facilities. Convenient and safe facilities lower the costs of holding precautionary wealth for both prudent and impatient households and improve welfare. At the household level, the importance of deposits increases with the riskiness of the environment and fragmentation in the economy. At the economy’s level, deposit mobilization is critical for financial intermediation. Deposit mobilization is seldom considered, however, among the ingredients of a rural development strategy.

Committee:

Claudio Gonzalez-Vega (Advisor)

Subjects:

Economics, Finance

Keywords:

Consumption smoothing; precautionary wealth; deposit mobilization; systemic risk; dynamic optimization