The Korean Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) consists of three 1.6m telescopes each with a 4 deg2 field of view (FoV) and is dedicated to monitoring the Galactic bulge to detect exoplanets via gravitational microlensing. KMTNet's combination of aperture size, FoV, cadence, and longitudinal coverage will provide a unique opportunity to probe exoplanet demographics in an unbiased way. My dissertation focuses on the results of simulations I have written and analyses I have performed that together provide estimates of and facilitate intuition about the number and variety of systmes KMTNet will detect and how best to maximize their scientific yield. First I present my simulations that optimize the observing strategy for, and predict the planetary yields of, KMTNet. I estimate the planet detection rates for planets with mass and separation across the ranges 0.1 ≤ Mp/M⊕ ≤ 1000 and 0.4 ≤ a/AU ≤ 16, respectively, and also for free-floating planets. I furthermore investigate the dependence of these detection rates on the number of observatories, the photometric precision limit, and optimistic assumptions regarding seeing, throughput, and flux measurement uncertainties. Next I explore several possible avenues for constraining the flux of the lens for these predicted KMTNet detections. I examine the potential to obtain lens flux measurements by 1) imaging the lens once it is spatially resolved from the source, 2) measuring the elongation of the point spread function of the microlensing target (lens+source) when the lens and source are still unresolved, and 3) taking prompt follow-up photometry. In each case I simulate observing programs for a representative example of current ground-based adaptive optics (AO) facilities, future ground-based AO facilities, and future space telescopes. Lastly, I provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens mass with future high-resolution imaging. I investigate all events from 2004 – 2013 that display detectable finite-source effects, a feature that facilitates event characterization. In total, I present 20 events. I present the first analysis for 6 new events, including OGLE-2004-BLG-368, MOA-2005-BLG-36, OGLE-2012-BLG-0211, OGLE-2012-BLG-0456, MOA-2012-BLG-532, and MOA-2013-BLG-029, and extract the analyses for 14 others from the literature. These events comprise an important testbed for refining the methodology of the high-resolution photometric techniques, particularly given the expected yield from KMTNet.