Contact fatigue failures in the form of pitting or micro-pitting have been a perennial problem in power transmission applications. These failures are dictated by a large number of parameters including loading conditions, gear geometry and tooth modifications, kinematics (rolling and sliding velocities), lubricant parameters (viscosity, pressure-viscosity behavior), and material parameters (material type, hardness, case depth, residual stresses). As such, theoretical treatment of contact fatigue failures has been rather challenging, directing the focus to the experimental investigation of the problem. Most of the experimental gear pitting studies to date were limited to low-speed and low-temperature operating conditions. This study aims at developing a methodology for evaluating the contact fatigue lives of gears under high-speed (pitch-line velocities up to 50 m/s), high-stress (contact stresses up to 2 GPa) and high-temperature (oil inlet temperatures up to 150C). Specifications of a test machine concept that meets these requirements are defined and two test machines are designed and procured for this purpose. Gear test specimens that result in pits consistently are developed with the other competing failures (wear, scuffing, tooth breakage), as well as the high vibration conditions, avoided. Preliminary high-speed tests are presented at the end, representing both automotive and aerospace conditions to show that pitting and micro-pitting failures can be produced with the proposed methodology.