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Jones, Diane R.Effects of Emotion on Memory Formation and Storage
Bachelor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2005, School Of Interdisciplinary Studies - Interdisciplinary Studies
Emotional memory is a special type of memory. Emotional memories often appear to be more vivid than less emotional memories. The definition of an “emotional memory” lends itself to discussion, as it can be argued that any memory has an emotional component. Here, what is considered an emotional memory is a memory that has a distinct emotional aspect that surpasses some individually set threshold so that the way the memory is formed and stored is significantly affected. This paper integrates the psychological and biological components of both emotion and memory. Emotional memory is then examined, including memories of traumatic events. A survey on “flashbulb” memory was performed and analyzed.

Committee:

Nancy Nicholson (Advisor)

Subjects:

Psychology, Psychobiology

Keywords:

flashbulb; memory; emotion; emotional memory; traumatic memory; repression; flashbulb memory; emotion and memory; psychology; interdisciplinary; psychobiology; biological psychology; senior project; honors thesis

Magimairaj, Beula M.Attentional Mechanisms in Children’s Complex Memory Span Performance
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2010, Speech-Language Science (Health Sciences and Professions)

Working memory is a system devoted to the maintenance of information in the service of complex cognitive processing and is conventionally measured using complex memory span tasks. Developmental memory research has examined how mechanisms such as short-term memory storage, processing efficiency, retention duration, and focus of attention (i.e., limited attentional resources for activating contents of working memory) constrain complex memory span. There continues to be a need, however, for the examination of specific attention control mechanisms in children’s complex memory span performance.

This dissertation examined the role of two attention control mechanisms; sustained attentional focus and attentional focus switching, in typically developing 7- to 11-year-old children’s complex memory span performance. Sustained attentional focus was explored because of suggestions in the literature implicating its importance to higher-order cognitive functioning. Sustained attentional focus may be critical to complex memory span performance because there is a need to maintain general vigilance over multiple steps in a complex memory span task. Attentional focus switching was assessed because emerging data in the adult literature suggest that it predicts performance on complex memory span. It appears that individuals rapidly switch their focus of attention between storage and processing while performing complex memory span tasks. Efficient attention switching thus improves complex memory span.

Children’s sustained attentional focus was indexed by their ability to maintain attention over time on the standardized vigilance measures from the Gordon Diagnostic System. Using experimental measures, attentional focus switching was indexed by the accuracy and speed to switch the focus of attention between two different simple stimuli. Two measures were used for each of the predictor constructs (sustained attentional focus, attentional focus switching) and the dependent variable (complex memory span). General Linear Modeling procedures revealed that, when controlling for age effects, only attentional focus switching accuracy emerged as the significant predictor of children’s complex memory span in the present study. Results are in strong agreement with the adult literature implying the critical role of attentional focus switching in working memory. The present study is the first to explicitly examine the contribution of attentional focus switching to children’s complex memory span. Additionally, these results substantiate data that further elaborate aspects of domain-general executive attention in developmental working memory models.

Committee:

Dr. James Montgomery, Ph.D. (Advisor); Dr. Alex Sergeev, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Dr. John McCarthy, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Dr. Joann Benigno, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

school-age children; complex memory span performance; working memory; attentional mechanisms in working memory; attention and working memory

Terzak, John CharlesModeling of Microvascular Shape Memory Composites
Master of Science in Engineering, Youngstown State University, 2013, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
This work investigates the adaptive and morphing properties of SMCs based on a shape memory polymer (SMP) and a microvascular arrangement of shape memory alloys (SMAs). Here, the microvascular SMA phase has been subjected to a two-way shape memory effect (SME) process, in order to fully control the actuation properties of the SMC. It has been observed that the two-way trained SMA successfully induces a morphing performance on the SMC during a fluid heating-cooling cycle. The initial results suggest that the actuation behavior of the SMC strongly depends on the microvascular fluid heating rate as well as on the temperature difference between the glass transition temperature of the SMP and the activation temperature of the SMA. Analytical and Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis on the microvascular SMC has also been performed. The results suggest that the FEA analysis offers a better prediction of the thermo-mechanical behavior of the SMC. It has been observed that whilst the FEA successfully predicts the thermal profile of the SMC, the mechanical modeling seems to require a degree of amendment. Here, the FEA has predicted a deflection 20% higher than those experimentally recorded. Although a refinement is needed on the mechanical modeling of the FEA analysis, the current FEA work certainly provides the elementary design parameters for future optimizations of morphing structures based on SMC.

Committee:

Pedro Cortes (Advisor); Hazel Marie (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Aerospace Materials; Automotive Engineering; Automotive Materials; Chemical Engineering; Materials Science; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Shape Memory Effect; Shape Memory Composite; vascular thermal network; Shape Memory Alloy; Shape Memory Polymer; hybrid composites; morphing structures

Stebner, Aaron P.Development, Characterization, and Application of Ni19.5Ti50.5Pd25Pt5 High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy Helical Actuators
Master of Science, University of Akron, 2007, Mechanical Engineering
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been used as actuators in many different industries since the discovery of the shape memory effect. These include, but are not limited to, applications in the automobile industry, medical devices, commercial plumbing, and robotics. The use of SMAs as actuation devices in aeronautics has been limited due to the temperature constraints of commercially available materials. Consequently, work is being done at NASA’s Glenn Research Center to develop new SMAs capable of being used in high temperature environments. One of the more promising high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) is Ni19.5Ti50.5Pd25Pt5. Recent work has shown that this material is capable of being used in operating environments of up to 250°C. This material has also been shown to have very useful actuation capabilities, demonstrating repeatable strain recoveries up to 2.5% in the presence of an externally applied load. Based on these findings, further work has been initiated to explore potential applications and alternative forms of this alloy, such as springs. Thus, characterization of Ni19.5Ti50.5Pd25Pt5 springs, including their mechanical response (e.g. stroke capabilities, load carrying capabilities, and work outputs) and how variations in this response correlate to changes in geometric parameters (e. g. wire diameter, coil diameter, wire-to-coil diameter ratio, and number of coils) are discussed. The effects of loading history, or training, on spring behavior were also investigated. A comparison of the springs with wire actuators is made and the benefits of using one actuator form as opposed to the other discussed. These findings are used to discuss design considerations for a surge-control mechanism used in the centrifugal compressor of a T-700 helicopter engine. The mechanical response observed during testing is then compared with responses predicted using current SMA spring design methodology. The deficiencies in predictions using this current design methodology are discussed in terms of future work needed to develop a model for HTSMA springs that can accurately guide engineering design.

Committee:

D. Quinn (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Aerospace

Keywords:

Shape Memory Alloy; Shape Memory Alloy Spring; SMA; High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy; High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy Spring; HTSMA; Spring; Helical Actuator; Adaptive Structure; Active Structure; Flight Structure; Actuator; Actuation Device

Hodgson, Eric P.The interaction of transient and enduring spatial representations: Using visual cues to maintain perceptual engagement
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2008, Psychology
Four experiments are reported that investigate the role of visual cues in keeping people perceptually engaged in their environments in a classic spatial updating task. These experiments replicated Wang and Spelke's (2000, Exps. 4 & 5) finding that a continually available visual gradient was sufficient to allow people to maintain baseline levels of performance after an otherwise disorienting rotation. In contrast, people who could view the gradient during testing phases but not during the rotation responded slower and showed decreased levels of pointing precision after rotation despite having accurate perceptual information about their final heading. This paradigm was extended to show that continuously-available perceptual information was not necessary to keep participants perceptually engaged. Brief, intermittent glimpses of the environment (i.e., a visual fix) enabled people to maintain baseline levels of performance after rotation as long as the visual fixes were given every 75°; wider visual fix intervals were ineffective. Finally, it was demonstrated that a sufficiently rich visual cue that was visible during testing, but not during a disorienting rotation, could effectively re-engage people's perceptual awareness of unseen target's locations. Participants in this condition pointed as quickly and precisely as when they were able to perceive the visual cue throughout the entire rotation. The results of these experiments are discussed in the context of a two-systems framework of spatial cognition recently espoused by Burgess (2006) and others. Across experiments, trends in spatial updating performance were used to explore how transient and enduring spatial representations interact to enable flexible, robust performance in spatial tasks.

Committee:

David A. Waller (Advisor); Joseph G. Johnson (Committee Member); Peter M. Wessels (Committee Member); William P. Berg (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

spatial; spatial cognition; spatial updating; spatial memory; spatial representation; navigation; memory; place memory; location memory

Farah-Robison, RaquelBattling for History: Divisive and Unifying Figures of the Salvadoran Civil War
BA, Oberlin College, 2011, Sociology
The Salvadoran Civil War (1980-1992), fought between the state's military and a leftist guerrilla group (the FMLN) ended in a peace agreement brokered by the United Nations that acknowledged both sides as equal partners in the reconstruction of civil society. As a result, both camps have been able to write their histories, erect their monuments and hold celebrations in honor of their martyrs. This project studies these competing narratives and the forms in which this history is preserved, and presents an analysis of four key figures, two who reflect the continuing fractured state of historical memory (Major Roberto d'Aubuisson and Col. Domingo Monterrosa), and two who offer the hope that someday, a unifying, healing narrative can emerge (Archbishop Oscar Romero and Comandante Schafik Handal). The goal of this project is to explore how the mythologies these icons are understood and expressed, and what it indicates about collective memory in post-war El Salvador.

Committee:

Veljko Vujacic (Advisor); Sebastiaan Faber (Advisor)

Subjects:

History; Latin American Studies; Sociology

Keywords:

El Salvador;Salvadoran Civil War;historical memory;collective memory;sites of memory;

Dolog, RostyslavShape Memory Behavior of Ionomers and Their Compounds
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2013, Polymer Engineering
Shape memory behavior of a partially zinc-neutralized, poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) ionomer (i.e. PEMA) was investigated. The ionomer was semicrystalline ionomer with a broad melting transition in the range 60-100 °C. Physical crosslinks in the ionomer due to an ionic nanodomain structure provided a “permanent” crosslinked network, while polyethylene crystallinity provided a temporary network. The broad melting transition allowed one to tune the dual-shape memory behavior by choosing a switching temperature, Tc, anywhere within the melting transition. Similarly, multiple shape memory behavior was achieved by choosing two or more switching temperatures within the melting transition, though the effectiveness of shape fixation depended on how much materials was melted and recrystallized to support the specific temporary shape. Crosslinking improved the recovery efficiency and the crosslinked ionomer exhibited nearly ideal shape memory behavior in dual-shape memory cycle. Preparation of blends of PEMA with ZnSt extended the range of temperatures in which shape memory properties can be achieved. A temporary shape was achieved and fixed by heating and deforming the sample above the melting points (Tm) of the crosslinked ionomer and ZnSt and then cooling the material below Tm under stress. The original shape was restored by reheating the sample above the Tm of the ionomer and ZnSt. Shape memory fibers were made from the blends of Zn-SEPDM ionomer and lauric acid. Zn-SEPDM is an elastomeric amorphous ionomer, the zinc salt of sulfonated poly{ethylene-r-propylene-r-(5-ethylidene-2-norbornene). Shape recovery was triggered by the melting of lauric acid crystals at temperatures close to body temperature, i.e. ~ 40 °¿. Shape memory polymer with such a triggering temperature may have application as self-tightening sutures for biomedical applications. Triple shape memory behavior was also achieved with the blend of Zn-SEPDM with lauric acid and stearic acid. The two fatty acids have different melting points.

Committee:

Robert Weiss, Dr. (Advisor); Kevin Cavicchi, Dr. (Committee Member); Sadhan Jana, Dr. (Committee Member); Matthew Becker, Dr. (Committee Member); Chrys Wesdemiotis, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemical Engineering; Engineering; Plastics; Polymers

Keywords:

ionomer; shape memory; shape memory polymer; fatty acids; Zn-SEPDM; tunable shape memory effect; multiple shapes; mechanical properties;

Gamsby, Christopher WilliamWorking Memory Updating using Meaningful Trigraphs
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Psychology/Experimental
This thesis tested whether using meaningful trigraphs in the three letter memorization paradigm used by Ecker, Oberauer, and Lewandowsky (2014) changed the nature of working memory update. Participants were undergraduate students from a mid-sized midwestern US university. The results replicated Ecker, Oberauer, and Lewandowsky's findings in all conditions where participants memorized a non-meaningful trigraph (memorizing a trigraph that was one letter different than the previous trigraph was significantly faster than memorizing a trigraph with two changes and memorizing a trigraph with three changes was faster than making two changes but slower than one change). Compared to the control condition there was a compression of reaction times in the meaningful condition. Two and three changes were significantly faster in the meaningful condition compared to the not meaningful condition (p < .05) and one change was non-significantly slower (p = .19). There was no main effect of direction of changes (p = .18). The inclusion of meaningful trigraphs did not appear to change the pattern of working memory update, as might be predicted by a serial updating paradigm. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed in the discussion.

Committee:

Mary Hare (Advisor); Richard Anderson (Committee Member); Sheri Beth Wells-Jensen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

Working Memory; Working Memory Update; Perceptual Memory; Serial Order in a Box; Attentional Spotlight; Active Updating

Roth Bailey, HeatherContribution of strategy use to performance on complex and simple span tasks
PHD, Kent State University, 2009, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Psychology
Simple and complex span tasks are thought to measure separate memory constructs. Recently, though, Unsworth and Engle (2006) proposed that simple and complex span tasks tap the same construct based on the reasoning that both similarly predict performance on measures of fluid intelligence (gF) when items in secondary memory (SM) are equated. Two studies were designed to evaluate (1) whether Unsworth and Engle's findings could be replicated and (2) whether individual differences in strategy use could account for their findings. Results demonstrated that, after equating the number of items retrieved from secondary memory, simple and complex span performance was similar and both equally predicted performance on gF tasks. Moreover, individual differences in effective strategy use partially accounted for these findings. That is, effective strategies were produced equally often on simple and complex span tasks after items in secondary memory were equated, but they did not account for the span-gF relationships.

Committee:

John Dunlosky, PhD (Committee Chair); Maria Zaragoza, PhD (Committee Member); Joel Hughes, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Kane, PhD (Committee Member); Donald Bubenzer, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

working memory; short-term memory; secondary memory; strategy use; fluid intelligence

Shaikh, Sajid SCOMPUTATION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS
MS, Kent State University, 2007, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
Communities are the latest phenomenon on the internet. At the heart of any community lies a social network. Various websites are providing tools for social interactions within these communities. These websites are referred to as social networking platforms (SNP). These websites now enable researchers’ access to an individual’s relationship structure, which can be used to support many complex computations that we call social network based computations. In our work, we have outlined a framework to represent and reason with the basic case of social relationship network and to facilitate the structural analyses that can be performed on SNP. The relationship algebra, which is based on set theoretic concepts. It can be further refined to establish complex relationships. The algebra consists of mainly two components, the reputation reasoning system (RRS) and the reputation quantification system (RQS). The RQS is used to quantify the strength of the relationships, whereas the RRS is used to define the various relationships that exist in a social network and to derive and infer relationships, which are not obvious but exist. Our other contribution is the proposal of a classification of social network computations based on the underlying algorithmic structures. The computations have been classified as Social Profile Mining, Social Fabric Analysis, Social Linkage Analysis, Social Ranking Analysis and Placement within a Community. We have supported our claim by providing algorithmic structures and computational solutions for each class of application.

Committee:

Javed Khan (Advisor)

Keywords:

Reputation Function; ATTACKER; SOCIAL NETWORK; Memory Averaging; Memory Averaging Function; Fading Memory

Rybalsky, Konstantin A.Semantic Influences on Episodic Memory for Odors
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Arts and Sciences : Psychology
Olfactory abilities decline with age and have been linked with a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Preliminary studies in young, healthy adults showed that a manipulation that improved performance on a semantic task of odor naming also improved performance on an episodic task of odor recognition. The results supported the hypothesis that simultaneous presentation of the odors together with their names improved olfactory pattern matching thereby facilitating the identification and episodic recognition of the odor. The present study investigated the effect of providing label alternatives during the episodic encoding or retrieval phases of the memory task. One hundred healthy adults were randomly assigned to four experimental groups. Odor naming and recognition memory performance was assessed for each condition. The results support previous findings suggesting that the effects of labels on episodic memory cannot be explained as cuing effects at the time of encoding or as retrieval cues. An alternative explanation is that verbal labels serve to enhance olfactory pattern recognition which aids in identifying the odor and leads to improved naming and recognition memory performance.

Committee:

Robert Frank, PhD (Committee Chair); Paula Shear, PhD (Committee Member); Peter Chiu, PhD (Committee Member); Steven Howe, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

odor memory; odor naming; semantic memory; recognition memory

Ennis, Michael JThe M.S. Wilhelm Gustloff in German Memory Culture: A Case Study on Competing Discourses
PhD, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Arts and Sciences: Germanic Languages and Literature
The sinking of the German M.S. Wilhelm Gustloff in the Bay of Danzig on January 30, 1945 is by many accounts the deadliest maritime disaster in recorded history. Although the ship was a valid military target within the context of World War II, most of the passengers were German civilians fleeing the Soviet advance. For many years, the survivors and their advocates argued that a focus on National Socialism and the Holocaust had complicated and politicized any attempts at publicly remembering and mourning the Gustloff in Germany. Recently, however, the ship has received increased attention in German high and popular culture, leading many to claim that a taboo has been broken. The dissertation investigates the shifts in textual and audio-visual representation of the Gustloff from the time of its sinking to the present in an attempt to locate and understand this cultural phenomenon within the greater context of a society perpetually coming to terms with its dark past.

Committee:

Richard Schade, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Sara Friedrichsmeyer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Harold Herzog, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Germanic Literature

Keywords:

Wilhelm Gustloff;Memory Culture Cultural Memory;Memory Discourse;Germans as Victims German Wartime Suffering;Vergangenheitsbewaeltigung;Aufarbeitung der Geschichte

Atchley, RachelMemory for Poetry: More than Meaning?
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Psychology/Experimental
Is there more to memory for poetry than memory for meaning? The assumption has become that memory for form, or the sound patterns of words, is rapidly lost in comparison to memory for content. Memory for form is also assumed to be verbatim rather than schematic. The present experiment investigated if form is remembered in contexts where it is important, such as poetry, and if it remembered schematically. I also explored if sleep could help preserve memory for form, so participants were divided into sleep and no-sleep groups. I specifically tested whether alliterative sound patterns could cue memory for poetry lines both immediately and after a delay of 12 hours. Twelve alliterative poetry lines were modified to have same alliteration, different alliteration, and no alliteration paraphrases. Overall, I hypothesized that original lines would be remembered less well after 12 hours. Same alliteration paraphrases were predicted to be falsely remembered at a higher rate over time, as the sound patterns were schematically similar to original lines. The different alliteration and no alliteration lines were not expected to share this effect given that their sound patterns differed from original lines. All of these hypotheses were supported. Furthermore, the no-sleep group’s recognition of original lines was significantly worse than the sleep group’s over time. The no-sleep group also made more false recognition errors for same alliteration paraphrases after 12 hours. These results provide evidence of long-term memory for form in poetry and schema-based learning for form, as false recognition rates favored lines that schematically resembled original material. Thus, memory for form persists when it is important, as in poetry, schematic learning applies to sound patterns, and sleep may help preserve memory for form.

Committee:

Mary Hare, PhD (Advisor); Dale Klopfer, PhD (Committee Member); Yiwei Chen, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

memory for poetry; memory for form; memory for sound patterns

Henricksen, Richard AThe Flux of Agency: Unsettling Objects in Contemporary Spanish Civil War Novels (1998-2008)
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Spanish and Portuguese
My dissertation examines the role of materiality in Spain’s shifting memory politics towards the Spanish Civil War. I focus primarily on the “Memory Boom”, an explosion of political and public interest in the conflict at the turn of the twenty first century which sought to counter the Democratic Transition’s pact of silence towards the war. I argue that the materialization of exhumed bones, opened archives, parallel with the emergence of hundreds of documentaries, films, novels, and other cultural products from 1998 forward forced Spain to reflect on the war as never before. My emphasis centers around a literary analysis of the human/object engagement as demonstrated in contemporary Spanish Civil War novels, which explore how materiality produces such transformations. Each novel captures the unsettling power of objects to alter human subjectivity as they emerge from the shadows and uproot preconceived notions of the past. Additionally, these novels demonstrate the performance, work, and the bodily and emotional engagement necessary to somehow unsettle meanings from the multi-layered, often enigmatic, traces that remain from the event. Finally, the novels demonstrate the give-and-take agential powers, the flux of agency, that allows for both human and object to reciprocally shift, manipulate, transform, and renegotiate meaning and identity.

Committee:

Eugenia Romero (Advisor); Rebecca Haidt (Committee Member); Dionisio Viscarri (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Archaeology; Cultural Anthropology; European History; European Studies; Human Remains; Literature; Modern Literature

Keywords:

memory of the Spanish Civil War; materiality and memory; Ghostly Matters; Memory Boom; object agency; flux of agency; unsettling objects;

Baker, Christopher J.The Effects of Stress on Memory Functioning in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Arts and Sciences : Psychology
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of emotional stress on memory functioning in patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Patients with TLE face an inherent risk for memory impairment due to the functional and neuroanatomical consequences of recurrent temporal lobe seizures. Few studies to date have examined the potential role of stress in worsening this memory impairment in patients with TLE, particularly with regard to both verbal and nonverbal memory function. Two indices of stress were used: (1) emotional distress as measured by Scales 2 and 7 of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI); and (2) seizure frequency. Participants included 124 patients with confirmed TLE. The results suggest that higher levels of emotional distress as measured by the MMPI are associated with greater impairments in memory, particularly with regard to verbal memory. Self-reported seizure frequency was not associated with either verbal or nonverbal memory dysfunction, nor was it related to the MMPI index of emotional distress. The findings have implications for understanding the role of stress in memory functioning of patients with pharmacoresistant TLE and suggest the potential utility of stress reduction interventions to enhance memory function in this population.

Committee:

Bruce Schefft (Committee Chair); Jerzy Szaflarski (Committee Member); Steve Howe (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology

Keywords:

Epilepsy; seizures; seizure frequency; Memory; nonverbal memory; memory impairment; TLE

Chapman, Allison M.List length and word frequency effects in the Sternberg paradigm
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Psychology
There is building evidence in long-term recognition memory paradigms documenting a null list length effect (LLE) in which performance is not improved for items studied in shorter lists compared with items from longer lists. The global-matching mechanism implemented in many recognition memory models predicts that the LLE is a direct consequence of item noise. In these models, item noise is also assumed to drive the word-frequency effect (WFE) -- a recognition advantage for words that occur with low frequency in English compared to words that occur with high frequency. The current experiments modified a short-term recognition memory task (the Sternberg paradigm) to include an extended and/or filled delay between study and test lists, and manipulated word frequency. Results demonstrated a null LLE when the design included both a longer study-test lag and a distracter task. Frequency effects emerged only when there was an unfilled delay and a distracter task separating the study-test cycles. These results suggest that item interference is not implicated in short-term recognition memory for words, and contextual reinstatement must be sufficiently noisy to demonstrate the low frequency word advantage. BCDMEM is able to succinctly capture the range of findings that seem to provide evidence against distinct short-term- and long-term-memory systems.

Committee:

Simon Dennis, PhD (Advisor); Mark Pitt, PhD (Committee Member); Per Sederberg, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology

Keywords:

recognition memory; memory models; computational modeling; Sternberg paradigm; list length effect; word frequency effect

Oehlert, Jeremy JosephVariance in Math Achievement Attributable to Visual Cognitive Constructs
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2012, Psychology
Previous research has reported positive correlations between math achievement and the cognitive constructs of spatial visualization, working memory, and general intelligence; however, no single study has assessed variance in math achievement attributable to all three constructs, examined in combination. The current study fills this gap in the literature by demonstrating that general intelligence is a strong predictor of math achievement, with spatial visualization and working memory playing smaller, yet still significant roles. Spatial visualization and working memory differentially predicted math achievement in a domain-specific manner. In addition, evidence was found for variance in math achievement attributable to domain-specific working memory constructs.

Committee:

Lee Thompson, PhD (Advisor); Douglas Detterman (Committee Member); Betsy Short (Committee Member); Gerry Taylor (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Experimental Psychology

Keywords:

spatial visualization; working memory; general intelligence; math achievement; visuospatial working memory

Darby, Kevin PatrickInterference Effects and Memory Development
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Psychology
Memory is an essential aspect of cognition, enabling us to retain information that can be used to guide decision-making and future planning. However, we often forget information due to proactive and retroactive interference from other, competing memories. Proactive interference occurs when new learning is more difficult as a result of previously acquired memories, whereas retroactive interference occurs when it is more difficult to remember previously acquired information as a result of new learning. Recent work has presented evidence that children are more vulnerable to interference effects than adults, experiencing dramatic levels of forgetting due to new learning. An essential question is what mechanisms modulate interference and changes in the magnitude of interference across development. This dissertation uses four experiments to examine factors modulating susceptibility to interference, including consolidation (i.e., the stabilization of memory traces across time) and memory binding (i.e., forming complex associations between multiple elements of an experience). Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of time delays on children’s susceptibility to retroactive interference by comparing forgetting due to new learning upon immediate testing and following a 48-hr delay. The results indicated that children’s retroactive interference was strong when memory was probed immediately after learning of new information, but was eliminated following a delay, suggesting a powerful role of consolidation in early memory development. Experiments 3 and 4 were designed to test whether memory binding processes might contribute to children’s and adults’ ability to resist interference effects. These experiments introduced a new paradigm to test interference and memory binding in 5- and 8-year-old children, as well as adults, and found evidence of decreased susceptibility to interference and improvements in memory binding across development. In addition, individual differences in complex memory binding predicted resistance to retroactive interference effects. Finally, a manipulation designed to decrease memory binding resulted in somewhat increased retroactive interference. Overall, these results suggest that complex memory binding may help reduce susceptibility to retroactive interference, although there was less evidence of a relationship between memory binding and proactive interference. The findings of these four experiments are discussed in relation to the effects of time delays on children’s interference, developmental change in memory binding processes, and the potential relationship between memory binding and interference.

Committee:

Vladimir Sloutsky (Advisor); John Opfer (Committee Member); Per Sederberg (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

Memory; memory development; cognitive development; retroactive interference; proactive interference; multinomial processing tree model

Fields, Kyle DavidDeath and Memory in the Napoleonic and American Civil Wars
Bachelor of Arts, Miami University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences - History
My thesis investigates the popular memory of battles in the Napoleonic and American Civil Wars. Asserting that the battlefield tactics and casualty rates show striking similarities, this paper examines the inaccurate common perception of the Civil War as exceptionally deadly and attributes it to some developments of the first half of the nineteenth century. This work of comparative history presents a case study in the introduction, establishing two battles as highly similar: the Battle of Austerlitz (1805) from the Napoleonic Wars and the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863) from the American Civil War. Having demonstrated the validity of comparing these events, the non-military developments of the telegraph, newspaper correspondents, photography, lithography, and public education that occurred in the interim period are considered to explain the very different ways that the conflicts passed into popular memory. The paper concludes that cultural and technological developments between the wars created a memory emphasizing loss, explaining the “exceptional deadliness” of the Civil War better than the traditional assumptions about improved weapons and lagging tactics.

Committee:

Andrew Cayton, PhD (Advisor); Tatiana Seijas, PhD (Committee Member); John Forren, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Communication; European History; Military History

Keywords:

history; american history; memory; popular memory; napoleonic wars; civil war; battle of austerlitz; battle of chancellorsville; lithography; photography; telegraph; letters; culture of death; newspapers; embedded correspondents; military tactics

Alvarez, SusanaInterlaced Distortions
Master of Fine Arts, The Ohio State University, 2011, Art
This thesis explores the distorted repetitive patterns of childhood memory, through deconstruction and reconstruction of old and new familial imagery. It inquires about the recurring nature of patterned distortions found in memories that create infinite uncertainties. This is achieved by creating a memory map where the fragmented memories are plotted in order to find answers to questions related to the distortions.

Committee:

Charles Massey, Jr (Committee Chair); Rebecca Harvey (Committee Member); Sergio Soave (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Fine Arts

Keywords:

childhood distortions; fragmented memories; reconstructed memories; family patterns; deconstructed memory; memory map

Klyn, Niall Andre MunsonWorking Memory for Rhythm
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Music
Rhythm has received scant attention from modelers and experimenters in working memory, and the mechanisms by which we retain rhythms over the short-term are poorly understood. This is a substantial gap in our knowledge of how music may be learned. Furthermore, recent theories of musical origins and psychological research into differential processing of voice sounds have converged to point towards the possibility that “rhythm” may be derived from at least two processes; a vocally-derived component and a manual, drumming component. This background provokes questions into how we remember rhythm, and whether vocal and instrumental rhythms are treated differently by working memory. This thesis reviews the foundation of these questions and then presents two behavioural experiments designed to investigate working memory for voice and non-voice rhythm. Participants performed two recognition memory experiments in which they were asked to judge the rhythm in pairs of recordings as either “same” or “different.” These recordings were drawn from field recordings of the Dyirbal of Australia, and on each trial the participants were presented with both voice and clapstick rhythm but were instructed to respond solely to one or the other. In the first experiment, musicians and non-musicians were tested at two interstimulus intervals, short (500ms) and long (12500ms). Musician performance was found to be superior in the clapstick task, but not in the voice task. Furthermore, both musicians and non-musicians performed worse in the voice task at the long duration compared to the short duration, while performance for the clapstick rhythms was not significantly decremented by the increased duration. Reaction time analysis showed an effect of duration, condition (different or same), and a small interaction between musical training and task (clapstick or voice). In the second experiment, musicians were tested with the same stimuli at the long duration but with additional interference tasks designed to suppress the temporal encoding. In one condition participants sub-vocally repeated the word “the” at a steady tempo, and in the other condition they tapped the finger of their dominant hand at a steady tempo, each while performing the recognition memory tasks as before. Finger-tapping caused a significant increase in accuracy for both voice and clapstick tasks, while sub-vocal articulation did not significantly affect performance for either. The results of these two experiments are interpreted as providing support for differential processing of voice and non-voice rhythms, as the voice rhythms suffered substantial performance loss at the longer duration and clapstick did not. Further, the lack of interference caused by the sub-vocal articulation task indicates that the articulatory loop is not providing the rehearsal process for recognition memory for rhythm, and supports a component of working memory that is invested with rhythm and/or temporal processing.

Committee:

Udo Will, PhD (Advisor); David Huron, PhD (Committee Member); Ryan Skinner, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music; Psychology

Keywords:

memory for rhythm; working memory; rhythm perception

Sahu, Aparna A.Individual Differences in Prospective Memory: The Roles of Handedness and Interhemispheric Interaction
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2010, Psychology
The role of interhemispheric interaction is confirmed by past studies on handedness that have shown a mixed handed advantage in recalling episodic memories. The current study aimed to investigate whether a similar pattern exists for prospective memory (memory for future intentions). The study was performed on undergraduate participants of the University of Toledo (N = 143) and incorporated cognitive tests to measure prospective memory (Memory for Intentions Screening Test), working memory (Digit span) and executive function performance (Pair Cancellation Task) and a meta memory questionnaire on one’s assessment of everyday memory (Everyday Memory Questionnaire). Handedness differences were not observed for prospective memory, although mean scores were nominally higher for mixed-handers. However, a significant female advantage was present. Further analyses showed a) positive associations between working and prospective memories and b) executive functioning was a significant predictor for prospective memory, both of these findings which were specific to females only. Finally, a concordance between meta memory and objective prospective memory scores was observed in females only. Results are discussed in the light of past research.

Committee:

Stephen Christman (Committee Chair); John. D. Jasper (Committee Member); Kamala London (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology

Keywords:

Handedness; Prospective memory; Interhemispheric interaction; Working memory; Metamemory; Executive function

ARORA, VIKRAMAN EFFICIENT BUILT-IN SELF-DIAGNOSTIC METHOD FOR NON-TRADITIONAL FAULTS OF EMBEDDED MEMORY ARRAYS
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2002, Engineering : Computer Engineering
With improvements in VLSI technology, more and more components are fabricated onto a single chip. The importance of system on chip (SoC) is growing rapidly in this era. It is estimated that the percentage of chip area occupied by embedded memory arrays on a SoC will rise to as high as 94% in the next decade. Even worse, memory arrays are more vulnerable to fabrication defects due to the higher packing density of transistors. If some cells of the embedded memory arrays on a SoC are defective, it is not economical to throw the chip away. The solution to this problem lies in designing an intelligent piece of built-in hardware which tests, diagnoses, and repairs the faulty cells of embedded memory arrays. In this thesis, we propose a built-in self-diagnostic march-based algorithm which identifies memory cells as faulty based on a recently introduced non-traditional fault model. This algorithm is developed based on the DiagRSMarch algorithm which is a diagnosis algorithm for embedded memory arrays for identifying traditional faults in memories. A minimal set of additional operations is added to DiagRSMarch for identifying the non-traditional faults without affecting the diagnostic coverage of the traditional faults. The embedded memory arrays are accessed using the bi-directional serial interfacing architecture which minimizes the routing overhead introduced by the diagnosis hardware. Using the concepts of serial interfacing technique, parallel testing and redundant-tolerant operations, the diagnosis process is accomplished efficiently at-speed with minimal hardware overhead. An implementation of the diagnosis algorithm is achieved in the form of a built-in self-diagnosis (BISD) controller with the memory arrays and their associated interfaces. The BISD Controller interacts closely with the built-in self-repair logic via suitable control signals. Ideally, we expect to have a single controller performing built-in self-test, built-in self-diagnosis and built-in self-repair after the SoC chips are fabricated or during power-on for the SoC chips used for a system. This thesis is a step in meeting this goal.

Committee:

Dr. Wen-Ben Jone (Advisor)

Keywords:

memory; diagnosis; built-in-self-diagnosis; system on chip; embedded memory arrays

Colyn, Leisha APlanning and the Survival Processing Effect: An Examination of the Proximate Mechanisms
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Psychology/Experimental
In two experiments on incidental learning in memory, survival processing of highly related information (i.e., DRM lists) was compared to two contextually rich encoding scenarios that were equated on several important characteristics and to a pleasantness processing task. Free recall and recognition memory were measured. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that the survival processing effect on true recall existed but was driven by congruity effects. However, a planning effect on false recall existed. That is, the three planning processing tasks produced greater false recall than the pleasantness processing task. The recall results of experiment 2 failed to replicate the recall results from Experiment 1. Regarding the recognition tasks, no survival processing effect in hit rate existed independent of congruity effect, but Experiment 2 demonstrated that hit rate was also affected by the relatedness of the information in the recognition environment. Experiment 2 replicated the planning effect on false alarm rate above the effect of congruity effect that was demonstrated in Experiment 1. The survival processing task did not produce a greater false alarm rate than other processing tasks in Experiment , but did in Experiment 2. Experiment 2 also demonstrated that false alarm rate was affected by the relatedness of the information in the recognition environment. A small survival processing effect on proportion of recognition items correctly categorized was found in Experiment 1, but failed to replicate in Experiment 2. Experiment 2 replicated the finding that when controlling for congruity effects, participants in all groups found it similarly difficult to discriminate between target and lure words on the recognition task. Further, Experiment 2 demonstrated that all groups found it more difficult to discriminate when lures were highly related versus moderately and unrelated. This was qualified by the congruity effect, as well. Both experiments demonstrated that all processing tasks produced similar criterion values. However, Experiment 2 demonstrated that participants in all groups used a more liberal criterion when information in the recognition environment was highly related to the target information than when information in the recognition environment was moderately-related or unrelated. Notably, the measures of the decision characteristics in recognition memory did not indicate any differences between encoding processing tasks.

Committee:

Richard Anderson, PhD (Advisor); Cynthia Bertelsen, PhD (Committee Member); Howard Casey Cromwell, PhD (Committee Member); Harold Rosenberg, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

adaptive memory; false memory; recall; recognition; survival processing; evolutionary theory

Day, Ellen FrancesA Preliminary Study of the Revised Anna Thompson Prose Memory Assessment in Older Adults
Master of Arts in Psychology, Cleveland State University, 2015, College of Sciences and Health Professions
Prose memory assessment has been used in neuropsychology since the first intelligence tests were developed in the 20th century (Yerkes, 1921). In the current study, a new method (Poreh’s Adaptation of Yerkes’ Logical Prose, PAYLP) for administering the Anna Thompson prose memory assessment was created by presenting the story three times to a sample of older adults. The researchers hypothesized that the multiple trial presentation of PAYLP would produce a positive logarithmic learning curve, and that participants would have the best memory performance on Trial 3 of the PAYLP. It was also hypothesized that age and education would correlate with PAYLP performance. A 3x3 repeated measures ANOVA (n=35) indicated a significant main effect of PAYLP Trial on memory performance. Paired samples t- tests showed significantly better performance on Trial 3 in comparison to both Trial 2 and Trial 1. There were significant learning curves for PAYLP (R^2 =.9979) and PNMT (R^2 =.9564). There were no significant correlations between education or age on PAYLP performance. The results suggest that significant learning for prose does occur with three trial presentation. Future research with a larger sample size and participants with brain injury are needed to establish whether this new adaptation accurately predicts memory and learning in comparison to the single trial presentation paradigm.

Committee:

Amir Poreh, PhD (Committee Chair); Boaz Kahana, PhD (Committee Member); Christopher France, Psy.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Clinical Psychology; Psychological Tests; Psychology

Keywords:

prose memory; verbal memory; learning; psychological assessment

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