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Shah, ZubinSIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF RFID LOCALIZATION ALGORITHMS
Master of Science in Computer Engineering (MSCE), Wright State University, 2006, Computer Engineering
Radio frequency identification (RFID) based localization systems provide a unique approach to localize mobile entities equipped with RFID readers or tagged with RFID tags. UHF RFID systems using passive tags are a good choice considering their cost, reading range, and reliability. With global acceptance and deployment of UHF RFID systems using passive tags for tracking and identification, virtually everything around us can be tagged with small and low-cost passive RFID tags. This thesis describes a Monte Carlo Localization based algorithm to localize a mobile RFID reader within a tagged environment. A software tool is developed to validate this localization process, simulate it and analyze its performance. Requirement specification for such RFID based localization systems can be determined based on various analysis plots available from this software tool. The tool also analyses tag localization using fixed readers to study the RFID characteristics for localization. These localization approaches can be used to provide intelligent context aware services.

Committee:

Jack Jean (Advisor)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

RFID; Localization; Monte Carlo Localization; Simulation Tool; Real-time Localization

Dunne, Elena S.Project Risk Management: Developing a Risk Framework for Translation Projects
PHD, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Modern and Classical Language Studies
In the current global business environment many endeavors are undertaken as projects. Translation, localization and other language services are no exception and must be viewed and studied as services performed in a projectized environment. If they are not, there will continue to be gaps between the way translation is taught and researched (as an isolated activity) and how it is performed in the business world (as part of projects). The existence of these gaps not only prevents translation practitioners from recognizing and communicating the value of the service that they provide, but also diminishes the value of the training that future translators receive. Lack of understanding of the context in which translation is performed limits the opportunities for mutually beneficial cooperation between translation studies and other disciplines in the academic environment, and between organizations and divisions within a given organization in the business environment. This study proposes to contribute to the research on translation in project contexts by examining risk management, which is an important area of focus for organizations and professionals in many sectors, but which is largely ignored in the language industry. This study first provides an overview of the language industry, explores key concepts, such as risk, uncertainty, project management, risk management and maturity model, and explains the role and relevance of risk management in the language industry. It then reviews existing risk management frameworks developed by project management and risk management practitioners, including the framework developed by the Project Management Institute (PMI). Next, a model of risk sources developed specifically for application in translation and localization projects is presented and discussed. The theoretical discussion is followed by a case study in which PMI’s project risk management framework is implemented and the proposed model of risk sources is applied in a real-world translation company. The description of the case study methodology is followed by observations of how the study was carried out and by a presentation and analysis of the results of the case study. The dissertation concludes by offering recommendations based on the findings of the case study and by examining possible future avenues of research.

Committee:

Gregory Shreve (Advisor); Fran├žoise Massardier-Kenney (Committee Member); Sue Ellen Wright (Committee Member); Jayaram Muthuswamy (Committee Member); Frederick Schroath (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Foreign Language; Language

Keywords:

translation; localization; language industry; translation studies; language services; language project; translation project; localization project; risk management; project management; risk; uncertainty; risk sources

Reddy, Prashanth G.EFFICIENT TIME OF ARRIVAL CALCULATION FOR ACOUSTIC SOURCE LOCALIZATION USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2011, Fenn College of Engineering
Acoustic source localization is a very useful tool in surveillance and tracking applications. Potential exists for ubiquitous presence of acoustic source localization systems. However, due to several significant challenges they are currently limited in their applications. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) offer a feasible solution that can allow for large, ever present acoustic localization systems. Some fundamental challenges remain. This thesis presents some ideas for helping solve the challenging problems faced by networked acoustic localization systems. We make use of a low-power WSN designed specifically for distributed acoustic source localization. Our ideas are based on three important observations. First, sounds emanating from a source will be free of reflections at the beginning of the sound. We make use of this observation by selectively processing only the initial parts of a sound to be localized. Second, the significant features of a sound are more robust to various interference sources. We perform key feature recognition such as the locations of significant zero crossings and local peaks. Third, these features which are compressed descriptors, can also be used for distributed pattern matching. For this we perform basic pattern analysis by comparing sampled signals from various nodes in order to determine better Time Of Arrivals (TOA). Our implementation tests these ideas in a predictable test environment. A complete system for general sounds is left for future work.

Committee:

Nigamanth Sridhar, PhD (Committee Chair); Murad Hizlan, PhD (Committee Member); Wenbing Zhao, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

Localization;TOA;TDOA;Wireless Sensor Networks;WSN;Acoustic;Time of Arrival;Acoustic Source Localization

Kreinar, Edward JFilter-Based Slip Detection for a Complete-Coverage Robot
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2013, EECS - Electrical Engineering
Complete-coverage robots, such as a lawnmower or snowplow, require a centimeter-level localization solution in order to navigate reliably. Unmodeled wheel slip or other odometry errors may cause localization to diverge beyond the bounds of uncertainty. Specifically in the case of a robot snowplow, errors due to wheel slip may be significant. This thesis uses the CWRU Cutter autonomous robot as a test platform to address the dual issues of (1) robust localization and (2) odometry error handling. Both an Extended Kalman Filter and an Adaptive Monte Carlo Localization procedure are derived and implemented specifically on the CWRU Cutter robot. Finally, a new augmented Extended Kalman Filter with general-purpose wheel-velocity error states is derived. The augmented EKF is shown to fully estimate the robot state and the wheel velocity error due to wheel slip during logged data from the 2013 Institute of Navigation's Autonomous Snowplow Competition.

Committee:

Roger Quinn, Dr. (Advisor); Francis Merat, Dr. (Committee Member); M. Cenk Cavusoglu, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Electrical Engineering; Robotics

Keywords:

localization; odometry error; wheel slip; Extended Kalman Filter; Augmented Kalman Filter; Monte Carlo Localization; differential drive; robot lawnmower; robot snowplow

Rogers, Lynette K.Mechanisms of nuclear localization of glutathione reductase, subnuclear colocalization with thioredoxin, and genetic analysis of a chemically induced glutathione reductase knockout
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2004, Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology
Glutathione reductase [GR; EC 1.6.4.2] is a ubiquitous, highly conserved protein that has been identified in plants, bacteria, yeast, and mammals. GR expressions and functions in cytosol and mitochondria have been studied, but little is known about mechanisms of import or functions of GR within the nucleus. No classical nuclear localization signal has been identified in GR, but cDNAs containing either mitochondrial targeting signals (MTS) from human MnSOD or from human GR (hGR) target GR transgene products to both the mitochondria and the nucleus. In contrast, cells transfected with a construct coding for a hGR-MTS/GFP fusion protein demonstrated fluorescence only in the mitochondria. Subsequent mutational deletion analyses of the hGR MTS indicated a tight correlation between nuclear and mitochondrial levels of expression and with the numbers of amino acids in the truncated MTSs. The MTS is necessary but not sufficient for nuclear localization of GR. Microscopy studies of cells in culture revealed GR-dependent immunofluorescence in subnuclear clusters. Subsequent investigations indicated that the GR-containing clusters do not colocalize with proteins found in subnuclear structures that exhibit morphologies similar to the anti-GR immunoreactive forms, or with p-histone 3, a protein involved in replication. In both native and transfected cells, GR was colocalized with glutaredoxin, and more strongly with thioredoxin, and colocalization with thioredoxin also exhibited subnuclear clustering. The functions served by the colocalization between GR and TRX protein are not known at this time. A GR-deficient mouse (Neu) was generated by treatment with isopropyl methanesulfonate (a chemical mutagen). RT-PCR analysis indicated that the defect in the GR gene was due to a deletion. Using PCR and Southern blot strategies, the deletion was isolated to the region between intron 1 and intron 5. Sequence analysis of a PCR product that included the putative deletion identified the precise breakpoints of the deletion and indicated that the Neu mice have a 12.8 kb deletion in their genomic GR gene and are a genetic knockout. The Neu mice are surprisingly healthy despite the absence of a gene so highly conserved across such a wide range of life forms.

Committee:

Charles Smith (Advisor)

Keywords:

glutathione reductase; glutathione; nuclear localization; mitochondrial localization; thioredoxin; glutathione reductase knockout mouse

Bettaieb, Luc AlexandreA Deep Learning Approach To Coarse Robot Localization
Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, 2017, EECS - Electrical Engineering
This thesis explores the use of deep learning for robot localization with applications in re-localizing a mislocalized robot. Seed values for a localization algorithm are assigned based on the interpretation of images. A deep neural network was trained on images acquired in and associated with named regions. In application, the neural net was used to recognize a region based on camera input. By recognizing regions from the camera, the robot can be localized grossly, and subsequently refined with existing techniques. Explorations into different deep neural network topologies and solver types are discussed. A process for gathering training data, training the classifier, and deployment through a robot operating system (ROS) package is provided.

Committee:

Wyatt Newman (Advisor); Murat Cavusoglu (Committee Member); Gregory Lee (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Electrical Engineering; Robotics

Keywords:

robotics; localization; deep learning; neural networks; machine learning; state estimation; robots; robot; robot operating system; ROS; AMCL; monte carlo localization; particle filter; ConvNets; convolutional neural networks

Varada, Vijay K.Acoustic Localization Employing Polar Directivity Patterns of Bidirectional Microphones Enabling Minimum Aperture Microphone Arrays
Master of Science in Engineering, University of Toledo, 2010, Engineering (Computer Science)
This thesis document introduces a novel sound source localization (SSL) technique using an array of bidirectional microphones. Specifically, the proposed technique exploits the polar directivity pattern of three bidirectional microphones to provide complete 360° localization coverage. An algorithm was developed specifically for the proposed method. The feasibility of this approach has been tested both through simulations as well as experiments. This technique reduces the total number of microphones required when compared to the recently introduced unidirectional microphone based localization technique to provide similar coverage. Reduction in the number of microphones means reduction in cost. At the same time, the overall spatial displacement requirements for the sensors are significantly reduced compared to the existing time-domain and phased array methods. This makes the system compact and portable.

Committee:

Hong Wang, PhD (Committee Chair); Vijay Devabhaktuni, PhD (Committee Member); Mansoor Alam, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering

Keywords:

Acoustic Localization; Sound Localization; Microphone Array; Polar Directivity Pattern; Bidirectional; Aperture

Wu, LingFunctional Characterization of SCN5A, The Cardiac Sodium Channel Gene Associated With Cardiac Arrhythmias and Sudden Death
Doctor of Philosophy in Regulatory Biology, Cleveland State University, 2008, College of Science

FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SCN5A, THE CARDIAC SODIUMCHANNEL GENE ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS AND SUDDEN DEATH LING WU ABSTRACT The cardiac sodium channel α subunit Nav1.5 (encoded by the SCN5A gene) plays an important role in the generation and propagation of electrical signals in the heart, and can cause cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure and sudden death when mutated or dysregulated. However, the precise composition of the multi-protein complex for the sodium channel has not been completely defined. The molecular mechanisms by which Nav1.5 mutations cause cardiac arrhythmias have not yet been well-studied in vivo. It remains to be explored whether Nav1.5 is expressed in other tissues and plays novel roles in other tissues or organs. This dissertation addresses these aspects of Nav1.5 regulation.

I found that MOG1, a small protein that is highly conserved from yeast to humans, is a central component of the channel complex and distinctly modulates the physiological function of Nav1.5. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified MOG1 as a new protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic loop II (between transmembrane domain DII and III) of Nav1.5. The interaction was further demonstrated by both in vitro GST pull-down and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation assays. Co-expression of MOG1 with Nav1.5 in HEK293 cells increased sodium current densities, whereas two siRNAs that knocked down expression of MOG1 decreased current densities. In neonatal myocytes, over-expression of MOG1 increased current densities nearly two-fold, and MOG1 siRNAs down-regulated the sodium currents. Immunostaining revealed that in the heart, MOG1 was expressed in both atrial and ventricular tissues and was highly localized in the intercalated discs. These results suggest that MOG1 may be a critical regulator of sodium channel function in the heart and reveal a new function for MOG1. Furthermore, I showed that MOG1 increased sodium current density by increasing cell membrane localization of Nav1.5. This study further demonstrates the functional diversity of Nav1.5-binding proteins, which may be important for the function of Nav1.5 under different cellular conditions.

The second major project I worked on was identification by microarray analysis of genes differentially expressed in transgenic mice with cardiac expression of LQTS mutation N1325S of SCN5A. I identified 33 genes in five different functional groups that showed differential expression. STAT1, which encodes a transcription factor involved in apoptosis and interferon response, showed the most significant difference of expression between TG-NS and control mice (a nearly 10-fold increase in expression, P = 4 x 10-6). The results were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Accordingly, many interferon response genes also showed differential expression in TG-NS hearts. This study represents the first microarray analysis for LQTS and implicates STAT1 in the pathogenesis and progression of LQTS and heart failure developed in the transgenic mice.

The third project focused on the distribution of Nav1.5 protein in the mouse brain which was investigated using immunohistochemistry. Immuno-staining with a Nav1.5-specific antibody revealed that Nav1.5 protein was localized in certain distinct regions of brain including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. Notably, I found that Nav1.5 protein co-localized with neurofilaments and clustered at a high density in the neuronal processes, mainly axons. These results suggest that Nav1.5 protein may play a role in the physiology of the central nervous system (generation and propagation of electrical signals by axons).

These studies on Nav1.5 provide new insights into the regulation of the function of Nav1.5, and shed light on the possible pathogenetic mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias at the molecular level.

Committee:

Dr. Qing Wang (Advisor)

Subjects:

Biochemistry; Biology; Biomedical Research; Biophysics; Biostatistics

Keywords:

SCN5A; Stat; cardiac arrhythmias; micro array analysis; brain localization

Hwangbo, Ju WonIntegration of Orbital and Ground Imagery for Automation of Rover Localization
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Geodetic Science and Surveying
Rover localization is essential to the exploration of space. The availability of sub-meter resolution satellite imagery, especially High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has opened the possibility of computing rover locations at higher accuracy by making use of detailed features seen in the satellite orbital images. This dissertation describes a new development towards automation of the rover localization process, using orbital and ground image networks. A HiRISE orbital image network on Mars is constructed based on a rigorous sensor model, bundle adjustment of HiRISE stereo images and absolute positioning using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. The unique HiRISE sensor configuration consists of 14 CCDs fixed to a focal plane. Due to the complexity of its sensor geometry, two technical issues need to be resolved in HiRISE stereo processing for precision topographic mapping. These technical issues are achieving coherence in the exterior orientation parameters between stereos as well as overlapping CCDs, and accurate geopositioning of HiRISE data without ground-control points. In this research, bundle adjustment strategies based on polynomial function models are applied to improve the exterior-orientation parameters. Disagreement between HiRISE CCDs is handled by the bundle adjustment, using inter-CCD tie points. HiRISE DTM was matched with MOLA DTM and points data to obtain the absolute position of the stereo model. Performance analysis of this new experiment will be given. A ground image network is also constructed using matching of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) stereo images. Rocks detected from both orbital and ground imagery serve as tie points for rover localization. From orbital images, rocks are extracted based on brightness values and the shape of dark spots. Rocks in ground images are extracted through dense stereo matching, rock peak and surface point extraction, and rock modeling. To narrow down a precise rover position, terrain matching is performed using DTMs generated from orbital and ground imagery. Finally, distribution pattern matching is implemented for rocks detected from orbital and ground imagery. The rover position is adjusted based on a 2-D affine transformation obtained from rock pattern matching. The proposed method has been tested for the Spirit rover traverse. Selection of optimal parameter values and quality control is discussed. Experimental results show that the orbital/ground rock matching approach has performed successfully for MER rover localization.

Committee:

Rongxing Li (Advisor); Alan Saalfeld (Committee Chair); Alper Yilmaz (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering; Robots; Scientific Imaging; Technology

Keywords:

Photogrammetry; image processing; rover localization

Boonyaprapasorn, ArsitFAULT DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS PROCESS FOR CRACKED ROTOR VIBRATION SYSTEMS USING MODEL-BASED APPROACH
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2009, EMC - Mechanical Engineering

In this research, the fault detection and diagnosis using a model-based technique for the cracked rotor vibration system is developed and implemented. More specifically, the observer based or filter bank approach is employed in the fault detection and diagnosis process in order to detect the occurrence of a crack and diagnose the position and the depth of the crack in rotating machinery. The fault detection and diagnosis process is consisted of two parts. The first part is the filter bank or the residual generation which generates the residual vectors corresponding to each observer. The second part is a voting algorithm which searches the observer that corresponds to the behavior of the real system.

The type of filter contained in the filter bank is the discrete time-variant Kalman filter. The filter is specifically designed to track the cracked rotor vibration system. Since the filter is time-variant, the state matrix at the current time step of the filter is updated by the state estimated value from the previous time step. Constructing the filter bank with the presented filter allows the fault detection and diagnosis process to perform very well under the environment of the process and measurement noises which is unavoidable in real systems. The voting algorithm evaluates every observer to find the observer behaving the closest to the real system based on the score achieved by each observer. The score is calculated by the information of the residual mean, the residual autocorrelation of each observer, the correlation coefficient between the real system measurements, and the observer outputs.

In order to evaluate the fault detection and diagnosis process performance, the fault detection and diagnosis process is tested with the simulated real system containing various sets of system parameters. The results and discussions are presented.

Committee:

Kenneth A. Loparo, PhD (Committee Chair); Dario Gasparini, PhD (Committee Member); Robert L. Mullen, PhD (Committee Member); Maurice L. Adams, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

detection;diagnosis;cracked rotor;fault;vibration;rotating machinery;cracked shaft;cracked rotor vibration system;crack detection;crack localization;fracutre mechanic;model based

Loh, Benjamin Y.Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) in Malaysia: The Global-Local Nexus
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2013, Asian Studies (International Studies)
Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are online entities that are truly global and borderless by nature, but in smaller countries like Malaysia, they are licensed by global developers to local publishers to be localized for local players. From a globalization perspective this appears to be a one-way, top-down relationship from the global to the local. However, this is not the case as the relationship is interchangeable, known as the Global-Local Nexus, as neither of these forces has control over the other, but at the same time they have great influence over one another. This thesis examines the Global-Local Nexus in MMORPGs industry in Malaysia between global developers and local publishers and players. The research was conducted through a series of personal interviews with local publisher representatives and local players. The results indicate that the local is well represented in this nexus from both local publishers and local players.

Committee:

Yeong-Hyun Kim, Dr. (Committee Chair); Drew McDaniel, Dr. (Committee Member); Gaurav Sinha, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Geography

Keywords:

MMORPG; Global-Local Nexus; Malaysia; Localization;Player Communities

Wang, JueModeling and Matching of Landmarks for Automation of Mars Rover Localization
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Geodetic Science and Surveying
The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, begun in January 2004, has been extremely successful. However, decision-making for many operation tasks of the current MER mission and the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission is performed on Earth through a predominantly manual, time-consuming process. Unmanned planetary rover navigation is ideally expected to reduce rover idle time, diminish the need for entering safe-mode, and dynamically handle opportunistic science events without required communication to Earth. Successful automation of rover navigation and localization during the extraterrestrial exploration requires that accurate position and attitude information can be received by a rover and that the rover has the support of simultaneous localization and mapping. An integrated approach with Bundle Adjustment (BA) and Visual Odometry can efficiently refine the rover position. However, during the MER mission, BA is done manually because of the difficulty in the automation of the cross-site tie points selection. This dissertation proposes an automatic approach to select cross-site tie points from multiple rover sites based on the methods of landmark extraction, landmark modeling, and landmark matching. The first step in this approach is that important landmarks such as craters and rocks are defined. Methods of automatic feature extraction and landmark modeling are then introduced. Complex models with orientation angles and simple models without those angles are compared. The results have shown that simple models can provide reasonably good results. Next, the sensitivity of different modeling parameters is analyzed. Based on this analysis, cross-site rocks are matched through two complementary stages: rock distribution pattern matching and rock model matching. In addition, a preliminary experiment on orbital and ground landmark matching is also briefly introduced. Finally, the reliability of the cross-site tie points selection is validated by fault detection, which considers the mapping capability of MER cameras and the reason for mismatches. Fault detection strategies are applied in each step of the cross-site tie points selection to automatically verify the accuracy. The mismatches are excluded and localization errors are minimized. The method proposed in this dissertation is demonstrated with the datasets from the 2004 MER mission (traverse of 318 m) as well as the simulated test data at Silver Lake (traverse of 5.5 km), California. The accuracy analysis demonstrates that the algorithm is efficient at automatically selecting a sufficient number of well-distributed high-quality tie points to link the ground images into an image network for BA. The method worked successfully along with a continuous 1.1 km stretch. With the BA performed, highly accurate maps can be created to help the rover to navigate precisely and automatically. The method also enables autonomous long-range Mars rover localization.

Committee:

Ron (Rongxing Li) Li, PhD (Committee Chair); Tony Schenk, PhD (Committee Member); Alper Yilmaz, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Engineering

Keywords:

rover localization; landmark; tie points; cross-site; rock modeling; pattern matching; model matching; fault detection

Harper, Jason W.Fast Template Matching For Vision-Based Localization
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2009, EECS - Computer Engineering
This thesis presents a novel vision-based localization method that uses fast template-matching techniques with respect to regularly-spaced floor tiles to provide pose information. To accomplish the template matching, an edge map is created, transformed into Hough space and interpreted modulo the periodicity of the template. In this space, offsets relative to the periodicity of the floor tiles can be found. By separately tracking accumulation of periods, a global pose estimate can be determined that is immune to accumulation of incremental errors. The method is shown to be robust with respect to noise and distracter lines, and it also recognizes when a scene analysis is untrustworthy. The method is suitable for integration within a Kalman filter to contribute to improved localization.

Committee:

Wyatt Newman (Advisor); M. Cenk Cavusoglu (Committee Member); Francis Merat (Other)

Subjects:

Artificial Intelligence; Robots

Keywords:

machine vision; template matching; robot; localization

Woodruff, John F.Integrating Monaural and Binaural Cues for Sound Localization and Segregation in Reverberant Environments
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Computer Science and Engineering

The problem of segregating a sound source of interest from an acoustic background has been extensively studied due to applications in hearing prostheses, robust speech/speaker recognition and audio information retrieval. Computational auditory scene analysis (CASA) approaches the segregation problem by utilizing grouping cues involved in the perceptual organization of sound by human listeners. Binaural processing, where input signals resemble those that enter the two ears, is of particular interest in the CASA field. The dominant approach to binaural segregation has been to derive spatially selective filters in order to enhance the signal in a direction of interest. As such, the problems of sound localization and sound segregation are closely tied. While spatial filtering has been widely utilized, substantial performance degradation is incurred in reverberant environments and more fundamentally, segregation cannot be performed without sufficient spatial separation between sources.

This dissertation addresses the problems of binaural localization and segregation in reverberant environments by integrating monaural and binaural cues. Motivated by research in psychoacoustics and by developments in monaural CASA processing, we first develop a probabilistic framework for joint localization and segregation of voiced speech. Pitch cues are used to group sound components across frequency over continuous time intervals. Time-frequency regions resulting from this partial organization are then localized by integrating binaural cues, which enhances robustness to reverberation, and grouped across time based on the estimated locations. We demonstrate that this approach outperforms voiced segregation based on either monaural or binaural analysis alone. We also demonstrate substantial performance gains in terms of multisource localization, particularly for distant sources in reverberant environments and low signal-to-noise ratios. We then develop a binaural system for joint localization and segregation of an unknown and time-varying number of sources that is more flexible and requires less prior information than our initial system. This framework incorporates models trained jointly on pitch and azimuth cues, which improves performance and naturally deals with both voiced and unvoiced speech. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms existing two-microphone systems in spite of less prior information.

We also consider how the computational goal of CASA-based segregation should be defined in reverberant environments. The ideal binary mask (IBM) has been established as a main goal of CASA. While the IBM is defined unambiguously in anechoic conditions, in reverberant environments there is some flexibility in how one might define the target signal itself and therefore, ambiguity is introduced to the notion of the IBM. Due to the perceptual distinction between early and late reflections, we introduce the reflection boundary as a parameter to the IBM definition to allow target reflections to be divided into desirable and undesirable components. We conduct a series of intelligibility tests with normal hearing listeners to compare alternative IBM definitions. Results show that it is vital for the IBM definition to account for the energetic effect of early target reflections, and that late target reflections should be characterized as noise.

Committee:

DeLiang Wang, PhD (Advisor); Mikhail Belkin, PhD (Committee Member); Eric Fosler-Lussier, PhD (Committee Member); Nicoleta Roman, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Acoustics; Artificial Intelligence; Computer Science; Electrical Engineering

Keywords:

computational auditory scene analysis; speech segregation; sound localization; binaural; monaural; ideal binary masking; speech intelligibility

hart, charlesA Low-cost Omni-directional Visual Bearing Only Localization System
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2014, EECS - Computer and Information Sciences
RAMBLER Robot is designed to enable research on biologically inspired behavioral robot control algorithms. RAMBLER Robot tests the feasibility of autonomously localizing without typical sensors like wheel odometers or GPS. The primary objective is to independently, accurately, and robustly recover the path of a moving robotic system with only the lowest-cost sensors available off-the-shelf. Methods new and old are reviewed and tested on the real RAMBLER Robot hardware. The hardware and software necessary to use omni-directional camera measurements to decrease uncertainty regarding the position and heading of a small robot system are presented in detail. The RAMBLER Robot is shown to successfully localize within a small arena using three passive indistinguishable landmarks.

Committee:

Roger Quinn (Committee Chair); Francis Merat (Committee Member); Gregory Lee (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Robotics

Keywords:

omnicam; camera; omnidirectional; panoramic; catadioptric; spherical reflector; triangulation; power center; localization; particle filter; computer vision; raspberry pi; zumo; robot; robotics; low-cost; inexpensive; python; matlab; opencv;

Lorden, Mack FThe Localization of Chinese Teas in America
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2015, East Asian Languages and Literatures
In present-day United States of America, tea is an ever-increasing beverage available to consumers in multiple forms: instant, ready-to-drink, iced, etc. In China, tea is much more than just a beverage—it is a critical part of their culture. This research aims to highlight the differences and similarities between Chinese and American teas, cultures, and consumer markets, and from this analysis draw conclusions as to how tea can be localized from a culture in which it is ubiquitous (i.e. China) to a culture utterly lacking in tea habits and culture (i.e. the USA). To succeed in this mission, one must take into consideration the properties of tea itself, its background and cultural/historical significance, the market conditions of both cultures, and the influence of organizations who have already succeeded in bridging these gaps through the tea industry.

Committee:

Xiaobin Jian (Advisor); Galal Walker (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Asian Studies; Comparative; Foreign Language

Keywords:

Chinese tea, Chinese tea products, Chinese culture, localization, American tea market, marketing strategy

Garretson, Tyler ABaculovirus FP25K localization and transposition during insect cell infection
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2016, Microbiology
Baculoviruses are insect-specific, large DNA viruses known for their promise and versatility as gene expression platforms, biopesticides, and gene therapy vectors. They follow a uniquely biphasic life cycle that produces a budded virus (BV) and occlusion-derived virus (ODV). This switch from BV to ODV is partially carried out by a viral gene product, FP25K. However, the fp25k gene is unstable in cell culture infections, and mutations within this locus negatively impact gene expression and biopesticide production platforms. Despite its importance, FP25K protein function and the mechanism of gene instability are not completely understood. In Chapter 1, we examined FP25K localization and the domains involved in order to obtain FP25K functional information. This was accomplished by using an Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) bacmid virus that produces a functional AcMNPV FP25K-GFP fusion protein during insect cell infection to determine localization and functionality of this virus and its mutants through confocal microscopy and real-time PCR-based budding assays, respectively. A protein structure prediction search shows strong similarity between FP25K and a nucleic acid chaperone LINE-1 ORF1p. AcMNPV FP25K primarily localized to cytoplasmic amorphous structures, although a small amount was nuclear. Because LINE ORF1p also localizes with amorphous structures identified as stress granules, these FP25K cytoplasmic amorphous structures may represent stress granules. We also found that a conserved putative N-terminal coiled-coil domain present in alphabaculovirus but absent in betabaculovirus FP25Ks was critical for its cytoplasmic retention. In Chapter 2, we investigated mechanisms of fp25k gene instability. Previously, we reported a specific fp25k transposition event during Sf21 cell infection. To characterize this event and determine its sequence requirements, a combination of viral genome mapping and fp25k mutational analysis was employed. However during passage of fp25k mutants, homologous recombination occurred between viral constructs. Based on the previously published evidence that high molecular weight DNA concatemers are present during baculovirus replication, this may also indicate that replication is partially recombination-dependent. Overall, these data provide evidence towards better understanding FP25K protein function and gene stability through localization studies and characterization of transposition in Sf21 cells, respectively. Moreover, the protein structure prediction search and localization data support a mechanism of FP25K as a regulator of biphasic switch possibly through association with stress granules.

Committee:

Xiao-Wen Cheng (Advisor)

Subjects:

Cellular Biology; Virology

Keywords:

Baculovirus, FP25K, Localization, Transposition

Yang, FanVisual Infrastructure based Accurate Object Recognition and Localization
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Computer Science and Engineering
Visual infrastructure, which consists of connected visual sensors, has been extensively deployed and is vital for various important applications, such as surveillance, tracking, and monitoring. However, there are still many problems regarding visual sensor deployment for optimal coverage and visual data processing technology. Challenges remain with the sectoral visual sensing model, the complexity of image processing, and these sensors' vulnerability to noisy environments. Solving these problems will improve the performance of visual infrastructure, which increases accuracy and efficiency for these applications. This dissertation focuses on visual-infrastructure-related technologies. In particular, we study the following problems. First, we study visual infrastructure deployment. We propose local face-view barrier coverage (L-Faceview), a novel concept that achieves statistical barrier coverage in visual sensor networks leveraging mobile objects' trajectory information. We derive a rigorous probability bound for this coverage via a feasible deployment pattern. The proposed detection probability bound and deployment pattern can guide practical camera sensor deployments in visual infrastructure with limited budgets. Second, we study visual-infrastructure-based object recognition. We design and implement R-Focus, a platform with visual sensors that detects and verifies a person holding a mobile phone nearby with the assistance of electronic sensors. R-Focus performs visual and electronic data collection and rotates based on the collected data. It uses the electronic identity information to gather visual identity information. R-Focus can serve as a component of visual infrastructure that performs object identity recognition. Third, we study visual-infrastructure-based object localization. We design Flash-Loc, an accurate indoor localization system leveraging flashes of light to localize objects in areas with deployed visual infrastructure. An object emits a sequence of flashes that uniquely "represent" the object from the cameras' view. Flash-Loc develops three key mechanisms that distinguish objects while avoiding long irritating flashes: adaptive-length flash coding, pulse-width-modulation-based flash generation, and image-subtraction-based flash localization. Further, we design a system in which Flash-Loc cooperates with fingerprinting and dead reckoning for continuous localization. We implement Flash-Loc on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment. Our real-world experiments show that Flash-Loc achieves accurate indoor localization by itself and in cooperation with other localization technologies. In particular, Flash-Loc can localize an object 45m away from the camera with sub-meter accuracy. This dissertation presents all of the above techniques in detail, along with the respective system implementation and solutions to practical challenges.

Committee:

Dong Xuan (Advisor); Yuanfang Zheng (Committee Member); Ten-Hwang Lai (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering; Computer Science

Keywords:

visual infrastructure related technologies; visual infrastructure deployment; visual-infrastructure-based object recognition; visual-infrastructure-based object localization

Chhatpar, Siddharth R.Localization for Robotic Assemblies with Position Uncertainty
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2006, Mechanical Engineering
This dissertation deals with the class of robotic assemblies where position uncertainty far exceeds assembly clearance, and visual assistance is not available to resolve the uncertainty. Our research is motivated by actual assemblies from vehicular transmissions that fall under this class. For this class of assemblies, the focus shifts from the dynamics of the assembly to the problem of searching for part alignment. A novel idea is introduced to transform the search for part alignment into one of localizing the peg-hole misalignment on the hyper-surface formed in the peg-hole contact configuration space (C-space). This idea is developed into an intelligent localization strategy for resolving the uncertainty in the relative configuration of parts. The strategy is to explore the assembly contact C-space and match observations to a pre-acquired map of the C-space. The implementation of our localization strategy is described using both analytical and sampled maps of the contact C-space. Thus, one can either model the contact C-space using equations of the three-dimensional volumetric intersections of the mating parts, or sample it using a robot or CAD model. However, a sampled map does not provide a complete representation of the continuous contact C-space. Hence, the concepts of assembly sufficiency, goal region, and approximate localization are introduced to help in localizing sufficiently for assembly. With increasing dimensionality of the assembly uncertainty and small assembly clearances, the computational load becomes large and uneven over the localization period. An algorithm, termed the cell approach, is developed to implement the localization strategy in stages of increasing resolution, thus distributing the computational load more evenly. To make the localization strategy more robust, the application of particle filtering for robotic assemblies with position uncertainty was pioneered in this dissertation. Particle filtering is a probabilistic scheme that maintains a set of weighted particles, where each particle represents an estimate of the relative peg-hole configuration; it can handle errors in actuation and observation, and also errors in mapping. Moreover, the number of particles can be adjusted to accommodate the computational resources available. The ideas presented in this dissertation were validated with mathematical analyses, computer simulations, and actual robotic assemblies.

Committee:

Michael Branicky (Advisor)

Keywords:

Localization; Robotic Assembly; Particle Filter; Configuration Space; Sampled Maps

Wodlinger, BrianExtracting Command Signals From Peripheral Nerve Recordings
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, Biomedical Engineering

Despite great advances in many areas of medical technology over the past 20 years, the challenge of providing amputees a prosthesis with the intuitive control and functionality of a natural limb remains. Improvements in materials have made them lighter and stronger, but little headway has been made in giving amputees more functionality and easier control. Recently, this problem has been addressed on a number of fronts, including electrical control from the muscles of the residual limb, or techniques involving multi-contact neural interfaces and muscular reinnervation. While these techniques represent important future directions for the field, they have not been shown to provide the robust and intuitive control signals required to take full advantage of a dexterous hand prosthesis.

Nerve cuff electrodes represent a less invasive alternative to penetrating array electrodes. Individual neurons in peripheral nerves are separated into fascicles, which are loosely spatially organized based on the location they innervate. This thesis leverages the spatial organization in order to separate and recover fascicular signals. Simulations of a human femoral nerve finite element model were used to validate the approach, and demonstrate source localization to 180±170μm. The electrode and recording system built to implement in vivo experiments provided a 2μVrms noise floor on 16-channels, allowing the reconstruction accuracy to be measured at R2=0.81±0.08 for large synchronized neural responses in an in-vivo rabbit sciatic nerve model. Smaller, pseudo-spontaneous signals generated with high-frequency sinusoidal stimulation were separated with crosstalk of 23±13%, and found to transmit 4±2 bits-per-second-per-source. These recovered fascicular sources correlate to individual muscle activities (even if the muscles have been amputated) and their activity may be used to drive corresponding motors in a limb prosthesis. Beyond prosthetic limbs, this same technique is applicable for recording and localizing sources within any large nerve trunk and may be useful for many other artificial sensors and organs.

Committee:

Dominique Durand, PhD (Advisor); Robert Kirsch, PhD (Committee Member); Ronald Triolo, PhD (Committee Member); Daniela Calvetti, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biomedical Engineering; Biomedical Research; Engineering; Health Care; Medicine; Neurobiology; Neurosciences; Rehabilitation

Keywords:

source localization; nerve recording; flat interface nerve electrode; PNS; Beamforming; Spatial Filters; selective recording; cuff electrode

Contractor, BhavikTwo Dimensional Localization of Passive UHF RFID Tags
Master of Science in Computer Engineering (MSCE), Wright State University, 2008, Computer Engineering

The advent of GPS has redefined the need of a positioning system in today*#8217;s ubiquitous computing world. While GPS works satisfactorily and is quite a norm in an outdoor environment, it fails to work indoors due to the inherent complexity of an indoor environment. There is an ever increasing need to develop an indoor positioning system and a lot of research has been done to solve the problem of indoor localization. These solutions differ on the basis of cost, dependency on environment, line of sight requirements and so on.

Passive RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags pose an interesting solution to the problem of indoor localization, given the ease of deployment and the cost effective infrastructure. It is less expensive to tag items with RFID tags, than to attach them with sensor nodes. In this thesis, the problem of using the RFID technology for two dimensional indoor localization is studied. A relatively inexpensive technique requiring just one RFID reader and multiple passive RFID tags is adopted. The idea is to use multilateration among the passive tags to solve the problem of localization. A ranging technique is developed to establish a relationship between signal strength and distance. The concept of Received Signal Strength calibration is used to develop the ranging technique, and to account for the effects of dynamic environmental conditions on localization. Finally, an error map matching technique is employed to counter the errors in localization.

Committee:

Jack Jean, Ph. D. (Advisor); Bin Wang, Ph. D. (Committee Member); Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Ph. D. (Committee Member); Meilin Liu, Ph. D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Electrical Engineering; Engineering

Keywords:

RFID; Indoor Localization; RFID Tag; passive RFID Tag; Alien RFID

Elesev, AleksandrRobot Localization Using Inertial and RF Sensors
Master of Computer Science, Miami University, 2008, Computer Science and Systems Analysis
A mobile robot must know its position in order to operate autonomously. The process of determining the robot's position from sensor data is termed robot localization. IMU and RF are a few of the many different types of sensors that can be used for navigation and localization purposes. When used independently, these sensors can achieve good accuracy when operating in certain conditions. By merging the results from multiple sensors, the accuracy over a wider range of conditions can be obtained. This work proposes a technique of merging heterogeneous information from inertial and RF sensors. Since sensors have errors associated with their readings, the robot's state will be represented using a probability distribution function (PDF). At each time step, this PDF will be updated based on the RF readings and then updated again based on the IMU readings. Better localization accuracy is obtained by using the RF and inertial sensors together.

Committee:

Michael Zmuda, PhD (Advisor); Jade Morton, PhD (Committee Member); Valerie Cross, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Artificial Intelligence; Computer Science; Robots

Keywords:

robot localization; navigation; IMU; inertial sensors; RF; radio frequency sensors; particle filters; grid-based approach; PDF; probability density function; calibration

Sams, David A.Is the Utricular Striola Specialized to Encode High Frequency Stimuli?
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2011, Biological Sciences (Arts and Sciences)

The vestibular system comprises morphologically and physiologically distinct hair cells and afferent neurons. These hair cells and afferent neurons respond heterogeneously to stimuli as a function of their position on the vestibular sensory epithelium. To date, little is known about the cellular sources of this signal heterogeneity within the hair cells and afferent neurons of the vestibular system. This thesis explores regional differences in pre- and post-synaptic proteins that may play a role in producing signal heterogeneity within the utricle of the turtle, Trachemys scripta. Immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstructions of the vestibular system were used to quantify sizes, frequencies, and colocalization between synaptic ribbons and the GluR4 subunit of the AMPA receptor.

Notable results of my research include increased sizes of synaptic ribbons, increased frequencies of synaptic ribbons and GluR4 subunits, and increased colocalization between synaptic ribbons and GluR4 subunits within striolar Zone 2 of the turtle utricle. These results support previous work characterizing striolar regions of the vestibular system as being preferentially suited to encode high frequency stimuli.

Committee:

Ellengene Peterson, Dr. (Advisor); Michael Rowe, Dr. (Committee Member); Mark Berryman, Dr. (Committee Member); William Holmes, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

GluR4; GluA4; Synaptic Ribbon; Vesitbular; Utricle; Turtle; Trachemys scripta; Head movement; High Frequency; Co-localization; Colocalization

Li, XinfengTime-sensitive Information Communication, Sensing, and Computing in Cyber-Physical Systems
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Computer Science and Engineering
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are increasingly important and pervasive with the convergence of the cyber and physical worlds via digital information. In CPSs, communication, sensing, and computing are three key operations on digital information. These operations are usually time-sensitive and have various temporal requirements. These requirements could be accomplishing a job after sufficient time passes, speeding up a job with "best effort," or finishing a job within a specific time bound. In this dissertation, we study the problems of time sensitive communication, sensing, and computing in CPSs. First, we study temporally controllable wireless communication. We propose TurfCast, a novel information dissemination service that selectively broadcasts messages based on receivers' lingering time. Only those who have stayed long enough can receive the messages. To implement TurfCast, we propose TurfCode, a nested 0-1 fountain code that enables the broadcaster to transmit either all information or none at all. We extend TurfCast to support spatial "turfs"; and propose TurfBurst, which exploits the Shannon bound to differentiate among receivers based on spatial areas. Second, we study fast electronic and visual sensing for human localization. It is observed that the presence of human bodies introduces heavy interference to wireless signals. This has been a major cause of inaccurate wireless localization of humans. Wireless signals gathered over a longer period are aggregated to mitigate such interference. We propose EV-Human for fast and accurate human localization. In EV-Human, we propose using video cameras to help estimate human body interference on mobile devices' signals. We combine human orientation detection and human/phone/AP relative position inference to better estimate how a human affects wireless signals. We have also developed a signal distortion compensation model. Third, we study time-bounded distributed computing on large visual data. Visual data such as images and videos are increasing rapidly in volume as public video camera deployments grow. However, current distributed computing over large datasets with tools like MapReduce favors textual data and cannot cope well with visual data. We design MaReV, an augmented MapReduce framework for big visual data processing with time constraints. In MaReV, we propose an iterative, adaptive, and stratified sampling algorithm for aggregation queries. Our algorithm considers data biases on both values and time costs. In addition, we propose a computation time based load balancing mechanism to accelerate job execution. We also design a profiling module to collect fine-grained runtime statistics and a caching module to facilitate subsequent jobs. All three of these problems originate from real-world CPS applications and have important practical significance. Simultaneously interacting with the physical world and meeting temporal requirements is non-trivial. Our proposed solutions are novel and span the disciplines of wireless communication, signal processing, computer vision, and distributed systems. We have implemented the above three systems and extensively tested them in real-world experiments. Evaluation results show the effectiveness and time-efficiency of our systems and demonstrate the potential of our solutions for more general time-sensitive CPS application scenarios.

Committee:

Dong Xuan (Advisor); Yuan F. Zheng (Committee Member); Ten H. Lai (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science

Keywords:

Time-sensitive; Cyber-Physical System; Information Dissemination; Human Localization; Big Visual Data; MapReduce

Ostrowski, Steven ThomasUltra Wideband (UWB) Sensor Integration and Application in GPS-Compromised Environments
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2015, Civil Engineering
The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been a reliable, accurate solution to most position and navigation problems for years. However, navigating and mapping in GPS-compromised environments still remains a problem. Even utilizing other Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), with an ever-increasing number of satellites, every day we encounter environments where there is limited or no access to a GNSS signal. Infrastructure and environmental factors can easily derogate and even obstruct the weak GPS/GNSS signals. It is because of these variables that an independent, repetitive solution is sought to measure and navigate positions. Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology has general advantages and the ability to be used in local environments where GPS coverage is poor or measurements are substandard. A local UWB network system can be set up quickly, so that the position of a kinematic sensor can be tracked within the network area. The comparable frequency rate to GPS and No Line of Sight (NLOS) capabilities of UWB, make it ideal to collect data in GPS-compromised environments. These environments include indoor and outdoor areas where the weak GPS signal cannot penetrate or continually provide accurate measurements, such as under roof, through wall, in dense canopy, canyons, caves or mountainous areas. UWB sensors can measure ranges and communicate a variety of data by implementing short duration, pulsed radiofrequency (RF) waves, transmitted between sensors. By using the highest possible bandwidth, the signals are not easily degraded and can even travel through wall and other objects, allowing for potential widespread application and uses in un-ideal navigation and NLOS environments. Through advancements in hardware and timing capabilities along with the opening of the frequency ranges by the federal government recently, UWB technology has recently emerged, to again be applied for navigation solutions. This thesis presents the implementation and analysis of the UWB technology for positioning and tracking in indoor and outdoor scenarios where GPS is limited. UWB has the ability to be independent from or integrated with GPS, IMU, and other positioning sensors to solve navigation problems with accuracies on the scale of decimeters or smaller. Sensor performance validation included the timing calibration and analysis of a single ranging signal with various experimental setups and evaluations to be tested. The calibration results were then applied to sensors in a network to allow for optimal ranging accuracies in kinematic experiments. Collecting kinematic data in an indoor scenario allowed for the assessment of the UWB performance in a laboratory environment where most variables, such as network setup and signal readings, were able to be accurately accounted for. An open sky outdoor test was conducted to compare the system’s solution to an optimal GPS solution. Finally, a GPS-compromised experiment was conducted to show the advantages of UWB in an environment where GPS cannot be relied on. With testing and analysis, it has been exhibited that UWB can be a suitable replacement for GPS. This thesis presents the theory and algorithms necessary to turn range measurements into an accurate navigation and position solutions, as well as the testing and results of numerous experiments.

Committee:

Charles Toth, Dr. (Advisor); Alper Yilmaz, Dr. (Committee Member); Seth Young, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Civil Engineering

Keywords:

Ultra Wideband; UWB; Sensor Integration; GPS-compromised; Position, Navagation and Timing; PNT; Localization;

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