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Cheenath, Jackson JacobNavigating the "ACM" Digital Library with a new Visualization Interface
MS, Kent State University, 2013, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
We propose a new visualization interface for navigating the ACM digital library. It supports effective literature exploration with a set of web-based functions including search, detail summary, conference summary, author summary, and citeology. These functions are designed and integrated with enhanced perceptual understanding and human-machine interaction, where colors, diagrams, layouts and other informative visualization factors are utilized to analyze the collective metadata from the ACM digital library. We use a large-scale data set of the titles, authors, categories and abstracts based on the ACM digital library. A phrase extraction algorithm is designed to retrieve meaningful phrases from the data set. All the web based functions mentioned above uses this algorithm. These phrases, instead of single keywords, can represent the publications with improved semantics, which enhance the visualization output and user experience. We do this by sequentially scanning the paper’s abstract and using pre-defined dictionaries, punctuations to pull out groups of meaningful phrases and throwing out junk words such as verbs, possessive pronouns and other pre-defined stop words that would prevent us from returning meaningful data. The visual interface provides an advanced platform for researchers in their literature study. It can be further extended to the exploration of other libraries and databases.

Committee:

Ye Zhao (Committee Chair); Ruoming Jin (Committee Member); Austin Melton (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Design; Information Systems; Information Technology

Keywords:

Digital Library; Digital Library Navigation; Digital Library Visualization; Visual interface for Digital Library; ACM Digital Library; Visual Navigation; Phrase Extraction;Citeology; Navigating the ACM Digital Library; Extracting Meaningful Data; EMD; ACM

ENGSTROM, JULIE DIANACOVENTRY MEDIATHEQUE: A PLACE FOR ACCESS, ACTION, INTERACTION, AND CREATION
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2003, Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning : Architecture
Even as networked digital technology allows for more sophisticated methods of information storage, access, communication, and creation of new works, it remains true that people are the strongest element in, and medium of, their own learning. Historically the activity of human learning as characterized by access to collective knowledge has been formalized and expanded upon in specific types of buildings and institutions over centuries, most strongly by the library. In the multi-layered hypertext of our society, the human being emerges as the most critical medium. Human learning is a timeless phenomenon staged currently in the realm of the digital and physical worlds simultaneously. The strength of today’s ideal library, as both place and institution, is that it consciously acknowledges people as its most important medium by utilizing characteristics of human spatial consciousness to relate the digital and physical worlds to one another.

Committee:

DR. DAVID NILAND (Advisor)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

digital and physical space; media library; mediatheque; library and learning; library design

Lashbrook, John E.Teaching library media skills to fifth graders : a participant observation /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1983, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Library Science

Keywords:

Library orientation;Library orientation for high school students;Information services;Information storage and retrieval systems

OConnell, David MichaelInformation Convergence: Technological Space in the 21st Century Library
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2009, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Architecture (Master of)
Technology and information play a critical role in society today. The public library systems in the United States, formerly the centers of information and learning for many communities, have fallen behind in these areas due to an outdated methodology that is incompatible with the ever accelerating rate of technological advancement. New ways of interacting with information such as the Internet, wireless communication, and digital media have been forced into a 20th century model of information storage and interaction that does little to benefit either the libraries or the content itself. Rather than treating all media the same, the history of libraries and information technology must be used as a guide to inform how the contemporary library integrates the three topics of space, technology, and information. Through an exploration of the relationships of virtual information space and architectural space, this thesis proposes a radical intervention into the public library in order to transform it into a place focused on technology, learning, and enriched social interactions with information.

Committee:

Vincent Sansalone (Committee Chair); Elizabeth Riorden (Committee Co-Chair)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

public library system; information technology; emergent design; social libraries; Public Library of Cincinnati

Mulhern, Jean K. An Exploratory Case Study of Organizational Agility in a Consortium of Small Private College Libraries
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Dayton, 2008, Educational Leadership
This case study of the Ohio Private College Libraries (OPAL) consortium, 1998-2007, explored how OPAL participants interpreted the concept of organizational agility through the collaborative leadership activities of structuring and agenda setting. As a complete insider, I combined the qualitative research strategies of personal journaling, participant observation, document analysis, and participant interviews in a process of heuristic inquiry to discover why OPAL had not expanded its agenda beyond its shared integrated library system (ILS). OPAL was formed by OHIONET so that small college libraries could afford a high-quality ILS for the purposes of library management, resource sharing, and related activities. Research findings showed that participants shared leadership power through decision-making on structure and a complementary agenda to shape OPAL incrementally from an informal roundtable to a formal hierarchy of large committees. The consortium participants also transformed from a group eager to add many shared services to a group focused intensely on the ILS as one clear and strongly supported group purpose. Their shared decisions about structuring had the leadership effect of a close interpretation of the OPAL mission statement in the context of a complex library environment. I concluded that OPAL demonstrated organizational agility primarily through changes in structure that sharpened participant focus on the processes of sharing the ILS. Implications of the research were as follows: (a) Although well-organized, strongly supported, and agile, OPAL remained temporary, given its dependence on voluntary member support in an environment of unpredictable change. The lifespan of OPAL depended on sustaining participants’ agreement that the OPAL collaboration was providing their local libraries with unique and high priority advantages that justified ongoing investment of local funds and human resources. The broader and very advantageous environment was an important factor in members’ shared decisions about supporting OPAL. (b) The process of OPAL structuring demonstrated the characteristics of organizational leadership for agility identified by previous researchers. (c) The use of the process of structuring as an OPAL shared leadership activity differed from findings of researchers of social services consortia, in which structure was established early in consortium formation as a platform for other shared leadership strategies.

Committee:

Darla J. Twale, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Theodore J. Kowalski, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Timothy J. Ilg, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Edward D. Garten, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Thomas J. II Lasley, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Library Science; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Ohio Private Academic Libraries; OPAL library consortium; academic library; cooperative services; shared resources; leadership; institutional change; change leadership; organizational leadership; organization structure; OhioLINK; OHIONET; private colleges

Li, WeiyiProtein Engineering Hydrophobic Core Residues of Computationally Designed Protein G and Single-Chain Rop: Investigating the Relationship between Protein Primary structure and Protein Stability through High-Throughput Approaches
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2014, Chemistry
The sequence-structure-stability relationship is a key problem in the field of protein science. Although a large amount of research has been working on it in various methods and aspects, it is still not completely understood. Recently, the cooperation between rational design and combinatorial library methods bring new insight into the protein hydrophobic core. In this study, we investigated the influence of hydrophobic core residue packing to protein stability according to a computationally designed Protein G homolog and a single-chain four helix-bundle protein Rop. Based on a previously computationally designed protein G, we established two parallel hydrophobic core libraries -muti-site and single-site-with 6 residues in the hydrophobic core randomized simultaneously or individually. High Throughput Thermal Scanning (HTTS) and colony-based DNA sequencing were utilized to investigate the protein thermal stability. The comparison of the HTTS from the two libraries indicated that none of the expected mutations results in a thermally more stable protein than the computationally designed protein G, and the single-site mutation showed a similar effect than multi-site mutation on the computationally designed protein G. The original computational design was more stable than both of the two library designs. The core library of single-chain Rop was constructed as the eight residues in the central two layers randomized into all 20 amino acids. The large library was screened for Rop function, based on a cell-based screen with GFP reporter plasmid. The library was selected to eliminate the background inactive Rop protein and enrich the active Rop, and maximally cover the library size. Unfortunately, a significant amount of the colony-based DNA sequencing results showed the presence of non-authentic Rop sequence. Cloning contamination and arabinose concentration used in screening could be two potential factors that cause the failure of screening and selection. The library construction and cloning procedure also need to be revisited.

Committee:

Thomas Magliery (Advisor); Karin Musier-Forsyth (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biochemistry; Biology; Biophysics; Chemistry

Keywords:

Rop, Rosetta, protein G, combinatorial library, hydrophobic core library, computational design, high-throughput

O'Connor, Lisa G.Librarians’ Professional Struggles in the Information Age: A Critical Analysis of Information Literacy
PHD, Kent State University, 2006, College of Education, Health, and Human Services / Department of Educational Foundations and Special Services
Since the first public library opened in Boston in 1854, librarians have believed libraries can play a central role in the preservation of pluralist democracy by supporting the development of an educated electorate (Shera, 1965). They have asserted that, by offering equal access to the repository of human knowledge despite individual ability to pay for such access, libraries ensure greater opportunity in the capitalist society (Information literacy, 1990). Librarians believe they are in the midst of a new age: the Information Age. Supposing that information is the capital of this new society, they stress that literal access to it is no longer adequate to promote equal access. Rather, people must now become information literate. That is, because the amount of information available to people is growing exponentially, there exists the threat of incapacitation caused by information over-load. Only people who know how to locate, access, evaluate and use information will thrive in this new society. Librarians, particularly those in K–12 schools and colleges and universities, believe that they should teach these skills: that they can best support progressive democracy by preparing information literate citizens, employees, and individuals. Once the limited domain of public services librarians, information literacy is increasingly considered the organizing concept for libraries in educational institutions across the country. This dissertation will examine the liberatory claims of information literacy by tracing its development within school and academic librarianship. It will demonstrate that information literacy was central to librarians’ attempts to carve out an educational jurisdiction in order to legitimate the profession during a period of profound social, economic and technological change. Having situated information literacy in its cultural and historical context, this dissertation will critique information literacy as a product of professionalization and an extension of the literacy movement. Finding that information literacy has developed as a set of professional practices lacking a fully-formed theoretical foundation that does not ultimately promote democracy, I will suggest ways in which it might be reconceptualized to realize its original liberatory intent.

Committee:

Natasha Levinson (Advisor)

Keywords:

Library and information science; information literacy; library instruction; school librarianship; academic librarianship; professionalization of librarianship

Li, YanhuiConstruction and Analysis of a Genome-Wide Insertion Library in Schizosaccharomyces pombe Reveals Novel Aspects of DNA Repair
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2015, Genetics
In the post-genomic era, utilizing yeast deletion libraries for high-throughput phenotypic screening accelerates gene function studies. However, haploid deletion collections are still insufficient to reveal all gene functions because only non-essential genes are knocked out. Mutants in essential genes and a large number of functionally uncharacterized non-coding genes are not included. Moreover, haploid deletion collections only contain null mutants. A resource that allows rapid phenotypic screening of many kinds of mutants (e.g. null, partial or altered function) in all genes is needed. We constructed a defined, DNA barcode-tagged Hermes transposon insertion mutant library in S. pombe. The collection contained 4,095 haploid insertion mutant strains. Most strains (~90%) carry single transposon insertions. The insertions were distributed among 368 essential genes, 2,470 non-essential genes and 1,159 non-coding genes. The library contains a wide variety of mutations than the available gene deletion library. Insertions are distributed among open reading framesas well as 5’ and 3’ regulatory regions of genes. Phenotypic screening of selected mutants in the presence of the topoisomerase I inhibitor CPT revealed that some insertion mutants have the predicted phenotypes while some have unexpected phenotypes. This library therefore represents an important resource for the international S. pombe community. The construction of similar transposon insertion libraries in other organisms is labor-intensive. We developed a novel three-dimensional pooling strategy and a multiplexed high-throughput analysis pipeline to sequence the transposon insertion sites and DNA barcodes from thousands of samples at once. The approach greatly reduced the effort and was cost-effective. It can be applied to any insertion element, and will accelerate the construction of sequenced insertion mutant libraries in a wide variety of model systems. As a first step in the development of the Hermes transposon as a genetic tool for large-scale mutagenesis, we analyzed its insertion and excision behavior in the context of the S. pombe genome, which led to novel insights into DNA damage repair by Non-homologous End joining (NHEJ) processing in S. pombe. Excision of the Hermes transposon from the S. pombe genome leaves a DNA double-strand break capped by hairpin ends that must be processed and ligated by cellular enzymes. We found that repair was through NHEJ and required the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) and, to a lesser extent, Ctp1. The MRN complex has important roles in DNA damage signaling, homologous recombination repair and telomere replication. The role of MRN in NHEJ is unclear. We found that NHEJ in S. pombe did not require Mre11 nuclease function, but did require Mre11 dimerization function, suggesting that the primary role of Mre11 may be to tether the broken DNA ends in NHEJ.

Committee:

Kurt Runge (Advisor); Helen Salz (Committee Chair); Peter Harte (Committee Member); Jo Ann Wise (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Genetics

Keywords:

Hermes transposon; S pombe; insertion mutant library; yeast deletion library; DNA barcode; pooling strategy; multiplexed high-throughput sequencing; DSB; DNA repair; NHEJ; Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1; Ctp1; essential genes; non-essential genes; non-coding RNA

Atluri, Lava KumarDesign Automation Flow using Library Adaptation for Variation Aware Logic Synthesis
MS, University of Cincinnati, 2014, Engineering and Applied Science: Computer Engineering

As semiconductor technology reaches to nanometer scale, the impact of process uncertainties are increasing, leading to performance and power loss, and consequently reducing the yield. These process parameter variations necessitate the use of suitable variation-aware design techniques. There are some architecture level, circuit level, and post silicon techniques with certain overheads to reduce the effect of such variations. Along with good design techniques, variation-aware analysis plays a major role in determining the efficacy of variation tolerant design. Conventional way of min-max static timing analysis is no more a reliable option; we need to use Statistical Static Timing Analysis (SSTA).

Although various techniques for variation tolerant design have been proposed, no major emphasis was given to the initial design phases of the ASIC design flow. In this work, we focused on logic synthesis stage to nullify the effects of process variations. For that, we proposed a novel technique called Library Adaptation for Variation Aware (LAVA) technique and automated the flow for the creation of process variation tolerant design. In LAVA technique a new approach is used to create variation aware libraries by re-characterization of existing libraries and new variation tolerant standard cells are created on demand.

This work proposes a design methodology from RTL to GDSII that incorporates LAVA technique at logic synthesis stage for creating variation tolerant design with negligible overhead. The primary goal of our methodology is to capture the statistical aspects of variation from transistor-level of abstraction into gate-level i.e., standard cell library. This newly created variation-aware standard cell library is provided to the existing logic synthesis tool to select the better design at higher level of design cycle, thus making the design more robust to process variations.

We have used accurate SSTA using PrimeTime VX by providing variation aware libraries and distribution of parameter values. To make the technique more efficient the design is taken to place and route stage using IC Compiler and verified again for the performance in presence of variations.

Results using both combinational and sequential benchmarks clearly show the improvement of critical and near critical paths in presence of process variations with minimal power and area penalty. The use of multi-Vth libraries considerably reduced the power and area overhead introduced by this technique.

Committee:

Ranganadha Vemuri, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Wen Ben Jone, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Carla Purdy, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Engineering

Keywords:

Variation Aware Logic Synthesis; LAVA Logic Synthesis; LAVA technique; Variation Aware Library; Process variation; Library re-characterization

Wonderly, MeghanA Son's Dream: Colonel Webb Cook Hayes and the Founding of the Nation's First Presidential Library
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, History
Today presidential libraries are expected from every former president. Presidents begin to plan their libraries before exiting office. It was not always so. Over time, the American public and their government altered their views of presidential documents. For years, presidential documents had been considered personal property, so former presidents did as they wished with them. During his presidency Franklin D. Roosevelt created the National Archives to preserve presidential papers. His presidential library was the first in the federal presidential library system and therefore receives much recognition for being the first presidential library. However, twenty years before Roosevelt’s library existed there was the Hayes Memorial Library and Museum. Now known as the Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Library & Museums, Roosevelt used it as a model for his presidential library. Therefore, it influenced the federal system of presidential libraries. This project argues the Hayes Memorial Library and Museum exists due to the determination and resourcefulness of its founder Colonel Webb Cook Hayes. It further states that by creating the first presidential library, Webb influenced the federal presidential library system. This project analyzes the creation of the Hayes Memorial Library and Museum, following its journey from conception to fruition. This thesis first outlines the life of founder Colonel Webb Cook Hayes, revealing what led him to create the memorial: influences that shaped his interests, sources of his power, and passions that drove him. Then the text examines the difficulties surrounding the creation of the Hayes Memorial. It was managed and owned by the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society. Because no presidential library existed before it, the Hayes Memorial had to become the model for others to follow. This project follows the complications that arose due to the innovative concept of a presidential library and how Webb assisted in managing them. The sources for this project include Hayes family papers, local collections and historical newspapers. It also includes various texts on the history of presidential libraries, place, local history, and memory. Gathering these sources and examining them together sheds new light on the creation of the presidential library concept.

Committee:

Rebecca Mancuso (Advisor); Nicole Jackson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

president; Hayes; library; presidential library; presidential museum; museum; history; military; Ohio; Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society; Webb; Colonel Webb Cook Hayes; Rutherford Birchard Hayes; Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Bing, Kathleen MaryThe Role Children's Librarians Play in Fostering Literacy in the Community
Master of Education (MEd), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Reading

The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of children’s librarians in public libraries. Between 150 librarians from various cities and states were sent a short survey to take that inquired about their responsibilities as well as asked the librarians to review the core beliefs about children’s librarianship and indicate if they felt this value is still relevant and something they practice, still relevant but something they don’t practice, or not relevant and not practiced. Librarians who indicated that they would like to participate in a phone interviewed were called and asked to expand on the reasons they answered the questions from the survey the way they did. Results were analyzed from both the surveys and the interviews and used to find out more about the roles of children's librarians and how they perceive their role and responsiblities.

It was found that a majority of librarians surveyed felt that the nine core beliefs about children’s librarianship, based on the five laws of children’s librarianship, are still relevant and still pracitced. Librarians who were interviewed expanded further on how exactly they implement and pracitce these core beliefs.

Committee:

Cindy Hendricks, PhD (Committee Chair); Nancy Fordham, PhD (Committee Member); Sara Bushong (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Library Science; Reading Instruction

Keywords:

Children's library; children's librarian; core beliefs; literacy; early literacy; ready to read; storytime; summer reading program; public library; youth service

Spears, Richard WayneThe Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library: A Manifestation of Political Rhetoric in Architectural Form
MS ARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2010, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Architecture

The meanings behind the architectural rhetoric of presidential libraries are not always explicitly expressed. The structures derive their authority from the social context in which they are constructed and function. Unlike presidential rhetorical speeches analyzed for persuasive content, presidential libraries are virtually unchallenged when promoting a president's legacy. However, identifying their persuasive design techniques can illuminate their intentions as architectural rhetoric.

This thesis will examine how President Lyndon Baines Johnson's verbal rhetoric, political image, and administrative culture influenced the architectural design of his library. The research will draw on case studies of presidential speeches, social context, and the architectural design. These three elements are linked in a referential chain intended to persuade the public. The architectural investigation will highlight the design of the Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library in Austin, Texas, and will examine the personalities and cultural forces involved in the design process, the final built form, and the potency and meanings of the architecture.

As a product of this research, the document will explicate the significance attached to presidential libraries by the building's architects, the societal context, and, most importantly, the presidential administrations they represent. It will also explore the architecture's changing meanings as a symbol of an administration's legacy when a presidency fades from everyday memory to history. As a result of this inquiry, we will better understand the meanings society instills in public buildings and how presidential administrations promote their legacy through the architectural rhetoric of presidential libraries.

Committee:

Nnamdi Elleh, PhD (Committee Chair); Patrick Snadon, PhD (Committee Chair); Judith Trent, PhD (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

Presidential Library;Architectural Rhetoric;Lyndon Bianes Johnson Library and Museum;Architecture;Politics;American Presidents

Chen, PengPerceptions of Public Libraries: An Empirical Investigation Using Q Methodology
MA, Kent State University, 2008, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Political Science
Public libraries perform multiple functions, such as education, recreation, and access to information, in America. Due to the limitation of resources, these functions could conflict with each other. This thesis employed Q methodology to examine and analyze people’s opinions on public libraries. Three aspects were considered in this study: the main missions and purposes of public libraries, financial support, and technological challenge. There were 31 participants in this research. A majority of Factor A’s respondents are public librarians. They believe that the public library should provide wide-ranging services to all patrons. To achieve this goal, obtaining financial support has become the top priority on the agenda of public libraries. Factor B’s respondents are mature patrons. They emphasize libraries should serve the whole society and perform more educational functions. Factor B does not show a strong positive attitude toward financial support; it disagrees with charging fees to solve financial problems. Factor C respondents are young patrons. They express many attitudes that are opposite to either Factor A or B respondents. They treat public libraries as educational institutions, but they go there with reluctance to do research and homework and they show a strong aversion to taxes as a means of support for public libraries. All respondents in this study support the view that public libraries will continue providing services in the digitized future.

Committee:

Steven Brown, PhD (Advisor); Jane Beckett-Camarata, PhD (Other); Yin Zhang, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Political Science

Keywords:

public library; Q methodology; patron perception of library;

Ireland, Ryan PFrom Traditional Memory to Digital Memory Systems: A Rhetorical History of the Library as Memory Space
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2016, English
This dissertation examines the library as a memory system. To do this I craft a rhetorical history of both the classical canon of memory as well as the institution of the library. Within the Graeco-Roman Western rhetorical canon of memory was born out of an oral culture. Memorization was a tool primarily used to deliver speeches; however, the mnemonics rhetors used to remember grew into systems of memory. The use of systems is often viewed as a tool for organization, but they are also tools for memorization. If we move beyond the idea of memorization as a relic of the oral culture and view it as system, it becomes apparent that memory is still an active force in print and digital culture. In this project I examine the library as a memory system—as a structure and institution that helps collect, preserve, organize, and distribute knowledge. The library is one of the most influential and widely-used memory systems we have for collecting and disseminating knowledge. Like the canon of memory, it remains undertheorized within rhetorical studies. This project tracks the history of the library in Western culture, as it moved from a collection of inscribed scrolls, to printed materials, to digital artifacts. I also examine a variety of counter systems—alternate forms of memory storage that push against the traditional memory structure of the library. This project contributes to the field of rhetoric/composition by expanding our understanding of the rhetorical canon of memory, pushing it from a tool too closely associated with orality and delivery toward a more-relevant network of knowledge. For compositionists who frequently access these systems for information, this network of memory creates potential for more avenues of invention. Additionally, the view of memory as a system has the potential to recognize the flaws and cultural hegemony that take place in institutional memory. Consequently, the use of systematized memory could alter the ways in which we choose to organize and access memories. Moreover the digitally networked materials of memory can be stored and accessed more easily than ever before, creating opportunities for individuals to have agency over their own historical narratives.

Committee:

James Porter (Committee Chair); Jason Palmeri (Committee Member); Lihn Dich (Committee Member); Tim Lockridge (Committee Member); Glenn Platt (Other)

Subjects:

Composition; Library Science; Rhetoric

Keywords:

Memory; systems; library; public library; bellecentric; Dewey; architecture; rhetoric; history; place; digital humanities; genealogical methodology; Carnegie; mnemonic; book; print culture

Davis, Matthew Translating Chris Ware's Lint into Russian
BA, Oberlin College, 2013, Russian
Comics translation is rarely practiced with any appreciation of the comics medium – rather, comics usually are translated as prose, ignoring the words relationship to pictures. I chose Chris Ware's work, known for pushing the boundaries of comics language, because translating it mandates formal engagement with the comics medium. My project also involved dealing with the problems of translating into a non-native tongue, cultural translation, and placing Ware's comics in the Russian existentialist tradition.

Committee:

Tom Newlin (Advisor); Dan Chaon (Committee Member); Maia Solovieva (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Comparative Literature; Language

Keywords:

Chris Ware; Lint; translation; Russian; comics; Acme Novelty Library

Lee, Min-HyungThe Function of SUV39H Histone Methyltransferase in Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2011, Biochemistry

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas and is a highly aggressive, malignant solid tumor that primarily affects children and young adults. RMS is thought to arise as a consequence of regulatory disruption of the differentiation program of the skeletal muscle cells. Current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms responsible for this disruption in RMS tumors, however, is limited. The most aggressive form of this muscle cancer is alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), which has a poor prognosis and a high frequency of metastasis. Current aggressive chemotherapeutic approaches have improved the outcome of ARMS treatment; however, the cure rate for metastatic ARMS is still only 20% to 30%. Previously, our laboratory has reported that histone methyltransferase Suv39h (mouse homologue of human SUV39H)-mediated epigenetic mechanism controls the growth and differentiation of murine skeletal muscle progenitor cells. We demonstrated that Suv39h blocks MyoD, which acts as a key transcriptional regulator of the muscle differentiation program. In our present study, we have found increased expression of SUV39H in ARMS cells when they are cultured under differentiation-permissible conditions. Moreover, SUV39H-depleted ARMS cells showed MyoD-mediated transcriptional activation, MyoD-dependent growth arrest, reduced anchorage-independent growth, replacement of a repressive mark with an active mark on the muscle-specific gene promoter, and induction of differentiation-associated gene expression. These results suggest that SUV39H overexpression blocks myogenic differentiation program of ARMS cells. Altogether, our results from the current study indicate that SUV39H negatively regulates MyoD in ARMS cells in the failure of muscle differentiation.

Based on these results on ARMS cells, we aimed to isolate the pharmacological compound(s) that target the SUV39H-associated mechanism and restore the differentiation program in ARMS cells. To achieve this aim, we generated a Suv39h-overexpressing myoblast reporter cell line (C2-Suv39h-4RE-Luc), where MyoD-mediated transactivation is suppressed by Suv39h overexpression. In search of new molecular therapeutic targets for this disease, we carried out small molecule library screens using C2-Suv39h-4RE-Luc reporter cells in order to target the restoration of an abortive myogenic differentiation program in ARMS cells as a novel and safe anti-ARMS chemotherapeutic approach.

Among screened compounds, we found that camptothecin, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, shows the restoration of MyoD-mediated transactivation in both C2-Suv39h-4RE-Luc cells and ARMS reporter cells. Moreover, camptothecin treatment reactivated the terminal differentiation marker gene expression in ARMS cells. This seems to be caused by the inhibition of SUV39H, as demonstrated by an in vitro histone methyltransferase (HMTase) activity assay. Taken together, our evidence shows the feasibility of this new approach to identify prospective bioactive candidates targeting SUV39H to develop new anti-ARMS pharmaceuticals.

Committee:

Asoke Mal, PhD (Advisor); Andrei Gudkov, PhD (Advisor); Ed Stavnezer, PhD (Committee Chair); Hung-Ying Kao, PhD (Committee Member); David Danielpour, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biochemistry; Biomedical Research; Cellular Biology; Molecular Biology; Oncology; Pharmaceuticals

Keywords:

ARMS; SUV39H; MyoD; small molecule library screening; targeted therapy; anti-ARMS pharmaceutical

Atkins, Andrea N.Discretion in Russian Librarianship: Pre-Soviet, Soviet, Post-Soviet
Master of Arts, The Ohio State University, 2012, Slavic and East European Studies
For most of the twentieth century, public libraries and librarians in Russia were tools for Soviet propaganda. While democratic concerns for literacy and societal development were ideals that revolutionaries tried to uphold during the revolutionary period and early years of the USSR, ultimately the Soviet government executed policies that forced libraries and librarians to serve the goals of the state. The Soviet government appropriated the socio-cultural institution of the public library and made all of its activities subservient to the single principle of partiinost’. Thus, professional librarians in Russia had little ability to exercise their specialized knowledge to promote the public good, which is often viewed as a paramount goal of librarians. In this thesis I analyze both the historical process of the Soviet state’s claiming of the public library for propagating Soviet ideals and the reaction to this in the Post-Soviet era. I argue that the ability to exercise discretion is a primary characteristic of the profession of public librarianship, but that the ability to exercise discretion was denied to Russian public librarians. I also explain the Soviet’s concept of the public library by introducing readers’ guidance generally and evaluating the Soviet-style of readers’ guidance particularly. I chronicle the reclamation of the library profession, which began during glasnost’ and perestroika. Finally, I attempt to describe the current state of librarianship in Russia by highlighting some its more important developments in the post-Soviet period.

Committee:

Jennifer Suchland, PhD (Advisor); Jessie Labov, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Library Science; Slavic Studies

Keywords:

librarianship; public library; Russia

Lincicum, Shirley JThe American Public Library Building : A Social History and Feminist Critique
BA, Oberlin College, 1993, History
This paper seeks to place the development of the American public library building in its social and historical context from 1876 to 1950 and to present a preliminary feminist analysis of the public library as a building type. Like all social constructs, architecture reflects the values and rituals of its makers. Too often in America we reduce architecture to its functional and technological components and do not recognize the social implications of the built environment we create and inhabit. Though technology has played a major role in determining the shape of our physical environment, social forces have also been very important. Indeed, developing new technology and new methods of building is an important aspect of American culture.

Committee:

Geoffrey Blodgett (Advisor)

Subjects:

Architecture; Library Science; Sociology

Keywords:

library;building;architecture;American;social;

BAUGHMAN, BARRETT ALLANSUBURBAN FOUNDATIONS: CREATING MEANINGFUL AND EXPERIENTIAL RETAIL ENVIRONMENTS
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2004, Design, Art, Architecture, and Planning: Architecture (Master of)
American cities have become increasingly complex. Within the last century alone, cities have seen the explosion of interstate highways, the growth of suburban development, and the social implications that result from the diversification and disorganization of our nation’s cities and communities. These shifts have fostered the growth of specialized nodes of activity surrounding the traditional city center and have created networks of unique enclaves of activity. For much of the past century, sociologists, architects, urban planners and business leaders have searched for tools to appropriately model these changes in order to better understand their affect on the current culture. A progression can be seen in the models of urban land use, retailing forms, and community structure that lead to the same end. These nodes of specialization are becoming ever more powerful, as consumers and community residents look to appropriate a certain amount of the experiential qualities they offer. No longer do Americans merely purchase a product off the shelf. Instead, consumers are looking to buy into the experience, environment, and lifestyle promised by the ownership of a certain commodity. This need also applies to residential communities. By following the implications found in the progression of the presented models, an examination of the historic Milford downtown will show the potential of a new model. Through the exploration of Milford’s long history and the application of appropriate limiters to downtown scale and use, the area will provide the experiential retail and community centered environments that consumers and residents have been lacking. The end project will support the growth of a strong community consciousness.

Committee:

Barry Stedman (Advisor)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

suburb; suburban; retail; experiential; library; urban planning; river; milford; cincinnati; community; downtown; revitalization

Resnis, Eric WCREATING A PATHFINDER TO ASSIST RESEARCHERS IN FINDING INFORMATION ABOUT THE FERNALD FEED MATERIALS PRODUCTION CENTER
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2004, Environmental Sciences
A pathfinder, a document that guides users in finding information on a certain subject, was created to assist researchers in the surrounding area on finding information regarding Fernald, a part of the Department of Energy nuclear weapons complex located northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. To achieve this end, several individual investigations were performed including investigations of collections and interviews of personnel at six area libraries (Miami University, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati/Hamilton County Public Library Main and Harrison branches, Smith Library of Regional History, and the Fernald Public Environmental Information Center), a survey of the stakeholder group Fernald Residents for Environmental Safety and Health, and an analysis of a simple query to three popular search engines. The information from all these investigations was used to determine what information should be included in the pathfinder. The resulting electronic pathfinder not only provides information on Fernald sources in many subjects and formats, but also empowers users with tips on how to search for more information.

Committee:

Gene Willeke (Advisor)

Keywords:

Fernald (Ohio); Feed Materials Production Center; library pathfinder

VARADY, AHARONBond Hill: Origin and Transformation of a 19th Century Cincinnati Metro-Suburb
MCP, University of Cincinnati, 2004, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning : Community Planning
Through a synthesis of primary source records, this study explores the origin of the Bond Hill neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the motivation of its developers in the Reconstruction Era (1865-1880). The suburban history reveals the role of teetotalers, cooperatives, building associations, railroads, and radical utopians in the founding of a commuter suburb on unincorporated land at the junction of several important transportation routes. The role of the cooperative founder, Henry Watkin, is especially documented. In less detail, this thesis provides a complete survey of the history of the Bond Hill area, from the post-Colonial period, through annexation in 1903, and till the late 1980s. Recommendations for the currently operating Bond Hill Community Council are included in the conclusions. (This study was presented as a thesis in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Community Planning (MCP) at the School of Planning, College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (DAAP), University of Cincinnati, June 11, 2004).

Committee:

David Edelman (Advisor)

Keywords:

Bond Hill; Millcreek Township; Suburb; Suburban History; Metropolitan History; Commuter; Railroad; Intra-Urban; Young Men's Mercantile Library; Cincinnati; Hamilton County; Ohio; Nineteenth Century; Communitarian; Henry Watkin; Lafcadio Hearn

Trinh, Thi BaSynthesis and Screening of Peptide Libraries for Biological Applications
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Chemistry
Combinatorial chemistry is a powerful tool in medicinal chemistry as well as chemical biology. In this work, we have applied combinatorial chemistry toward the analysis of peptide cyclization, specificity profiling of protein kinases and the identification of novel inhibitors against medicinally important protein targets. We have developed a high-throughput screening method to comprehensively evaluate the on-resin cyclization efficiency of peptides with regard to ring size, sequence composition and reaction condition. Several combinatorial peptide libraries were synthesized on solid-phase with varying number of random positions. Utilizing a biotin-based screening method, we were able to select fast and slow cyclizing peptides and sequence them using partial Edman degradation/mass spectrometry (PED/MS). The results have provided a truly global profile for on-resin peptide cyclization efficiency. Applying combinatorial chemistry toward chemical biology, we have developed a robust method for the profiling of protein kinases for their substrate specificity. Several peptide libraries containing 3-5 random amino acids flanking a phosphorylatable residue (Ser, Thr and Tyr) were synthesized on solid-phase. Upon treatment of the libraries with kinase of interest and an ATP analog, we were able to selectively label the phosphorylated peptides with a fluorescent probe. Sequencing of selected peptide substrates by the PED/MS method provided the specificity profile of several kinases. The screening results led to the identification of a novel protein substrate. In a related application toward chemical biology, we generated a chimeric protein kinase bearing a foreign SH2 domain to evaluate the contribution of the SH2 domain to the overall substrate specificity of a kinase. Utilizing the same screening and sequencing method for kinase specificity profiling, we were able to profile the substrate specificity of the chimeric kinase. The specificity profile was indeed remarkably different from that of the wild type kinase. In our final work, we applied combinatorial chemistry toward the identification of novel, cell-permeable inhibitors of medicinally important protein targets, such as K-Ras and phosphatases. Combinatorial peptidomimetic libraries bearing a small-molecule “warhead” were synthesized on solid phase. Screening of the peptide libraries against K-Ras produced potent binders may serve as attractive leads for further development into anticancer agents.

Committee:

Dehua Pei (Advisor); Jovica Badjic (Committee Member); Jennifer Ottesen (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemistry

Keywords:

Combinatorial library, peptide cyclization, kinase profiling

Wavreille, Anne-Sophie MarieSRC homology 2 domain proteins binding specificity: from combinatorial chemistry to cell-permeable inhibitors
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Chemistry
Protein-protein interactions form the molecular basis of a wide variety of cellular processes. A large fraction of these interactions are mediated by small modular domains, which bind to short peptide motifs in their partner proteins. However, for the vast majority of these modular domains, their binding specificity and interacting partners remain unknown. This work presents a chemical/bioinformatic approach to the identification of the binding proteins of the Src Homology 2 domain (SH2). First, a combinatorial phosphotyrosyl (pY) peptide library was screened to determine the amino acid preferences at the pY+4 to pY+6 positions for the four SH2 domains of protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2. The screening results were confirmed by surface plasmon resonance analysis, stimulation assays and in vitro pull-down experiments. This study reveals that binding of a pY peptide to the N-SH2 domain of SHP-2 is greatly enhanced by a large hydrophobic residue at the pY+4 and/or pY+5 positions, whereas binding to SHP-1 N-SH2 domain is enhanced by either hydrophobic or positively charged residues at these positions. Similar residues at the pY+4 to pY+6 positions are also preferred by SHP-1 and SHP-2 C-SH2 domains, although their influence on the overall binding affinities is much smaller compared with the N-SH2 domains. Second, our chemical/bioinformatic approach was applied to identify the binding proteins of tensin. Another pY peptide library was screened against the tensin SH2 domain to determine the peptide motifs that bind to this domain. The peptide motifs were employed to search protein databases for potential tensin-binding proteins, which were subsequently confirmed (or disproved) by in vitro pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays. This procedure identified phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) and downstream of tyrosine kinase 2 (Dok-2) as novel tensin-binding proteins. In addition, a cell-permeable pY peptide was designed as tensin SH2 domain inhibitor, which caused the disruption of actin filaments in NIH 3T3 cells. Third, the sequence specificity of other SH2 domains (c-Src, Grb2, Syk, ZAP-70 and SLAP) were established. Finally, our strategy was applied to other modular domains: chromodomains, another type of library: a cyclic peptide library and a different screening: a live cell binding assay.

Committee:

Dehua Pei (Advisor)

Subjects:

Chemistry, Biochemistry

Keywords:

SH2 domain; Binding specificity; SHP-1; SHP-2; Tensin; peptide library; protein interaction; cell-permeable inhibitor

Joo, Sang HoonSynthesis and screening of support-bound combinatorial cyclic peptide and free C-terminal peptide libraries
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, Chemistry
One-bead one-compound (OBOC) peptide libraries have been useful tools in the biomedical sciences. However, OBOC peptide libraries usually display the N-termini of peptides on the surface as conventional solid phase peptide synthesis proceeds in the C to N direction. While large combinatorial libraries of cyclic peptides can be synthesized by the split-and-pool synthesis method, the sequence determination has been a challenge. Also, peptide libraries with free C-termini face the same problem as well as the difficulty of synthesis in the N to C direction. We report here the development of cyclic peptide libraries and C-terminal peptide libraries for high-throughput screening and sequencing. TentaGel microbeads (90 μm) were spatially segregated into outer and inner layers; cyclic peptides were displayed on the bead surface, whereas the inner core of each bead contained the corresponding linear encoding peptide. After screening of the cyclic peptide library, the identity of hit peptides was determined by sequencing the linear encoding peptides using a partial Edman degradation/mass spectrometry method. Using the same spatial segregation approach peptides were synthesized in the conventional C to N direction, with their C-termini attached to the support through an ester linkage on the bead surface but through an amide bond in the inner layer. The surface peptides were cyclized between N-terminal amine and a carboxyl group installed at a C-terminal linker sequence, while the internal peptides stayed in the linear form. Base hydrolysis of the ester linkage in the cyclic peptides exposed a free α-carboxyl group at the C-termini of the peptides attached to the resin via the N-termini. An inverted peptide library containing five random residues was synthesized and screened for binding to PDZ domains. The identity of the binding peptides was determined from the encoding peptides. Consensus recognition motifs were identified for the PDZ domains and representative peptides were individually synthesized and confirmed for binding to their cognate PDZ domains. These methods expanded the utility of OBOC peptide libraries by displaying peptides in different ways.

Committee:

Dehua Pei (Advisor)

Subjects:

Chemistry, Biochemistry

Keywords:

One-bead One-Compound (OBOC); partial Edman degradation; split-and-pool synthesis; cyclic peptides; Free C-terminal; peptide library; PDZ domain

Mbabu, Loyd G.A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION LITERACY COURSES IN MASTER’S DEGREE PROGRAMS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION STUDIES
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2007, Cultural Studies in Education (Education)

A content analysis of textbooks used for instruction of information literacy courses in Masters in Library and Information Studies programs was conducted. The hypotheses was that these courses identified specific competencies of information literacy at various stages of learning and differentiated between lower-level basic skills from upper-level more sophisticated skills. This paradigm was exemplified by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education (2003). Chi-square (χ2) analyses of the frequencies with which educational levels starting from K-12 through graduate school occurred were conducted. Textbooks that contained any of the following information literacy themes met the selection criteria: (a) determining information needed, (b) accessing the information, (c) critically evaluating and synthesizing retrieved information, (d) integrating and applying knowledge, and (e) understanding the economic, legal, and social implications of information production and dissemination.

Contrary to the hypotheses, the results revealed that emphases were on grouped competencies such as K-12 or undergraduate, rather than on graded incremental proficiencies. Educational levels K-12 were found to have significantly more citations than expected. Frequencies of references to college levels decreased as the learning levels advanced. There was no mention of the junior level. Emphases on lower-level basic information literacy skills were revealed by higher frequencies of references to sophomore than those of senior. Moreover, graduate level had only eight mentions out of a total of 361 observations. Taken as a whole, these courses fell short of the scholarly expectations of clearly identifying between lower-level basic skills from upper-level more sophisticated skills.

Committee:

Rosalie Romano (Advisor)

Keywords:

Information literacy; Instruction; Content analysis; MLS; Masters in Library; Information Studies; Chi-square tests

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