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Clemons, Rebecca EEXAMINING THE IMPACT OF DISRUPTION, SUPPLIER QUALITY AND KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER: RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES FOR MEETING DEMAND AND SUPPLIER DEVELOPMENT
Doctor of Business Administration, Cleveland State University, 2014, Monte Ahuja College of Business
I investigate the effect of supply-chain disruption on a firm’s decisions on investment in quality, and on ordering decisions, when there is a choice between suppliers, and a variable rate of knowledge transfer. I find that supply-chain disruption has a negative effect on profit, which can be mitigated by appropriate policies for order allocation and supplier development. When the probability of disruption is high, the firm should seek alternative sources of supply (even if they have lower levels of quality). Under certain conditions, the firm can improve its profit by investing in quality improvement efforts at the alternative supplier. I consider three different policies for supply-chain management and quality investment, and find that investment in supplier development is warranted when the initial quality level of the new supplier is relatively low; when the expected rate of improvement from such investment is relatively high; when the effectiveness of inspection is relatively low; and when the cost of inspection is relatively high.

Committee:

Susan Slotnick, PhD (Advisor); Raymond Henry, PhD (Committee Member); Birsen Karpak, PhD (Committee Member); Walter Rom, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Costs; Management; Operations Research

Keywords:

Supply Chain Management; supply chain disruption; quality; knowledge transfer; supplier development; swift knowledge transfer; quality improvement

Miller, Richard JohnNew Product Development and Innovation Through Joint Knowledge Creation and Transfer in a Dyadic Supply Chain Relationship
Doctor of Business Administration, Cleveland State University, 2010, Nance College of Business Administration

The development of radical and incremental products in the context of supply chain relationships is changing the competitive paradigms for individual firms. The knowledge required for innovation is no longer the sole responsibility of a single firm. As firms use their supply chain’s knowledge stocks to innovate and develop products, the decisions regarding its internal and joint resource investments, the types of innovation, and how the firm and the supply chain respond to market turbulences must also change. In order to understand the dynamic behavior of this complex system, a System Dynamics simulation model of a focal firm, a supplier firm, and their joint area is developed and tested.

This study is an initial effort to develop and model a framework of dynamic supply chain relationships based on the radical and incremental innovation investments of a focal and supplier firm and knowledge transfer within the supply chain. The model is validated and tested across 16 diverse scenarios that contain 40 unique runs and 640,000 iterations. The model is also extended to two different industries utilizing market based purchases of product innovations. Using this extensive testing, we create a dynamic learning environment to explore the effects of knowledge transfer and innovation investment strategies on the profits of firms and supply chains. The creation of this learning environment provides a major contribution to the literature by being the first to analyze innovation strategies and knowledge transfer in a dynamic supply chain relationship.

The extant literature focuses on recommending an initial set of conditions for supply chain members, but does not provide an understanding of the reactions of the supply chain after the change in strategy has been made. This study fills this gap by including the feedback mechanisms of the investment strategies, which provides firms and supply chains with both the initial set of recommendations and the reactions of the supply chain partners to the changes. The reactions of the supply chain partners are critical to developing a richer understanding of supply chain relationships because investment decisions can have negative impacts on the supply chain and create reinforcing feedback loops. Through the learning environment, several negative aspects are identified and recommendations are provided that enable firms and supply chains to avoid these issues.

Committee:

Oya Tukel, PhD (Committee Chair); Walter Rom, PhD (Committee Member); Adam Fadlalla, PhD (Committee Member); Majid Rashidi, PhD (Committee Member); Tibor Kremic, DBA (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Operations Research

Keywords:

NPD; Innovation; Supply Chain; System Dynamics; Knowlegde; Knowledge Management; Knowledge Transfer; Vensim

Allen, MarisaSteeping the Organization’s Tea: Examining the Relationship Between Evaluation Use, Organizational Context, and Evaluator Characteristics
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2010, Social Welfare
This study explored the ways in which the context of an organization affects the design of an evaluation and its use. It also examined evaluator characteristics and their relationship to the choice of evaluation design. Theories of organizational learning and knowledge transfer were utilized to develop the study’s conceptual model. A review of research on evaluation use in the non-profit sector was conducted along with a review of theories of organizational learning and knowledge transfer. The study surveyed 393 evaluators who were members of the American Evaluation Association via a web-based survey. Respondents answered a series of 47 mostly closed-ended questions about how they would design an evaluation for two organizations described in the survey. Findings indicated that evaluators design evaluations in distinct ways based on whether or not an organization is ready for learning. In particular, evaluators recommended high levels of process evaluation for an organization that was not ready for learning and high levels of outcome evaluation for an organization that was ready for learning. Evaluators also reported that process evaluation would be more useful for an organization not ready for learning as compared to an organization that was ready for learning. Also, the study found that the type of evaluation design chosen is based on evaluators’ individual characteristics. Evaluator characteristics such as older age, working in the for-profit sector, and working with social service agencies predicted recommending high levels of process evaluation. Findings also indicated that evaluators who were more experienced or who conducted social program evaluations were accurate in discerning an organization’s readiness for learning. The findings provide evidence that characteristics of the evaluator, characteristics of the evaluation, and qualities of the organization, in conjunction with one another, are predictors of evaluation use. The study builds on literature that has attempted to understand the ways in which organizational context impacts evaluation. The study contributes to the understanding of factors that predict and enhance the use of evaluation.

Committee:

Victor Groza, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Kathleen Farkas, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Robert Fischer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sue Pearlmutter, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Organization Theory; Social Work

Keywords:

evaluation; evaluation use; organizational learning; knowledge transfer

Sutter, Christopher JKnowledge Transfer in Base of the Pyramid Markets
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, Business Administration
This dissertation examines knowledge transfer in Base of the Pyramid environments. The Base of the Pyramid (BOP) refers to environments characterized by high-degrees of poverty and informal institutional environments. While extant theory helps illuminate knowledge transfer, there are also distinct features of BOP environments which suggest important boundary conditions to current theory. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore how these boundary conditions influence theory regarding knowledge transfer. Specifically, I explore how resource constraints, embeddedness within informal institutional environments, and the autonomy of knowledge recipients in the BOP alter extant theory regarding knowledge transfer. This dissertation is comprised of three papers. Paper 1 explores the replication of knowledge in resource constrained environments and asks the question: when resource constraints necessitate adaptation from a proven template, what knowledge transfer tools best facilitate adaptation? I explore the role of social interaction in determining whether such necessity adaptations from a template prove to be beneficial or detrimental to the knowledge recipient’s performance. My results suggest that more frequent interactions between the entrepreneur and practice experts who understand the `why’ behind each practice within the template can result in improved performance while more frequent interactions with entrepreneurial peers can produce much more varied results. Paper 2 examines how embeddedness within informal institutional environments creates difficulties for knowledge transfer and how such challenges can be overcome. In this study, I explore how a development organization in Nicaragua sought to dis- and re-embed rural dairy farmers into new cognitive, structural, and cultural contexts in order to facilitate knowledge transfer. I identify specific mechanisms used by the development organization for dis- and re-embedding and explore the role of human capital and intrinsic motivation in determining the extent to which re-embedding occurs. I develop a causal model to explain how such shifts in embeddedness influence the success of knowledge transfer. Paper 3 builds on Papers 1 and 2 by exploring the comparative advantages of distinct knowledge transfer arrangements within BOP environments. In this paper, I focus on how the heterogeneity and autonomy of knowledge recipients influence the choice of effective knowledge transfer arrangement. I develop a contingency framework for selecting efficient knowledge transfer arrangements and demonstrate how low-cost exchange-based knowledge transfer is more appropriate for relatively homogeneous recipients while more costly combinatory knowledge transfer methods are necessary when the recipients are more heterogeneous. In addition, when uncertainty among recipients is high regarding the effectiveness of knowledge, more combinatory knowledge transfer methods are needed to facilitate effective knowledge transfer as they require recipients to bear lower costs as compared to exchanged-based knowledge transfer mechanisms. Finally, trust influences the degree to which uncertainty matters – when trust is high, recipients are more likely to adopt new knowledge, even in the face of uncertainty. This dissertation contributes to theory regarding knowledge transfer by questioning standard assumptions regarding resources, institutional embeddedness, and autonomy, and by developing new theory that helps explain and predict successful knowledge transfer in BOP environments.

Committee:

Geoff Kistruck (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management

Keywords:

knowledge; Base of the Pyramid; informal institutions; knowledge transfer; adaptation

Kahle-Piasecki, Lisa M.Mentoring: What Organizations Need to Know to Improve Performance in the 21st Century Workplace
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2011, Curriculum and Instruction: Educational Media
Mentoring programs are frequently used in companies as a systemic solution to increase the performance of employees. Although the concept of mentoring dates back to the time period of Greek Mythology, the study of mentoring and its role in the 21st century workplace is vital due to the changing business climate, which involves an expected large exodus of executives, increase in the use of technology, and global competition. This study conducted a performance gap analysis of current mentoring programs in Fortune 1000 companies using an electronic survey targeted to human resource directors. The results of the study show that significant performance gaps exist in mentoring practices and purposes of mentoring programs. Additionally, in utilizing the systems viewpoint of performance and human performance technology techniques, data from this study on the features of mentoring programs and levels of evaluation show that adjustments to mentoring programs should be made in order to achieve the desired results. A little more than half of the companies in this study were not satisfied with their current mentoring program, desiring more features, time, and support to expand mentoring within their company. Results of this study will be valuable to companies, other organizations, and human performance specialists, because this study provides companies with the data necessary to begin the process of evaluating their current mentoring program and also provides companies with data necessary to develop a mentoring program.

Committee:

Robert Sullivan, PhD (Committee Chair); Leigh Chiarelott, PhD (Committee Member); Toni Sondergeld, PhD (Committee Member); Berhane Teclehaimanot, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Mentoring; Performance Gap Analysis; Fortune 1000; human performance technology; systems viewpoint; program evaluation; knowledge transfer

Wang, YunmeiBridging the medical knowledge and practice gap: antecedents of successful scientist-physician collaboration
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2014, Management
The substantial resources being invested in biomedical research have generated revolutionary discoveries in medical science. However, only about 14% of research findings make their way into clinical practice to benefit patients. And this 14% takes on average 17 years to be utilized into practice. This gap between science and practice has been labeled as “the Valley of Death”. Improving scientist-physician partnership (SPP) has recently been identified as a mechanism that could improve the transfer of medical science to clinical practice. However, research on SPP is scarce, and the mechanisms of SPP are unclear. I report on an exploratory multi-phase mixed method study of the experience of SPP by both physicians and scientists. Specifically I ask: what is involved in SPP, and what relationships and factors influence SPP and its outcomes at personal, organizational and socio-cultural levels? I used a grounded theory approach in the first phase to identify the factors involved in SPP. My interviews with scientists and physicians revealed that the gap between medical knowledge and clinical practice is not only a language translation problem, but a wide cross-professional collaboration challenge, in which individual attributes, organizational structures and socio-cultural forces all affect the participation in and success of SPP. In order to confirm and validate the findings of the qualitative study, a theoretical model founded on phase 1 was formulated and empirically tested using a survey of 440 physicians and scientists who have had cross-professional collaboration experiences. Three studies compose the second phase. The first study focuses on the role of personal attributes influencing SPP. I find that professional identity, recognition motivation, challenge motivation, introversion and conscientiousness all affect SPP satisfaction and outcomes directly or indirectly. The second study investigates the influence of institutional forces and organizational infrastructure on SPP. I find that academic promotion criteria serves as an incentive and has a positive effect on communication and SPP outcomes, including satisfaction and academic and clinical outcomes. Organizational collaboration mechanisms have a positive effect on communication, and communication mediates the effects of institutional factors including academic incentives and organizational collaborative mechanisms on satisfaction and academic outcomes. Difficulty to Access collaborators is negatively related to SPP effectiveness. The third study examines the impact of socio-cultural factors. This study uncovers the link between shared vision and goals, mutuality, perceived socio-cultural difference, professional language difference and social support with SPP outcomes. Overall, this research makes theoretical and empirical contributions to literature on SPP and to cross-professional collaboration research. It provides novel insights about and practical implications for SPP in medical knowledge production and transfer. The findings are useful for understanding other inter-professional collaborations, and for informing institutional policy makers, organizational decision makers and individual collaborators.

Committee:

Kalle Lyytinen, PhD (Committee Chair); Richard Boland, PhD (Committee Member); Antoinette Somers, PhD (Committee Member); Daniel Simon, MD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health Care; Health Care Management; Management; Organizational Behavior; Social Research

Keywords:

scientist physician partnership; collaboration; individual attribute; organizational factor; socio-cultural influence; academic outcome; clinical outcome, medical knowledge and practice gap; knowledge transfer

Weiss, Jill L.Collaboration in Conservation Networks: Regional Conservation Partnerships in New England
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2016, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies
Environmental problems are becoming increasingly complex and harder for any one discipline or approach to address. In the case of land conservation, there is an incongruity between how we view and manage social and natural systems even though each is reliant on the other. Adaptive co-management of these socio-ecological landscapes by a cross section of stakeholders and disciplines is necessary. In New England this is happening through Regional Conservation Partnerships (RCPs). RCPs are conservation networks comprised of land trusts, local governments, landowners, and localized conservation action groups. The geographic range of each RCP varies in size from a few hundred to half a million acres. Their activities break down disciplinary, political, and organizational boundaries and connect management of land for people through conserving contiguous and ecologically sustainable landscapes in an increasingly developed Northeast. RCPs represent a great diversity of resources, knowledge, and skills. Partnerships pool what they have and leverage it for their shared purpose. The purpose of this study is to characterize Regional Conservation Partnerships (RCPs), to better understand communication and collaboration among practitioners and across organizations in conservation networks, and find what the participants consider when measuring their success. The study has its theoretical roots in the fields of collaborative adaptive management, landscape ecology, organizational assessment, and communication. Methods employed include archival research, interviews, and surveys, with both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The conclusions drawn were themed around communication and collaboration. This population values opportunities to share information, yet, they do not meet often. When they do meet, important communication opportunities occur through storytelling and shared experience. It was found that elastic and sometimes temporary network relationships, along with clear information sharing expectations, were most useful for pooling resources aimed at decisive conservation actions. While trust and regular communication were prized, further integration of organizations was not. RCPs are knowledge transfer centers, and an embodiment of landscape ecology theory. Successful RCPs apply the promising practices mentioned above and utilize an ephemeral type of collaboration that allows partner organizations to come together to take action on parcel projects or bolster capacity, then loosen ties to work autonomously. RCPs are a land conservation model worthy of further study and emulation, for, doing more conservation work with less resources is a future certainty.

Committee:

Peter A. Palmiotto, Doctorate of Forestry (Committee Chair); Joy W. Ackerman, PhD (Committee Member); Michael Hutton-Woodland, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Environmental Management; Environmental Studies

Keywords:

collaborative conservation; regional partnerships; boundary spanners; knowledge transfer

Dirks-Schuster, Whitney MarieMonsters, News, and Knowledge Transfer in Early Modern England
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, History
How do you know what you know? This dissertation examines the process of knowledge transfer (the interaction of multiple individuals in the process of exchanging and acting upon information which is deemed significant) through a focus on the phenomenon of monstrous births (a contemporary and non-derogatory term used to describe physically deformed humans and animals) in early modern England. In a sense, this study utilizes monsters as the contrast dye in a knowledge-transfer myelogram: monstrous births can highlight the path which knowledge takes between producer and consumer, as well as how the consumer subsequently acts upon that knowledge. A broad variety of media were utilized to this end – including printed, visual, material, oral, and manuscript sources – revealing that the nature of each medium affected the kinds of knowledge exchanged, as well as the process by which the exchange took place. Thus cheap print might privilege news of the prodigious, while gossip focused on the actions of local individuals, and manuscript culture compiled and commented upon specific cases of monstrosity. I argue that balladeers, artists, neighbors, natural philosophers, diarists, and others transferred and consumed knowledge about monsters throughout the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries because they provided news- and gossip-worthy entertainment that could also, under the proper circumstances, reveal the will of God or the internal workings of Nature. Of course, monsters were not at all times all of these things to all people; the precise significance of monstrosity changed depending upon the media in which it was disseminated. However, I have located over 700 descriptions of perhaps 500 individual monstrous births, prodigies, and unusual creatures between 1531 and c. 1800 in a wide variety of media: more than 150 extant pieces of cheap print, 78 advertisements for monster shows, nearly a dozen painted portraits, numerous etchings, a court case and its three attendant ceramic plates, 88 articles published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, two diaries, and a manuscript monster compendium. The remarkable scale and variety of this interest vindicates the use of monstrosity to the study of knowledge transfer in sixteenth- through eighteenth-century England.

Committee:

Noel Geoffrey Parker (Advisor); David Cressy (Committee Member); David Staley (Committee Member); Pamela Lucchesi (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

monster; monstrous birth; early modern; England; Europe; knowledge transfer; conjoined twin; cheap print; print culture; manuscript culture; visual culture; material culture; Philosophical Transactions; Royal Society of London; gossip; commonplace book

Wolfberg, AdrianA Theory of Overload and Equivocality Effects on Learning during Knowledge Transfer within Policy Making Dyads
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, Management
In this thesis I develop a theory of how overload and equivocality affect knowledge transfer in high stakes policy making contexts, how interaction mechanisms between a knowledge provider and decision maker are used, and how these interaction mechanisms affect the way the provider learns. The empirical research leads to the discovery of unique archetypes of how knowledge providers learn during knowledge transfer with decision makers: under conditions of low overload and low equivocality the provider achieves mental model shifts through cooperative learning, the co-discovery with the decision maker to increase shared understanding; under high overload and low equivocality, the provider’s mental shifts occur through focused learning, the provider’s ability to control cognitive focus on self-selected tasks; under high overload and high equivocality, the provider’s mental shifts occur through survival learning, the provider’s desire to focus on what is understandable through prioritization that reduces attention excess generated by ample external inputs; and under low overload and high equivocality, the provider’s mental shifts occur through reflective learning, the provider’s introspective and creative effort to overcome limitations in meaning-making. The theory opens the “black box” of knowledge transfer and explains why high overload often confounds high equivocality – a self-destructive tendency. This is because in survival learning individuals embrace the known rather than explore the unknown and thus thwart innovation and novelty. While the empirical results confirm the benefits of conversing with each other in organizational settings, the findings suggest that such benefits accrue only under the condition of cooperative learning, and to expect such benefit in other conditions is unrealistic. The research compels managers to become aware of a counterintuitive phenomenon: not only may the decision maker learn as a result of knowledge transfer, but also the knowledge provider experiences shifts in mental models. This fact behooves the decision maker to not only be attentive to what the provider knows, but to have an in-depth familiarity with the way the provider learns.

Committee:

Kalle Lyytinen (Committee Chair); Linda Argote (Committee Member); Richard Boland (Committee Member); John Paul Stephens (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Management; Organization Theory

Keywords:

knowledge transfer; learning; dyad; overload; equivocality; feedback; mechanism; mental model; mitigation; amplification; policy making

Chen, ZhiangDeep-learning Approaches to Object Recognition from 3D Data
Master of Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2017, EMC - Mechanical Engineering
This thesis focuses on deep-learning approaches to recognition and pose estimation of graspable objects using depth information. Recognition and orientation detection from depth-only data is encoded by a carefully designed 2D descriptor from 3D point clouds. Deep-learning approaches are explored from two main directions: supervised learning and semi-supervised learning. The disadvantages of supervised learning approaches drive the exploration of unsupervised pretraining. By learning good representations embedded in early layers, subsequent layers can be trained faster and with better performance. An understanding of learning processes from a probabilistic perspective is concluded, and it paves the way for developing networks based on Bayesian models, including Variational Auto-Encoders. Exploitation of knowledge transfer--re-using parameters learned from alternative training data--is shown to be effective in the present application.

Committee:

Wyatt Newman, PhD (Advisor); M. Cenk Çavusoglu, PhD (Committee Member); Roger Quinn, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Medical Imaging; Nanoscience; Robotics

Keywords:

deep learning; 3D object recognition; semi-supervised learning; knowledge transfer

Sichinsambwe, Chanda M.Effectiveness and Efficiency of Knowledge Transfer in Supplier Development: Key Antecedents and Buyer-Supplier Outcomes
Doctor of Business Administration, Cleveland State University, 2011, Nance College of Business Administration

There is strong evidence that U.S. organizations are increasingly implementing supplier development programs to help their suppliers improve quality, enhance delivery performance, reduce costs, and in turn improve their own supply chain performance. However, many of these supplier development programs are not successful. This study argues that an understanding of the knowledge transfer process should play a central role in understanding improvements in buyer-supplier performance resulting from supplier development activities.

Building on the extant supplier development literature and relevant knowledge transfer literature, this study investigates key antecedents and performance outcomes of knowledge transfer in a supplier development context. Specifically, the study tests the impact of the extent of supplier development involvement, trust (competence and benevolence), shared vision and supplier’s learning intent on the effectiveness (comprehension and usefulness) and efficiency (speed and economy) of knowledge transfer and the influence of knowledge transfer on buyer-supplier performance.

For this research, 167 U.S. manufacturing firms were used to test the hypotheses. The results show that suppliers’ learning intent and benevolence trust positively impact both the effectiveness and efficiency of knowledge transfer. Supplier development involvement was found to have a positive effect on knowledge transfer effectiveness while shared vision and competence trust had positive effect on knowledge transfer efficiency. The findings also show that both effectiveness and efficiency of knowledge transfer have impact on supplier delivery performance but have no direct effect on supplier cost performance. This research makes an important contribution to the literature on the antecedents of successful knowledge transfer in supplier development. First, the research highlights that supplier’s learning intent leads to better comprehension, better application and quicker absorption of the new knowledge that is transferred to the supplier. Second, suppliers who have trusting relationship with their buyers are more likely to be successful at understanding, applying and rapidly gaining the new knowledge. Moreover, Suppliers who are involved in supplier development with their buyers are more likely to use the knowledge gained on multiple projects and to improve their capabilities. Finally, commonalty in goals, values, culture and strategies between the buyer and the supplier promotes an environment that is conducive for easier flow of knowledge.

Committee:

Injazz Chen, DBA (Committee Chair); Antony Paulraj, DBA (Committee Co-Chair); Walter Rom, PhD (Committee Member); Chia-Shin Chung, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Business Administration; Management

Keywords:

Knowledge Transfer; Supplier Development; Vertical partnerships; Interfirm Collaboration; Supply Chain Management