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Stachowicz, Tamara LMelungeon Portraits: Lived Experience and Identity
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2013, Leadership and Change
The desire to claim an ethnicity may be in response to an institutional and systemic political movement towards multiculturalism where ethnic difference is something to be recognized and celebrated (Jimenez, 2010; Tatum, 1997). Those who were a member of a dominant or advantaged group took that element of their identity for granted (Tatum, 1997). Identity work has included reflections and congruence between how individuals see themselves and how they perceive others to see them, including Optimal Distinctiveness Theory where one determines the optimal amount of individual distinctiveness needed to feel a healthy group and personal identity (Brewer, 2012). When most of the people one is surrounded by can verify and support an accepted identity construction, the process is less complicated, and attention is not drawn to the differences because there are very few, if any. As the dominant culture becomes increasingly bombarded with the celebratory aspects of an ethnic identity, it is likely that one will begin searching for one's own (Jimenez, 2010; Tatum, 1997). This study will present portraits of individuals who are considering an ethnic identity as they are searching for belonging and inclusion from the group with which they desire to identify. In short, through the use of portraiture, I intend to privilege the voices and experiences of several co-researchers as they describe their lives, explain whether or not they have accepted or rejected a Melungeon identity, how they came to that decision, and what it means in their lived experience. This dissertation is accompanied by the author's MP4 video introduction, as well as 15 MP4 videos of the coresearchers who participated in this study (see the List of Supplemental Media Files). The electronic version of this Dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Carolyn Kenny, PhD (Committee Chair); Lize Booysen, DBL (Committee Member); Katherine Vande Brake, PhD (Committee Member); Dara Culhane, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

American Studies; Cognitive Psychology; Cultural Anthropology; Developmental Psychology; Epistemology; Ethnic Studies; Families and Family Life; Individual and Family Studies; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Psychology; Social Psychology; Social Research; Sociology

Keywords:

portraiture; phenomenology; identity; social identity; collective identity; ethnic identity; Appalachia; Melungeon; tri-racial; mountaineer; social movements; identity movement; social identity theory; leadership

Anderson, Gail M“A Me Dis”: Jamaican Adolescent Identity Construction and its Relations with Academic, Psychological, and Behavioral Functioning
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Psychology/Clinical
Although the idea of identity construction from component parts into an integrated whole was theorized decades ago by Erickson (1968), it has only recently begun to be studied. Susan Harter’s extensive work on the construction of the self attests to the fact that adolescents do perceive and evaluate themselves differently in different domains of life, and that these self-representations differ substantially from early to late adolescence (e.g., Harter, 1999). However, most of the research in this area has tended to focus on adolescents’ self-evaluations (i.e., How good am I?) instead of valence-free adolescent self-descriptions (i.e., Who am I?). Not only is more research on adolescent self-descriptions warranted, but there also needs to be more research done on how adolescents actually go about integrating their multiple “selves” into whole identities, or “theories of self,” as defined by Marcia (1987). Therefore, the present study aimed to add to the current body of knowledge on adolescent identity construction by investigating how Jamaican adolescents comparatively valued six major life domains (academic, social, sexual, religious, family, and friends). A new graphical measure of relative domain valuing, the “Identity Pie”, was adapted from Cowan, Cowan and colleagues work (e.g., Cowan & Cowan, 1988) and validated for use in this study. The relations between particular self-identification profiles and life adjustment were explored in addition to gender and developmental stage differences. Overall, Jamaican adolescents reported comparable levels of domain valuing, and academic, psychological and behavioral functioning to U.S. adolescents. The Identity Pie proved to be a valid measure of domain valuing and identity construction. The total sample valued life domains in the following order: schoolwork/family > religion/friends > sports > dating. Many expected gender and grade differences emerged; however, the similarities across gender and grade were overwhelming. Adolescents of both genders and all grade levels valued schoolwork and family among the highest domains and sports and dating among the lowest. Further, results revealed that relatively high valuing of the dating domain and having a strong peer-orientation were related to negative academic, psychological and behavioral outcomes. Implications and limitations of the current findings are discussed with special consideration of cross-cultural issues, and suggestions are made for future research in this area. Overall, this study provides a detailed sketch of the Jamaican adolescent, which can be interesting and informative to anyone working with this population.

Committee:

Eric Dubow (Advisor)

Keywords:

Jamaican; Jamaica; Adolescent; Identity; Adolescent Identity; Identity Construction; Identity Formation; Caribbean; West Indian; Academic; Academic Functioning; Behavioral; Behavioral Functioning; Psychological; Psychological Functioning

Erickson, Brett TylerDiscerning Identity: A Grounded Theory of International Muslim and Former Muslim Students' Shifts in Religious and Cultural Identity at Two Midwestern Universities
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Cross-Cultural, International Education
This study examines the shifts of international Muslim and former Muslim students' religious and/or cultural identity as they studied at one of two Midwestern universities. This study uses an inductive approach to analyze interview data for the purpose of answering the central question: What are the shifts international Muslim students are experiencing in regards to their Muslim and/or cultural identity? And, the following sub-questions are addressed: What is contributing to international Muslim students' shifts in Muslim and/or cultural identity? What are the implications of these shifts? Using a grounded theory approach, these questions are answered using inductively arrived at axial categories, which include independence, exposure, and questioning, and a central category of discernment. The categories resulted from the participants' data, and help understand what shifts international Muslim students are experiencing. Additionally, these categories help to understand what is contributing to these shifts, and what the implications of these shifts are. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted with international Muslim and former Muslim students who were studying, or had studied at one of the two chosen universities. These participants were selected as a result of their status as international students, in addition to their Muslim or former Muslim identities. The results of the study revealed that many of the participants did experience a shift in their Muslim and/or cultural identity while studying at one of the two Midwestern universities. Furthermore, the results showed that many of the participants' shifts in their Muslim and/or cultural identity, were a result of studying at one of the two universities. The participants who experienced a shift in their Muslim and/or cultural identity appeared to all share in a similar process, which led them to their shift. In this process, the participants had to consider what the implications of their shift were, especially with regard to their home culture. This study shows that some international Muslim students may experience a unique shift in their Muslim and/or cultural identity as a result of studying at one of the two universities. This study also shows what contributes to these students' shifts, and what the implications of their shifts are, especially as they relate to their home culture.

Committee:

Bruce Collet, PhD (Advisor); Hyeyoung Bang , PhD (Committee Member); Russell Mills, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Islamic Studies; Religion; Spirituality

Keywords:

religious identity; cultural identity; international students; Muslim students; spiritual identity formation; religious identity formation; higher education; student development theory

Hendrickson, Katie A.Math Teachers' Circles: The Effects of a Professional Development Community on Mathematics Teachers' Identities
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2016, Curriculum and Instruction Mathematics Education (Education)
Math Teachers’ Circles are content-focused professional development for K–12 mathematics teachers that engage teachers and mathematicians in intensive, collaborative problem solving. Typically, Math Teachers’ Circles begin with a weeklong summer immersion workshop. This study explored the effects of participation in such professional development on elementary and middle school teachers’ mathematical identities, their mathematics teaching identities, and the interaction of these identities. This investigation used an explanatory multiple-case study methodology. Extreme cases were identified from first-time participants at three Math Teachers’ Circle sites across the United States. Shifts in these teachers’ identities were explored through open-ended interviews, pre- and post-workshop surveys, and written reflections. Teachers’ identities were understood as the extent to which the teachers’ personal identities aligned with the normative identity of the Math Teachers’ Circle. The teachers’ mathematical identities evolved most significantly as a result of their participation. During the immersion workshop, the teachers found that perseverance and collaboration assisted in their success at solving challenging and open-ended mathematics problems, and their confidence and motivation increased over the week. As a result, teachers’ sense of self, including mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, became stronger, and their understanding of the nature of mathematics evolved to include patterns, connections, and open-ended problems. The immersion workshop also changed teachers’ perceptions of effective mathematics pedagogy. The teachers in this study found that collaborating and struggling through nonroutine problems was useful to their understanding of the problems and of teaching and learning mathematics. The teachers intended to use similar problems and pedagogy in their classes. However, the teachers’ perceptions of their teaching abilities remained relatively stable after the immersion workshop. This study found that teachers’ experiences doing mathematics are influential to their mathematics teaching identities. Thus, teachers’ active participation in the Math Teachers’ Circle immersion workshops, through which they became mathematics learners, was beneficial to their growth as teachers. These findings suggest that the role of identity may be critical to understanding the ways in which teachers learn from professional development and enact new practices in the classroom. This study also suggests that teachers’ experiences engaging with content as learners have implications for their teaching.

Committee:

Robert Klein (Advisor); Gregory Foley (Committee Member); Jeff Connor (Committee Member); Courtney Koestler (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Inservice Training; Mathematics Education; Teaching

Keywords:

mathematics identity; mathematical identity; teacher professional development; Math Teachers Circles; teacher professional identity; productive disposition; teacher identity; professional development

Hughes, Geoffrey ScottIdentity Formation of Foreign Residents: A Study of Individuals in Middle to Late Adulthood in Hokkaido, Japan
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Cross-Cultural, International Education
An increasing number of people are relocating to foreign countries due in part to the influence of globalization, internationalization, and enhanced vocational opportunities abroad. By 2025, the workforce is expected to be the first generation of workers anticipated to live overseas due to improved employment opportunities and ease of travel (HR Grapevine, 2013). This increase will affect the lives of a large number of adult workers who reside in an Asian context such as Japan. This qualitative collective case study includes interviews with eight foreign participants from what is commonly referred to as “Western” countries who have lived in Hokkaido, Japan for five or more years. This study describes the identity formation and/or development process of these participants, who range in age from thirty-one to seventy-seven years old, and the influence this cultural context has on their adult identity development. This research applied the prevalent Japanese discourse of Nihonjinron and the cultural belief of the binary of uchi and soto to determine how and to what extent foreigners are accepted into Japanese society and/or culture. In addition, acculturation theories such as Sam & Berry’s Acculturation Strategies and Benet-Martinez & Haritatos (2005) Bicultural Identity Integration (BII) were implemented to indicate the individual changes to the identity of each participant due to their time in Japan. The results of this research suggest that Japan pushes foreigners and outside elements away from its culture and society, but it also requires them to reinforce Japanese identity. This dynamic resulted in participants often feeling between Japanese culture and their own respective culture while some defended their culture of origin. Alternatively, other participants changed in order to interact with Japanese society and enjoy the benefits of living in Japan.

Committee:

Christopher Frey, Dr. (Advisor); Hyeyoung Bang, Dr. (Committee Member); Sheri Wells-Jensen, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Aging; Asian Studies; Cultural Anthropology

Keywords:

Adult Identity; Identity Formation; Identity; Hokkaido; Japan; Bicultural Identity Integration; Acculturation

Glaude, Lydia FranklinDevelopment and Psychometric Testing of an Instrument to Measure Self-Comfort with Sexual Identity in Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Persons
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2008, Nursing

The increased risks for isolation, victimization, and other adverse behaviors for GLB persons are substantiated in the literature. Yet awareness of the struggles by those coming to terms with their alternative sexual identity is limited. The “self comfort” can be used to describe the desired state of those who have been successful in this adjustment process. This research centers on clarifying, defining, and exploring the measurement potential of an instrument based on the construct self-comfort. As a holistic construct, self-comfort is realized in physical, psychospiritual, sociocultural-political, and environmental contexts. As a dynamic construct, self-comfort is sensitive to change over time, given effective and repetitive nursing interventions. The attributes of the construct are autonomy, identity, relationship, and transcendence. When the attributes and contexts are juxtaposed, a 16-cell grid (taxonomic structure) is created to describe the content domain and guide the creation of the new instrument.

This study focused on testing the instrument with 245 gay, lesbian, or bisexual persons. The internal consistency reliability for the 44 item Self-Comfort with Sexual Identity Questionnaire (SSIQ) was .917 (standardized). Ninety- three respondents (41.3%) were men and 132 (58.7%) women. Seventy-four (30%) individuals self-identified as being gay; 73 (29.8%) as lesbian; 49 (20%) as bisexual; and 17 (6.9%) were undeclared.

Study data met the factorability criteria described by the Bartlett…#8482;s test of sphericity, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test (KMO), and Measures of sampling adequacy (MSA). A principal component analysis (PCA) method of extraction with a varimax rotation was completed. The number of factors was set at four to remain consistent with the theoretical framework for the study. Factors were extracted in 6 iterations with factor loadings <.40 being suppressed. Using the guidelines for item-to factor loadings in an orthogonal solution, loadings between .45 (20% of the shared variance) and .71 (50% of the shared variance) represented fair to excellent theoretical fit. Many of the 44 items contained in the taxonomic structure displayed strong factor loadings.

As a desirable outcome or state, The SSIQ can assist nurses and other health professionals in understanding and facilitating positive human behaviors as well as more just social policies.

Committee:

Kathleen Tusaie (Advisor)

Subjects:

Gender; Nursing

Keywords:

self-comfort; gay suxual identity; lesbian sexual identity; bisexual sexual identity; instrument development; alternative sexual identity

Schwartz, Erin M.Spheres of Ambivalence: The Art of Berni Searle and the Body Politics of South African Coloured Identity
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2014, Interdisciplinary Arts (Fine Arts)
Berni Searle is an artist based in Cape Town, South Africa who uses her body in performance and photographic works. In this dissertation, articulations of identity within the context of Searle's work are examined in their social-historical relationships. Searle, in her art, both uses her body to illustrate constructions of identity and reclaims her body (and by extension, other similar bodies). These performances of articulated identity considered through the rubric of reprendre will elucidate the construction of Coloured identity in the South African body politic. These performances will also allow a consideration of counter-spaces for discussing political agency. Since the collapse of apartheid in South Africa in 1994 the citizens of the new, non-racial state have had to contend with lasting effects of the violence and racism that founded much of South African history. Coloured identity emerged as a distinct one early in the development of South African nationhood. Problematically, Colouredness has been associated with absence and socio-political marginalization that tended to undermine this community's agency during the apartheid era and after. The trend can lead to contesting racial tropes of national belonging that only serves to increase disenfranchisement in a new democracy. Berni Searle, as a Coloured woman, engages such histories in insightful ways by embodying the shifting paradigms of Coloured identity. In so doing, Searle also participates in important discourses in the African contemporary art community. Using Searle's work as a lens through which to examine issues of identity, body and enfranchisement, this dissertation demonstrates how her works open up spaces to discuss political agency and racial identity in the post-apartheid era. Such considerations carry important theoretical weight for discourses in South Africa regarding the importance of racial identity in the new nation. In addition to Coloured identity, Searle's works also engages with issues of immigration in a transnational context, which give her work significance beyond the specificity of South Africa. The dissertation contributes much needed detailed analysis of Searle's work, contemporary South African art, and discourses on Coloured identity during South African history.

Committee:

Frohne Andrea, Ph.D. (Advisor)

Subjects:

African History; African Studies; Art Criticism; Art History; Fine Arts; Gender Studies; History; South African Studies

Keywords:

South Africa; Contemporary Art; African Art; Berni Searle; Body Art; Performance Art; Racial Identity; Race Theory; Gender Studies; National Identity; Art Theory; Body Theory; Identity Theory; South African Coloured Identity; South African Art

Kast, Chris JSocial Identity Similarity Effects on an Evaluation of Blame
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2007, Sociology (Arts and Sciences)
Work on the social construction of identity has emerged concurrently from different areas, each attempting to explain the plethora of identities present in society. Two such attempts, identity control theory and social identity theory, each attend to different portions of the social identity dynamic. Integration of these two approaches has the potential to increase understanding of interpersonal judgments. Traditionally, work utilizing social identity theory has been examined using a distribution of resources model. For this research evaluations of blame between subjects are examined in order to determine if in-group favoritism and out-group denigration as found in resource distribution studies are present in a post behavior evaluative framework.

Committee:

Robert Shelly (Advisor)

Keywords:

social identity theory; identity control theory; identity similarity; identity; evaluation; interpersonal behavior; social structure

Selden, DianneResurrecting the Red Dragon: A Case Study in Welsh Identity
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2010, Political Science (Arts and Sciences)
Despite increases in globalization and multiculturalism, national identities acutely influence politics on both domestic and international levels. Through a qualitative analysis of Welsh identity, I examine how contemporary phenomena such as supra-state institutions influence national identities. Instrumental, political identity has increased in the Welsh case in part as a result of involvement in the European Union and of devolution. The Welsh case shows trends in modern nationalism, with many national identities becoming increasingly instrumental and decreasingly cultural.

Committee:

Myra Waterbury (Committee Chair); Harold Molineu (Committee Member); James Mosher (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; History; International Relations; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Political Science; Social Psychology

Keywords:

Wales; political identity; postmodern national identity; identity politics; nationalism; devolution; United Kingdom; globalization; European Union

Kakhnovets, ReginaAn investigation of Jewish ethnic identity and identification and their psychological correlates for American Jews
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, Psychology
The nature of Jewish identity was investigated in this study. It was suggested that Jewish identity is an ethnic identity, which is different from Jewish identification. It was also suggested that Jewish ethnic identity is related to measures of well-being and religiosity and spirituality. The instruments of this study included the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Collective Self-Esteem Scale, the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the National Jewish Population Survey Identification Scale, the Global Spirituality Assessment Inventory, the Religious Orientation Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Two samples of participants completed these measures on the internet. The first sample consisted of college students recruited from the Research Experience Program at The Ohio State University. The second sample was recruited from various organizations in the community. The findings of this study indicate that Jewish identity is an ethnic identity. Jewish ethnic identity was positively correlated with Jewish Identification, lower rates of depression, higher self-esteem, and higher rates of satisfaction with life. Jewish ethnic identity was also found to be related to measures of religiosity and spirituality, and this relationship was moderated by Jewish identification.

Committee:

Don Dell (Advisor)

Keywords:

Ethnic Identity; Jewish American; Jew; Identification; Identity; Well-Being; Spirituality; Religiosity; Jewish Ethnic Identity

Murdock, Jason E.Fluid identity: History & Practice of Dynamic Visual Identity Design
MFA, Kent State University, 2016, College of Communication and Information / School of Visual Communication Design
The main aim of this thesis is twofold. Firstly, this investigation seeks to broaden the scope of graphic design history as it pertains to visual identity design by documenting the existence of an alternative paradigm—dynamic visual identity design—which has developed alongside the prevailing visual identity design paradigm—static visual identity design—but which is not currently well documented or understood. To this end, case studies will be provided to demonstrate that these two schools of thought have existed contemporaneously since the inception of visual identity design in the first decade of the twentieth century. Secondly, this investigation seeks to assist graphic design educators and practitioners in finding practical application of dynamic visual identity design in the classroom and professional practice by examining the mechanics of visual identity design and delineating three generative techniques for creating dynamic visual identity systems. Prototypes have been developed as part of this inquiry, and are presented as a way of demonstrating how these techniques are used to design functioning dynamic visual identity systems. Promoting the hegemony of one visual identity paradigm over another is not a goal of this thesis, nor is it a goal of the author to suggest that one visual identity paradigm should supplant another. Rather, it is hoped that a pluralistic view of visual identity design has been advanced in order to allow designers the broadest possible landscape and greatest opportunity to modify and adapt their approach based on the specific needs of the stakeholders with whom they design.

Committee:

Jessica Barness, M.F.A. (Advisor); Kenneth Visocky O'Grady, M.F.A. (Committee Member); Brian Peters, M.Arch. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Design

Keywords:

Branding; Identity Design; Visual Identity; Dynamic Visual Identity; Design History

Dailey, Phokeng MIdentity-based motivation in HPV vaccine decision-making: Role of healthcare provider trust, communication and response efficacy
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Communication
Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common newly acquired sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States (U.S.), is a well-established and accepted cause of a number of cancers in women and men (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Because of pervasive cervical cancer disparities, a focus has been placed on pushing for adolescent vaccination in low income and ethnic minority populations. As a framework for this study, we drew upon the Identity-Based Motivation Theory (Oyserman, Fryberg, & Yoder, 2007) to explore the potential role of ethnic identity (ID) in HPV vaccine decision-making among Somali and African-American parents. We examined whether the HPV vaccine is viewed as congruent with ethnic-ID, and how this in turn influenced vaccine uptake. In cases of incongruence, we examined how provider trust, health care provider (HCP) communication during the vaccine offer, and perceptions of the vaccines efficacy interact with ethnic-ID to influence parental decision-making. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 211 parents (100 African American and 111 Somali) of children who had been previously offered the vaccine. Participants self-labeled and rated the importance of their ethnic-ID, rated the frequency of general health behaviors, and indicated their current HPV vaccine decision. Participants then indicated the degree to which HPV vaccination and general health behaviors are typical (congruent) of people who share their ethnic-ID. Finally, parents were asked about the degree to which they trust their child’s HCP, their perceptions of the vaccine’s response efficacy and provider communication about the vaccine. In addition, a small sub-set (n = 5) of in-depth interviews were conducted with Somali mothers to explore alternate identities that were salient during HPV vaccine decision-making. Results showed moderate HPV vaccine uptake and vaccine series completion rates among African American and Somalis. Completion rates were higher among African Americans compared to Somalis. African Americans and Somalis had strong ethnic-ID, and Somalis had significantly stronger ethnic-ID than African Americans. Ethnic-ID incongruence decreased the likelihood of HPV vaccination. However, incongruence did not mediate the relationship between ethnic-ID strength and behavior. The effect of incongruence on ethnic-ID strength was not moderated by HCP trust, response efficacy or HCP communication. Ethnic-ID congruence increased the likelihood of HPV vaccination. The effect of congruence was moderated by response efficacy. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed.

Committee:

Shelly Hovick, PhD (Advisor); Osei Appiah, PhD (Committee Member); Siyue Li, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

ethnic identity; identity congruence; patient-provider trust; health-care provider communication; HPV vaccine decision-making; identity-based motivation theory

Wilson, Jennifer L.Using Identity Processing Styles to Better Understand a Comprehensive Status Model of Identity Development
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Akron, 2011, Counseling Psychology
This study set out to investigate the process and structure of identity development based on Erikson's (1963) epigenetic theory of identity development. The present study used an updated identity status model (Luyckx et al., 2008a) and a cognitive processing styles model (Berzonsky, 1990) to explore how both models relate in order to extend our understanding of the identity development process. The Dimensions of Identity Development Scale (DIDS) and the Identity Style Inventory (ISI-3) were used to measure identity status and style in a sample of university students (N=419). Three hypotheses were tested to ascertain the relationship between style and status. A two-step cluster analysis procedure was used to determine the number of status clusters in this study. Results showed that six status clusters were evident, supporting hypothesis one. Regarding hypothesis two, although participants in three of the six different statuses reported preferring the processing style theoretically consistent with their status, participants in three of six statuses did not. In addition, all of the clusters endorsed the Informational processing style to the highest degree. Results related to hypothesis three showed that the relative level of endorsement of each processing style was consistent with predictions, past findings and theory. The present findings therefore support some tenets of Eriksonian theory and provide support for a process of identity development that includes both commitment formation and commitment evaluation. However, although evidence was found to support the comprehensive model of identity development proposed by Luyckx et al., the utility of a combined process and structural theory of identity development based on the work of Berzonsky (1988) and Luyckx et al. remains unclear and warrants further research.

Committee:

Charles Waehler, Dr. (Advisor); John Queener, Dr. (Committee Member); Robert Schwartz, Dr. (Committee Member); Linda Subich, Dr. (Committee Member); David Tokar, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Developmental Psychology; Psychology

Keywords:

identity development; Erikson; identity status; cluster analysis; personal identity

Semaan, GabyArab Americans Unveil the Building Blocks in the Construction of Our Cultural Identity
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Communication Studies
This research focused on individuals of Arab ancestry residing in the U.S. and examined various factors that might influence their cultural identity. The research examined the effects of religion, nationality, and gender on participants’ maintenance of Arab cultural identity, attitude toward the original and host cultures, in- and out-group socialization, and perceived discrimination. It also examined the effects of religion, nationality (Arab country of origin), gender, immigration generation, perceived discrimination, and sojourner status on acculturation mode. It also looked at the effect of religion and national origin on ethnogamy and self-identification. Finally, the research examined the relationship of self-identification, gender, in- and out-group socializing, and perceptions of the importance of events happening in Arab countries in the Middle East. Using snowball sampling, I recruited 304 participants. Data were collected from participants living in 13 states with origins from 10 Arab countries. The participants were provided with self-administered questionnaires with closed-ended questions. This study found that the participants’ Arab country of origin affected single participants’ ethnogamy; it also affected on in-group socializing and attitude toward the host culture. In addition, nationality and religion had significant effects on participants’ attitude toward Arab country of origin and perceived discrimination by the host culture. Religion and American city of residence had an impact on self-identification. The results also showed that participants’ American city of residence had significant effects on self-identifications and the perceived importance of events happening in Arab countries in the Middle East. In addition, immigration generation and sojourner status affected acculturation modes. Gender did not have any significant effects. The results of this study showed among other things that the major acculturation modes of Arab Americans in this sample were integration and assimilation and the majority of respondents selected the hyphenated identity Arab-American.

Committee:

Julie Burke (Advisor)

Keywords:

Arab; Arab American; Acculturation; Integration; Assimilation; Cultural Identity; Diaspora Studies; Stereotyping; Identity Construction; Social Identity Theory; Berry&8217;s Acculturation Model

Del Castillo, Darren M.Male Psychotherapists' Masculinities: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection Between Gender and Professional Identities
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2010, Psychology
This study concerned how male psychotherapists construct and negotiate the relationship between their identities as men and as therapists. Narrative identity and life-story approaches were utilized to draw attention to five male psychotherapists' meaning-making processes concerning this topic. Poetic transcriptions and dialogue derived from written stories and in-depth interviews inform the discussion of the participants' personal narratives. Participants identified particular problematic experiences with clients and more general experiences in the profession as the basis for their reflections. The narratives depict how processes of gender and professional identity formation bear on participants' current identities as men, their identities as therapists, and the bi-directional relationship between these identities. Particular attention was focused on the times in which participants experienced the intersection as problematic and how they characterized the process of negotiating these identities. Narrative analysis brought attention to the content of participants' personal narratives, as well as the interaction between the researcher and the participants as a way of illustrating the research process. The results extend knowledge pertaining to men's issues in therapy and the critical study of men and masculinities more generally.

Committee:

Roger Knudson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Ann Fuehrer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Vaishali Raval, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Sally Lloyd, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Psychology; Psychotherapy

Keywords:

Men; Masculinity; Gender Identity; Narrative; Narrative Identity; Professional Identity; Intersectionality

Klein, JeffIdentity Protection: Copyright, Right of Publicity, and the Artist's Negative Voice
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2014, Music Ethnomusicology
What do you value most about your voice? As ethnomusicological studies of the voice expand, so must our understanding of what voice even means. Voice must entail more than just a sonic phenomenon, but must also relate to ideology, to our very identity, even. This thesis will fuse ethnomusicological and legal perspectives to explore how American and, to a lesser extent, international copyright law and other legal mechanisms protect more than just a musician's economic interest, but also his very identity. I will explore the right of publicity and the concept of moral rights and how they relate to voice and identity. The right of publicity is a musician's right to protect his identity as well as his copyrighted works while moral rights is the right of a musician to prevent certain uses of his work even when he has assigned the copyright of that work to another. This thesis will suggest a theoretical framework for investigating the voice as an intangible legal marker of identity. I argue that the voice protected by law is positioned as both sonic and metaphorical agent and encompasses not only the act of vocalization, but inaction as well. In my model, the positive voice is the manner in which we express our ideology by speech or by action. It requires affirmative action and intent on the musician's part. The negative voice, however, is the idea that we can also speak loudly through our silence. Sometimes silence is merely the absence of sound, but sometimes it reflects an ideological stance on a particular issue. Sometimes we are given the opportunity to affirmatively act, but we choose not to in order to communicate our opposition to a concept, decision, course of action, or some other ideological position. These “statements” are every bit as vital to a musician's identity and integrity as their affirmative actions are. One example of this concept is demonstrated in Tom Waits' lawsuit against Frito-Lay. In that case, a Waits sound-alike was used in a commercial, which led people to believe Waits himself was endorsing the product. Waits, however, had a long-standing and very public opposition to musicians endorsing products. The association created by the commercials impugned his credibility by casting doubt upon his negative voice. This thesis will examine where copyright law protects identity and where it falls short and how the right of publicity fills in the gaps to provide comprehensive protection for a musician's voice in the broadest sense. It will provide a background on the scope of copyright law, as well as how it has historically developed to protect more than just work-product, but also the musician's very identity. It will then explore the right of publicity and moral rights and how those ideas fit into the general legal scheme of copyright protection. I will accomplish this through interviews with musicians, as well as explorations of current scholarly work on identity, copyright, voice, the right of publicity, and moral rights. I will also explore important legal cases and relevant statutes in these areas, such as Tom Waits v. Frito-Lay, Bette Midler v. Ford Motor Company and the Copyright Act of 1976. These explorations can help us understand how musicians can protect their identity by protecting their ideological, as well as their physical, voices.

Committee:

Katherine Meizel, PhD (Advisor); Kara Attrep, PhD (Committee Member); Jeremy Wallach, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music

Keywords:

copyright; right of publicity; identity; voice; negative voice; positive voice; ideological voice; individual identity; collective identity; self; moral rights; ethics

Batterton, JessicaContextual Identities: Ethnic, National, and Cosmopolitan Identities in International and American Student Roommates
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Cross-Cultural, International Education
As the number of international students studying at American universities continues to grow (Institute of International Education, 2014), campuses are increasingly becoming social spaces where the local, national, and international meet. Even though students’ identities may still be developing in college (Arnett, 2000) and their environment may influence their identity development (Erikson, 1968), little research has focused on the effects of this unique context on students’ identity formation; therefore, this study investigated the change in international and American student roommates’ ethnic, national, and cosmopolitan identities over the course of one semester at three mid-Western universities. An explanatory mixed-method design was used. On-line pre- and post-test surveys that quantitatively measured students’ ethnic, national, and cosmopolitan identities were administered to international and American student roommates at the beginning and the end of the fall semester. Following the post-test survey, the researcher conducted semi-structured interviews to qualitatively investigate students’ identity development. 2 x 2 mixed-model repeated measures ANOVAs found no significant change in students’ ethnic, national, or cosmopolitan identities; however, students demonstrated that they were still grappling with their identities in different ways as they acted as discoverers, ambassadors, and negotiators. Furthermore, international students changed their ethnic self-labels, suggesting change in their ethnic identities. These findings support a contextual approach to studying identity development in college students while also recognizing the importance of students’ personalities and experiences on this process.

Committee:

Sherri Horner, PhD (Advisor); Bruce Collet, PhD (Committee Member); Stefan Fritsch, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Higher Education

Keywords:

ethnic identity; national identity; cosmopolitan identity; emerging adulthood; international students; international and American roommates

Cabral, Kyle H. K.PROXIMAL STRESS PROCESSES AS PREDICTORS OF ALCOHOL USE IN GAY AND BISEXUAL MALES: A PARTIAL TEST OF THE MINORITY STRESS THEORY
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2007, Psychology
Research has shown that gay and bisexual males use alcohol in higher quantities and more frequently than their heterosexual counterparts. In this study, I examined the relationship between sexual identity (internalized homonegativity and gay identity formation) and the quantity and frequency of alcohol use, drinking-related consequences, and drinking-related outcome expectancies in gay and bisexual males. I recruited two samples (n1 = 529; n2 = 337) via the World-Wide-Web who completed my survey online. Participants in both samples who reported a more integrated gay identity also reported less internalized homonegativity. In the second sample, there was a small but consistent relationship between internalized homonegativity, quantity and frequency of alcohol use and drinking related consequences. There was no relationship between gay identity formation and any of the drinking outcome variables. None of the sexual identity variables explained more than 10% of the variance in alcohol-related behaviors. Although the methods of this project attempted to address some of the limitations of previous research by using a larger sample size, using more than one measure of internalized homonegativity, and attempting to recruit a demographically diverse sample, my results are similar to previous results. Future directions for research include recruiting a wider range of problem and non-problem drinkers, more subjects in the lower stages of gay identity development, and subjects who are less educated, older, lower income, and from a variety of ethnic backgrounds.

Committee:

Harold Rosenberg (Advisor)

Keywords:

Gay and Bisexual Males; Alcohol Use; Drinking Behavior; Alcohol Expectancies; Alcohol Consequences; Internalized Homonegativity; Gay Identity Development; Gay Identity Formation; Gay Identity

Peters, CharnellExploring the Communicative Identity Construction of Descendants of Roberts Settlement
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Media and Communication
This study used communication theory of identity (CTI) and critical race theory (CRT) to investigate the identities of descendants of Roberts Settlement, an early mixed-race settlement in Indiana. Twenty-four descendants of Roberts Settlement were interviewed to understand how Roberts descendants communicate their identities and how race in the US context has shaped their identities. In-depth interviews were conducted in one-on-one settings; interview transcripts were coded using open and axial coding, as described in grounded theory, and were analyzed according to the four frames and identity gaps of CTI, with consideration to the tenants of CRT. The findings show that Roberts descendants communicate their identities in diverse ways, notably: their personal racial identities develop over time and are sometimes fluid; their conceptions of family are diverse and tie them to a larger, imagined community, with histories of racial passing affecting degrees of relational closeness; many enact their identities as descendants through attending annual homecomings at the settlement and/or learning about the settlement’s history; and many find significance in their identities as people who belong to the Black community and to the Roberts Settlement community. Participants experienced identity gaps and displayed various negotiation strategies for those gaps. The findings of this study exemplify the social, cultural, and political forces that create and maintain race in the US, as well as their influence on individual and communal racial identity. As the first research to specifically investigate Roberts descendants, this study provides practical implications for Roberts Settlement as an organization and suggests future research on communication’s role in racial and communal identity development.

Committee:

Lisa Hanasono, PhD (Advisor); Sandra Faulkner, PhD (Committee Member); Radhika Gajjala, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; African Americans; American History; Black History; Black Studies; Communication; Ethnic Studies; Families and Family Life; Regional Studies

Keywords:

Roberts Settlement; Communication theory of identity; Critical race theory; poetic transcription; African American; multiracial; biracial; family identity; identity gaps

Swarts, Gabriel PrasadBECOMING SERVANTS: EXPERIENCING DIFFERENCE WHILE FORMING COMMUNITY, SERVANT, & CIVIC IDENTITIES IN A SERVICE-LEARNING CLASSROOM
PHD, Kent State University, 2017, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
This qualitative study addressed the formation of student identity (servant and civic) as well as how students formed community through experiencing difference in a service-learning classroom. An interpretive qualitative study of five high school students was conducted in a service-learning program at Willow Falls High School, a public high school in Ohio. Interviews, journals, observations, student photographs, and contextual artifacts were collected and analyzed with a critically oriented, interpretivist researcher lens. The findings included: 1) Participants’ experiences in a service-learning program contributed to shifts in how they viewed themselves and their classmates as well as their relationship as servants to those they served. 2) Aiming for “buy-in,” teachers challenged participants through program specific-aims to think about their position and context and were encouraged to push out of their comfort zones in order to do so. 3) Participants were purposefully challenged to accept exposure to difference in a variety of capacities and internalized these challenges. 4) Participants found a variety of outlets for community-making in their service-learning experiences; in group/out group distinctions, class sections, site experiences, and bonding activities. 5) Citizenship and democracy were linked with service work in an uneven fashion, with some participants making direct connections while others made partial or nascent links. 6) Personal growth and community change for participants were incomplete. Teachers and students recognized that there were barriers to fully achieving program goals. The findings of the study offer implications for future research in service-learning as well as for teachers, administrators, and, stakeholders interested in implementing service-learning programs in their schools. Through service-learning and experiences with difference, students formed servant and civic identities and wrestled with community formation and democratic thinking.

Committee:

Alicia Crowe, PhD (Advisor); Tricia Niesz, PhD (Committee Member); Ken Cushner, EDD (Committee Member); Elizabeth Kenyon, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Secondary Education; Social Studies Education

Keywords:

Service-learning; high school; civic identity; servant identity; intercultural learning; identity formation; adolescents

Hofman, Brian D.“What is Next?” Gay Male Students’ Significant Experiences after Coming-Out while in College
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2004, Higher Education
The purpose of this study was to explore the lives of gay students after they had come out in college, because most of the current research stops at the initial coming out experience. Specifically, this study sought to understand how gay students construct their sexual identity and how interactions influence the continuing construction of their sexual identity. D’Augelli’s model of lesbian-gay-bisexual identity severed as the theoretical foundation for the study. The study employed a qualitative design. Data were collected through open-ended interviews with six gay college students, ages 19-22. Three themes emerged from a cross-case comparative data analysis: (a) continuous and distinct coming-out decisions, (b) expectations versus the reality of coming-out, and (c) integration of sexual identity into overall identity. Coming-out is not a one-time occurrence, but instead a dynamic process that has been, and continues to be, influenced by the variety of experiences. All participants arrived at college with certain preconceptions of college life. Coming-out introduced the participants to many new experiences and led participants to develop new expectations of college. Throughout their coming-out process, all participants began to integrate their gay identity into their overall identity; integration each participant attained varied. Results of this study led to four conclusions: (a) a person’s cornerstone, an individual or group from whom affirmation was most desired, seems to have the most profound impact on continued identity development; (b) the size and culture of some colleges create additional identity challenges; (c) positive exposure to gay individuals and culture while growing up may impact the timing of a person’s coming-out, and the speed and depth for identity integration; and (d) a seventh process may need to be added to D’Augelli’s model. Results of this study have important implications for policy and practice. This study showed there is a strong need for safe classrooms and living environments, gay role models on campus, and a wide variety of support available to gay students. This study confirms that each new experience in the lives of gay students causes ripples of change, and that continued study regarding the experiences of gay students must persist.

Committee:

Penny Poplin Gosetti (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Higher

Keywords:

identity development; gay identity development; sexual identity development; gay college students; gay students; coming out; gay bars; gay socialization

Kluch, YannickMore Than an Athlete: A Qualitative Examination of Activist Identities Among NCAA Division I Student-Athletes
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2018, Media and Communication
Despite the recent re-emergence of the athlete activist into public consciousness, activism among athletes remains non-normative behavior. However, because sport can be a powerful platform for social change, it is important to analyze experiences of the few athletes who identify as activists for social justice causes. As the first empirical study to explore how NCAA Division I student-athletes construct activist identities, this research contributes to knowledge on athlete activism and identity construction in sport by analyzing the student-athlete activist experience through participants' definitions of activism, their constructions and negotiations of activist identities, and barriers to activism. Drawing from interviews with 31 NCAA Division I student-athlete activists from across the U.S., and informed by the communication theory of identity and cultural contracts theory, this dissertation identifies five different conceptualizations of activism: activism as doing something, championing change, being authentic, speaking up, and public protests. Findings document changing notions of athlete activism and reveal nuanced forms of situational activism that do not rely on public expressions of resistance but rather arise from specific situations in athletes' everyday lives. Regarding identity constructions, six higher order themes emerged from the data: motivations for activism, enactments of activism, student-athlete activists' identity negotiations, relational influences, communal influences, and mediated influences. Data also revealed six barriers to student-athlete activism: strict regulation of athletes' schedules and lack of time, isolation from the wider campus community, stigma attached to activist identities, emotional exhaustion, team cultural norms, and institutional barriers. Participants indicated they engaged in activism that does not explicitly challenge institutional power and, by extension, relied on the intercollegiate sport system to create change from within. Finally, this dissertation presents implications for key stakeholders in student-athlete activism in the contemporary cultural climate: student-athletes, coaches/athletic administrators, and governing bodies behind intercollegiate sport, including athletic conferences and the NCAA. By embracing the multiplicity of student-athlete activist identities, this dissertation advocates for scholars and intercollegiate athletics professionals to enhance student-athletes' power to change cultural identity scripts and anchor activism and inclusive leadership in the social description of student-athletes for generations to come.

Committee:

Lara Martin Lengel, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Raymond Schuck, Ph.D. (Committee Co-Chair); Sandra Faulkner, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nancy Spencer, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Vikki Krane, Ph.D. (Other)

Subjects:

American Studies; Communication; Higher Education; Sports Management

Keywords:

sport communication; athlete activism; student-athlete; identity; identity negotiation; communication theory of identity; cultural contracts theory; social justice; sport for social change; qualitative methods; interviewing; NCAA

Davis, Luke R.Cultivating Identity and the Music of Ultimate Fighting
Master of Music (MM), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Music Ethnomusicology
In this project, I studied the music used in Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) events and connect it to greater themes and aspects of social study. By examining the events of the UFC and how music is used, I focused primarily on three issues that create a multi-layered understanding of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) fighters and the cultivation of identity. First, I examined ideas of identity formation and cultivation. Since each fighter in UFC events enters his fight to a specific, and self-chosen, musical piece, different aspects of identity including race, political views, gender ideologies, and class are outwardly projected to fans and other fighters with the choice of entrance music. This type of musical representation of identity has been discussed (although not always in relation to sports) in works by past scholars (Kun, 2005; Hamera, 2005; Garrett, 2008; Burton, 2010; Mcleod, 2011). Second, after establishing a deeper sense of socio-cultural fighter identity through entrance music, this project examined ideas of nationalism within the UFC. Although traces of nationalism fall within the purview of entrance music and identity, the UFC aids in the nationalistic representations of their fighters by utilizing different tactics of marketing and fighter branding. Lastly, this project built upon the above-mentioned issues of identity and nationality to appropriately discuss aspects of how the UFC attempts to depict fighter character to create a “good vs. bad” marketable binary. Although the UFC and its fighters vehemently craft and cultivate a specific projection of who and what they are, the ultimate goal is to convince and sell these projections to UFC fans. And as a result, fights often mark a conflict of not only two fighters, but two contrasting identities as well. In conclusion, it is my hope that the project I propose here will add to the canon of studies involving music and spectacle, and introduces to music scholarship a previously unexplored area within the greater field of Ethnomusicology.

Committee:

Megan Rancier (Advisor); Kara Attrep (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Music

Keywords:

Ethnomusicology; Identity; Music; Ultimate Fighting; UFC; Mixed Martial Arts; MMA; Performativity; Blood Sport; Cage Fighting; American Identity; Music and Sports; Entrance Music; BJ Penn; Cain Velasquez; Randy Couture; Nationalism; Border Identity

Sipes, AmandaReconstructing Identity: Sociocultural and Psychological Factors Affecting U.S. College Students' Reentry Adjustment after Studying Abroad in Africa
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Cross-Cultural, International Education
This phenomenological study of six U.S. undergraduate students sought to capture the psychological and sociocultural experiences of reentry adjustment upon return from studying abroad in Africa and its relationship with identity. Emphasis was also placed upon understanding the value of the African study abroad experience. This study analyzed the reentry experiences of the participants from one public, Midwestern university who had returned from studying abroad for two to six weeks in either Burkina-Faso or South Africa. Findings illustrated the unexpected difficulties participants faced as they adjusted back to U.S. culture upon return. Participants reported feeling isolated and misunderstood by their family and friends and guilty for their own material items. A critical view of the U.S. media and values of materialism and consumerism were also reported. Cultural, ethnic, and American identities were all modified as a result of the study abroad experience. Appreciation for the host cultures’ higher values for human relationships was also addressed. Thus, this study found that the participants experienced various degrees of personal growth and identity transformation while in Africa and it was the reentry process that made the participants aware of these newfound internal changes. As such, the reentry adjustment process illustrates the participants’ psychological and sociocultural reactions to their awareness of these changes and often sparks a sense of identity conflict as the individuals attempt to navigate their way between their identities adopted in the host culture and readjustment back into the home culture.

Committee:

Patricia Kubow, PhD (Committee Chair); Mark Earley, PhD (Committee Member); Paul Hofmann, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Studies; Multicultural Education; Multilingual Education; Psychology; Sub Saharan Africa Studies

Keywords:

study abroad; reentry adjustment; Africa; college students; cultural identity; American identity; ethnic identity

Hogan, Adam D.Leibniz Did Not State Leibniz's Law
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2014, Philosophy (Arts and Sciences)
In this thesis I propose that Leibniz did not state Leibniz's Law, the logically and metaphysically robust principle that is typically understood as the following bi-conditional: ∀x ∀y [(x = y) ↔ ∀P (Px ↔ Py)]. To arrive at this conclusion, I examine the three principles that have become associated with Leibniz's Law: the Substitutivity Principle (salva veritate), the Indiscernibility of Identicals, and the Identity of Indiscernibles. I show that Leibniz intended salva veritate as a semantic principle, never explicitly stated the Indiscernibility of Identicals, and understood the Identity of Indiscernibles as a metaphysical principle. In the debate about Leibniz's Law, I focus on four commentators: (1) W. V. O. Quine's construal of salva veritate as the Indiscernibility of Identicals, (2) Nicholas Rescher's contention that both the Identity of Indiscernibles and salva veritate may be construed as Leibniz's Law, (3) Fred Feldman's argument that Leibniz did not state a law or definition of identity, but only a criterion of identity for concepts, and (4) Edwin Curley's response to Feldman, that Feldman's assumptions, along with passages in Leibniz, show Leibniz did state Leibniz's Law I argue that Feldman's position is not completely correct, but can be amended with insights from Quine, Rescher, and Curley, and by reference to Leibniz's Complete Concept Theory.

Committee:

James Petrik, PhD. (Advisor)

Subjects:

Logic; Philosophy

Keywords:

Leibniz; identity; substitution; Leibnizs Law; identity of indiscernibles; indiscernibility of identicals; salva veritate; Quine; Rescher; Curley; Feldman; concepts; concept containment theory; criterion of concept identity; substitutivity

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