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Jenkins, Rebecca DForgotten: Scioto County's Lost Black History
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, American Culture Studies
This paper explores the untold history of the Black community of Portsmouth and Scioto County, Ohio. It provides a brief overview of the national and state level political and cultural context in which this story is told. This project is limited in both scope and in resources, and as such, while some information about Scioto County’s early history in relation to Black citizens is included for context, this research is focused mainly on the struggle for integration of the Portsmouth City School system in 1885, and the larger political and cultural context in which these events took place. This story not only highlights the struggles that members of the Black community in the area have faced, but also demonstrates the abundance of Black history in Scioto County, and the causes of the erasure of this history. The folklore of the county itself, like the Floodwall Mural project’s artistic summary, omits the rich Black history of the county. This paper argues the historical importance of the Black community to this particular place, a cultural and racial crossroads in the nineteenth century, and being a larger conversation about the role of Black citizens in Scioto County history. Additionally, this paper purposes to situate Portsmouth in the broader social and political culture of the nineteenth century.

Committee:

Nicole Jackson, PhD. (Advisor); Rebecca Mancuso, PhD. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African American Studies; American History; Ethnic Studies; History

Keywords:

Black History; History; Ohio history; Portsmouth, Ohio; African American History; cultural history; Scioto; Scioto County; local history; public history; whitewashing;

French, Daniel AKeep Your Dirty Lights On: Electrification and the Ideological Origins of Energy Exceptionalism in American Society
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2014, History
Electricity has been defined by American society as a modern and clean form of energy since it came into practical use at the end of the nineteenth century, yet no comprehensive study exists which examines the roots of these definitions. This dissertation considers the social meanings of electricity as an energy technology that became adopted between the mid-nineteenth and early decades of the twentieth centuries. Arguing that both technical and cultural factors played a role, this study shows how electricity became an abstracted form of energy in the mind of Americans. As technological advancements allowed for an increasing physical distance between power generation and power consumption, the commodity of electricity became consciously detached from the steam and coal that produced it. This factor, along with cultural factors led the public to define electricity as mysterious, utopian, and an alternative to proximal fire-based energy sources. With its adoption occurring simultaneously with Progressivism and consumerism, electricity use was encouraged and seen as a integral part of improvement and modernity which led Americans to culturally construct electricity as unlimited and environmentally inconsequential.

Committee:

Diane Britton, PhD (Committee Chair); Peter Linebaugh, PhD (Committee Member); Kim Nielsen, PhD (Committee Member); Daryl Moorhead, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Technology

Keywords:

electrification; history of technology; climate change; American energy attitudes; history of energy; electricity and culture, intellectual history; environmental history, American technological history; history of coal; history of power grid

Berger, Jane AlexandraWhen hard work doesn't pay: gender and the urban crisis in Baltimore, 1945-1985
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2007, History
This dissertation explores roots of the current urban crisis in the United States. Most scholarly explanations associate the problem, particularly of high levels of African-American poverty, with deindustrialization, which has stripped cities of the factory jobs that once sustained working-class communities. My account deviates from the standard tale of black male unemployment by focusing on shifting patterns of African-American women’s labor—both paid and unpaid. Using Baltimore as a case study, it argues that public rather than industrial-sector employment served as the foundation of Baltimore’s post-World War II African-American middle and working classes. Women outpaced men in winning government jobs. Concentrated in social welfare agencies, they used their new influence over public policy to improve the city’s delivery of public services. Black women’s efforts to build an infrastructure for sustainable community development put them at odds in municipal policy-making battles with city officials and business leaders intent upon revitalizing Baltimore through investment in a tourism industry. The social services workers scored some important victories, helping to alleviate poverty by shifting to the government some of the responsibility for health, child, and elder care women earlier provided in the private sphere. The conservative ascendancy of the 1970s and 1980s, reversed many of the gains African-American public-sector workers had won. Intent upon resuscitating the United States’ status in the global economy, American presidents, influenced by conservative economists and their elite backers, made macroeconomic and urban policy decisions that justified extensive public-sector retrenchment and cuts or changes to social programs. Public-sector workers and their unions, most notably the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), fought with limited success to prevent the transformation of American public policy. Neoliberal policies eroded African-American women’s authority within the state. Job losses hit hardest the agencies in which they worked. Meanwhile, program cuts and changes in eligibility requirements left many poor and working-poor women to attempt to provide themselves services for their families recently available from the state. The changes plunged Baltimore into the most acute phase of the urban crisis.

Committee:

Kevin Boyle (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

U.S. urban history; urban poverty; urban crisis; African-American history; civil rights history; women's history; public-sector labor history; American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees; economic history; welfare policy history; urban po

Dennis, David BrandonMariners and Masculinities: Gendering Work, Leisure, and Nation in the German-Atlantic Trade, 1884-1914
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, History
In the decades around 1900, Wilhelmine Germany embarked on a quest for world power status. This endeavor included the acquisition of overseas colonies and a naval arms race with Great Britain, but it also encompassed a broader effort to achieve global presence and economic might through a rapidly expanding merchant fleet. Accordingly, many Germans began to view the maritime community as an extension of the nation and its empire on and over the seas. This study argues that, between the advent of German expansion in 1884 and the outbreak of world war in 1914, a variety of German groups reconceived merchant mariners as emblems of the nation at home, on the oceans, and overseas. Consequently, state authorities, liberal intellectuals, social reform organizations, Protestants, and nautical professionals deployed middle-class constructions of masculinity in their attempts to reform civilian sailors’ portside leisure and shipboard labor for the nation. A broader “crisis of masculinity” around 1900 informed this focus on mariners’ bodies, sexualities, comportment, and character. Reform groups portrayed their efforts to mold model seamen as essential to the success of German overseas expansion and Weltpolitik. They created highly-gendered programs designed to channel mariners’ transnational mobility into steady flows of national power, capital, and culture around the world. This investigation situates its analysis primary and secondary literature in a transnational framework. It follows merchant mariners on a journey across the Atlantic, where most German shipping was engaged, focusing on the ports of Hamburg, Bremen, New York, and Buenos Aires. This structure allows me to consider the tensions between sailors’ urban leisure practices, both at home and overseas, and reformers’ attempts to anchor these men in marriage, family, Volk, and Heimat. It also allows me to consider how masculinity and Weltpolitik shaped conflicts between traditional notions of skill, training, and command at sea and attempts to instill “soldierly” values among civilian seamen in the context of maritime industrialization. Framed as such, this study draws upon documentary evidence from government sources, shipping firms, journalists, social reformers, pastors, trade unionists, as well as sailors’ personal accounts. In analyzing this evidence, the study employs theoretical insights of such scholars as Joan Scott and R.W. Connell about the intersection between gender and power in human history and societies. It is thus primarily concerned with how masculinity was both a product and a constituent of power dynamics in Wilhelmine Germany. Consequently, it investigates how different groups and individuals used ideas, rhetoric, and representations of masculinity to further their specific political, socio-economic, or cultural aims and interests. It therefore contributes to the recent multidisciplinary project to “give masculinity a history” rather than assuming the implicit universality of the male subject. Thus far, most work on the history of German masculinities has focused on martial contexts: soldiers, militaries, and warfare. The present study changes course to examine how masculinities interacted with Germany’s growing global entanglements around 1900. In doing so it asks how and why powerful groups attempted to choreograph mariners’ performance of masculinity at home and on the world stage.

Committee:

Dr. Alan Beyerchen (Committee Co-Chair); Dr. Robin Judd (Committee Co-Chair); Dr. Donna Guy (Committee Member); Dr. Birgitte Soland (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; Gender Studies; Modern History

Keywords:

masculinity; gender history; masculinity history; modern German history; Wihlemine Germany; Weltpolitik; maritime history; German merchant marine; labor history; transnational history; Heimat

Baden, John KennethThrough Disconnection and Revival: Afghan American Relations with Afghanistan, 1890-2016
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 2018, History
The following dissertation presents a narrative overview of Afghan immigration to the United States. It focuses on the manner in which political turmoil in Afghanistan influenced relations between the U.S. Afghan community and Afghanistan from 1890 to 2016. It also tests whether this relationship conforms to some of the most prominent scholarly models and theorizations of diasporas. In this study, the term “relations” encompasses individuals’ interactions and associations with Afghanistan’s society and government. This study finds a long history of diasporic relations between the United States and Afghanistan during this time-period. Historical events such as the British exit from South Asia in 1947, the 1978 coup in Afghanistan, and 2001 U.S. military intervention in Afghanistan have had profound effects on the U.S. Afghan community, influencing the feasibility of travel to Afghanistan, the nature of diasporic relations, and U.S policy toward Afghan immigration. As a result, U.S. Afghan diasporic relations can be broken into generalizable eras between these critical historical events. Furthermore, the era’s politics influenced how the U.S. public perceived Afghans’ presence in the United States. This dissertation also examines how immigrants and ethnic communities such as Afghans in the United States have pursued activities they believed advanced the interests of both their country of origin and adopted country.

Committee:

John Grabowski (Committee Chair); Peter Shulman (Committee Member); John Flores (Committee Member); Pete Moore (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Afghan Americans, Afghans in the United States, Afghan American history, American immigration history, United States history, diaspora studies, immigration history, Afghan Diaspora, Muslim Americans, diaspora history, Asian American history

Breidenbaugh, Margaret Estelle"Just for me": Bourgeois Values and Romantic Courtship in the 1855 Travel Diary of Marie von Bonin
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2018, History
This thesis considers the origins of the embourgeoisement of the mid-nineteenth-century German aristocracy through the lens of the summer 1855 travel diary of twenty-year-old Landedelfraulein (country noble maiden) Marie von Bonin, the oldest daughter of Maria Keller and landowner and politician Gustav von Bonin. Scholars of German history have often contended that the influence of middle-class values on German nobles originated with print culture and socio-political movements. While this thesis neither contradicts, nor focuses on these claims, it examines the ways that the lived experiences of everyday people also gave birth to middle-class values. Focusing on the themes of Heimat (home), travel and education, and romantic courtship, this thesis concludes that Marie’s bourgeois views were not revolutionary; rather, they exemplified the influence of middle-class values on the mid-nineteenth century German aristocracy.

Committee:

Erik Jensen, PhD (Advisor); Steven Conn, PhD (Committee Member); Nicole Thesz, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education History; European History; Families and Family Life; Foreign Language; Gender; Gender Studies; Germanic Literature; History; Language; Literature; Modern History; Modern Language; Modern Literature; Pedagogy

Keywords:

German history; romantic courtship; Heimat; home; family life; education for women; history of education; social history; history of women; 19th century; nineteenth century; von Bonin; spa cures; health history

Dell, Twyla J.Flame, Furnace, Fuel: Creating Kansas City in the Nineteenth Century
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2009, Antioch New England: Environmental Studies
Though this work is a fuel and energy history of Kansas City from 1820 to 1920, it also provides a tool to describe and analyze fuel and energy transitions. The four parts follow the rise and fall of wood, coal and oil as their use grows to a peak and, in the case of wood, declines. The founding and growth of Kansas City as an “instant city” that grew from zero population to over three hundred twenty thousand in a hundred years embodies the increased use of fuels and energy in an urban setting and serves as a case study. This work differentiates between these two elements throughout the one-hundred-year-history to offer a clarification in terminology and theory. The narrative begins in the Wood age, continues to the peak of the Coal Age and introduces the Oil Age as it was to 1920.

Committee:

Alesia Maltz, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Thomas N. Webler, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Martin V. Melosi, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Studies

Keywords:

energy history; fuel history; urban history; instant cities; environmental history; Wood Age; Coal Age; Oil Age; model for description and analysis of fuel history

Pinheiro, Ligia RavennaYES, VIRGINIA, ANOTHER BALLO TRAGICO: THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF PORTUGAL'S BALLET D'ACTION LIBRETTI FROM THE FIRST HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2015, Dance Studies
The Real Theatro de Sao Carlos de Lisboa employed Italian choreographers from its inauguration in 1793 to the middle of the nineteenth century. Many libretti for the ballets produced for the S. Carlos Theater have survived and are now housed in the National Library of Portugal. This dissertation focuses on the narratives of the libretti in this collection, and their importance as documentation of ballets of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from the inauguration of the S. Carlos Theater in 1793 to 1850. This period of dance history, which has not received much attention by dance scholars, links the earlier baroque dance era of the eighteenth century with the style of ballet of the 1830s to the 1850s. Portugal had been associated with Italian art and artists since the beginning of the eighteenth century. This artistic relationship continued through the final decades of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth century. The majority of the choreographers working in Lisbon were Italian, and the works they created for the S. Carlos Theater followed the Italian style of ballet d'action. Libretti are documented accounts of choreography of this period and contain important information regarding the style of the ballets produced in Lisbon. The narratives of the ballets in these libretti reveal the style of works produced in Lisbon from the late eighteenth to the middle of the nineteenth centuries: the ballet d action that relied on the use of pantomime and gestures to tell stories. The importance of pantomime in ballets of the period covered in this investigation becomes evident in the analysis of several scenarios of ballets produced in Lisbon. This salient characteristic of ballets of the period emerges through the plot developments of the ballets d action produced in Portugal.

Committee:

Karen Eliot (Advisor)

Subjects:

Dance

Keywords:

libretti; ballet d action; Portugal; ballet history; pantomime; dance history-nineteenth century; ballet history-nineteenth century; Italian ballet history; Lisbon ballet history; Italian ballet pantomime

Bolcevic, Sherri QuirkeRhetoric and Realities: Women, Gender, and War during the War of 1812 in the Great Lakes Region
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, History
The bicentennial of the War of 1812 has reinvigorated interest in the conflict, but there are still elements of this war which remain unplumbed. Within the locality of the Great Lakes region, using diaries, journals, and letters as my main primary sources, I explore how gender dynamics established by whites prior to the War of 1812 influenced a mindset that said women were incapable of fruitful participation in warfare. In contrast to those who argue that women's participation in the War of 1812 was extraordinary, I argue that women participated by any means that they were permitted. Although this participation occasionally flew in the face of traditional gender boundaries, many women aided in war efforts through everyday means, though they ultimately received little acknowledgment because their actions were reinterpreted through a lens of domesticity. My research shows that women were a significant part of the War of 1812, despite gendered thinking which regulated them to the role of the victim.

Committee:

Rebecca Mancuso, Dr. (Advisor); Michael Brooks, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

War of 1812; Women; Gender; Native Americans; War; United States; Canada; Great Britain; Upper Canada; Northwest Territory; Great Lakes; American History; Canadian History; Womens History; Gender History; Women and War; Gender Roles

Vincent, Stephanie M.Flipping the Plate: Changing Perceptions of the Shenango China Company, 1945-1991
MA, Kent State University, 2010, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
This study investigates the Shenango China company of New Castle, Pennsylvania in its years of decline prior to its 1991 shutdown. Shenango China began operations in 1901 and enjoyed steady success until a lawsuit brought the plant out of family hands into a series of outside corporate owners which led to its closure. Through historical investigation of the meanings of failure, both physical and psychological, this thesis outlines Shenango’s efforts to avoid their own demise in three ways. The first attempts are seen in the work of Shenango’s management within the plant. The company’s leadership actively promoted new products and designs to improve sales as well as renovations of the production facility and incentive promotions for salesmen, workers, and customers to keep up with a growing market of domestic and foreign competition. The dissemination and promotion of its public image through advertising make up another crucial aspect of Shenango’s efforts to avoid failure. Through examination of advertisements for its subsidiary Castleton China, Shenango’s overall failure is seen as a parallel to the decline in its public image as subsequent owners of the company reduced its outward appearance along with its autonomy. Finally, the viewpoints of Shenango’s workforce are explored to see the effects of failure on workforce morale in the plant’s declining years and how memory serves to create a narrative about the plant’s success and failure. In conclusion, the attempts of Shenango China to avoid failure are compared with the overall decline in industry in the region known as the Rust Belt and the social effects of deindustrialization on the population and quality of life in areas such as New Castle that have lost their industrial base since the 1970s and face uncertain futures going through the twenty-first century.

Committee:

Kenneth Bindas, PhD (Advisor); John Jameson, PhD (Committee Member); Donna DeBlasio, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Economic History; History; Modern History; Social Research

Keywords:

failure; Shenango China; Castleton China; business history; social history; New Castle; Pennsylvania; Rust Belt; deindustrialization; oral history; advertising; company history

Childs, David J.The Black Church and African American Education: The African Methodist Episcopal Church Educating for Liberation, 1816-1893
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2009, Educational Leadership

Many Americans in the nineteenth century argued for limited education for blacks –or no education at all for African Americans in the south. As a result, black churches took up the role and pushed for education as a means to liberate African Americans. The African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church stands as a good exemplar for a black denomination that explicitly expressed in their policies that they understood the connection of education to African American liberation. This study is a historical analysis of the AME Church’s advocacy of African American empowerment through education from 1816 to 1893. In the AME Church’s nineteenth century doctrinal statements and publications the leaders explicitly stated that education was a necessary component for black liberation. In this dissertation I argue that, although there were other organizations that pushed for African American education in the nineteenth century, the African Methodist Episcopal Church stood at the fore in advocating for education and connecting it to African American liberation. My primary question is: How did the AME Church connect their advocacy for black education to liberation for African Americans in the nineteenth century?

The dissertation will explore two aspects of liberation in the nineteenth century. During the first half of the nineteenth century–from the AME Church’s founding in 1816 through the end of the Civil war in 1865 –the Church worked toward a liberation that was focused on the abolition of slavery and overcoming racial oppression. In the latter half of the nineteenth century from 1865 to 1893 –with the death of Bishop Payne– the AME Church focused on a liberation that was geared toward the notions of uplift and self-agency within the black community, namely black social, economic, and political advancement.

The last chapter will examine how this historical analysis has implications for transforming African American education in present times. The text will examine the black church and its ability to empower the African American community through education, focusing on research that has been done on the role of the contemporary black church in African American education.

Committee:

Kate Rousmaniere, PhD (Committee Chair); Mark Giles, PhD (Committee Member); Kathleen Knight-Abowitz, PhD (Committee Member); Carla Pestana, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Americans; African History; American History; American Literature; American Studies; Bible; Black History; Education; Education History; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; History; Literacy; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Multicultural Education; Philosophy

Keywords:

Black Church; African American history; Black history; Black education; African American education; Church history; theology; black spirituality; slavery; slave history; slave religion; Albert Raboteau; Cornel West; Michael Dantley; urban education

Kernan, Sarah Peters“For al them that delight in Cookery”: The Production and Use of Cookery Books in England, 1300–1600
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, History
Through an examination of the codicological and bibliographical features of manuscript and print cookbooks produced between 1300 and 1600, I offer a narrative of the early history of English cookeries, their readers, and their producers. The success of the genre was due, in part, to its flexibility. Cookbooks could be used in multiple ways in and out of the kitchen. Furthermore, I examine the shift from manuscript to print through the lens of cookbooks. I argue that an audience for early English printed cookbooks was already in place prior to the introduction of print. The audience for cookeries in England grew steadily over the course of three hundred years, incorporating new readers who spanned class and gender divides. The expanding audience in turn propelled new cookbook production. The transition from script to print provides the backdrop for the genre’s development. First examining late medieval cookbooks as technical literature, I posit that many of these texts were used in contemporary kitchens. Some of the earliest English cookbooks, manuscript rolls, served as aides-memoires for kitchen staff in great households. Other early manuscript cookbooks were instructional texts, used by cooks in medieval kitchens. Some fifteenth-century cookbook readers, aspirant professionals such as medical practitioners and lawyers, did not require the texts for cooking. These readers used the texts to familiarize themselves with what had been served to their social superiors as a way to fit in and excel in a new social environment. Recipes were a vehicle for shaping a group’s new identity. Even while readers were increasingly from the professional and gentry class, cookeries still reflected a noble cuisine. This continued well after the introduction of print in England. However, the non-noble audience expanded enough for printers to specifically target these readers. These printed cookbooks were filled with recipes for gentry and professionals. At this point, we have clear evidence of women readers accessing cookeries. Once again, this new audience grew, using the cookbooks available to them, and in the 1570s and 1580s printers began producing texts explicitly for women. Now authors and printers affirmed the idea in print that eating and dining were pleasurable. They also inserted names and events important to English identity into cookbooks. This link between cookeries and the kingdom made cooking a domestic enterprise that was more than more than just a daily task, it was a connection to an identity, shared by other English readers.

Committee:

Daniel Hobbins (Advisor); Alison Beach (Committee Member); Christopher Otter (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; Medieval History

Keywords:

England; History of the Book; Culinary History; Cookery; Early Modern European History; Medieval History

Iler, Sarah MThe History of “Multicultural” in the United States During the Twentieth Century
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, EDU Policy and Leadership
The history of multiculturalism and multicultural education is not understood, although many scholars have written about it, especially in recent decades. The reason is that the historical interpretations of these prominent subjects begin by assuming a priori and partisan definitions and then construct historical narratives based on these definitions. The historiography of multiculturalism and multicultural education therefore suffers from the historical fallacy of presentism. This dissertation addresses the problems in the historical literature by providing an evidenced account of the history of multiculturalism and multicultural education. This unexamined evidence is the historical usage and meaning of the terms multicultural, multiculturalism, and multicultural education since their introduction into the American vocabulary in about 1907. The meaning of multicultural in the 1930s can only be what people in the 1930s meant by multicultural, not what people in the 2010s mean by the term. The patterns and trends in the historical usage and meaning(s) of multicultural, multiculturalism and multicultural education will then be analyzed in light of the intellectual, social, political, economic, and educational developments of the time. Through this evidenced approach, the dissertation will provide sound historical understanding that will contribute to educational theory, research and practice by explaining the current panoply of meanings of multiculturalism and multicultural education that exists today.

Committee:

Bruce Kimball (Advisor); Valerie Kinloch (Committee Member); Bryan Warnick (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education History; Education Philosophy; History

Keywords:

multicultural; multiculturalism; multicultural education; history of education; educational history of multiculturalism; history of multicultural education; history of multiculturalism

Huffer, Jeremy L.What Are Our 17-Year Olds Taught? World History Education in Scholarship, Curriculum and Textbooks, 1890-2002
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2009, History

This study examines world history education in the United States from the late 19th century through 2002 by investigating the historical interplay between three mechanisms of curricular control: scholarship, curriculum recommendations, and textbook publishing. Research for this study has relied on unconventional source classification, with historical monographs which defined key developments in world history scholarship and textbooks being examined as primary sources. More typical materials, such as secondary sources analyzing philosophical educational battles, the history of educational movements, historiography, and the development of new ideologies from have been incorporated as well.

Since educational policy began trending towards increasing levels of standardization with the implementation of compulsory education in the late 1800s, policymakers have been grappling with what to teach students about the wider world. Early scholarship focused on the history of Western Civilization, as did curriculum recommendations and world history textbooks crafted by professional historians of the period. Amidst the chaos of two World Wars, economic depression, the collapse of the global imperial system, and the advent of the Cold War traditional accounts of the unimpeachable progress of the Western tradition began to ring hollow with some historians. New scholarship in the second half of the twentieth century refocused world history, shifting away from the cyclical rise and fall of civilizations model which emphasized the separate traditions of various societies and towards a narrative of increasing interconnectedness. While this view has come to dominate present day historical world history research it has not yet replaced the older Western Civilization model in the education system. Curriculum recommendations continue to be undermined by partisans committed to a model based on century old scholarship which has been abandoned by the field itself and textbooks illustrate an uneven and varied approach. A closer look at the three mechanisms in the two periods (1890-1960, 1960-2002) suggests that creating a greater synergy between the mechanisms is likely necessary if the narrative suggested by contemporary world history scholarship is to take hold in the classroom of today. The development of a defined introductory narrative, supported by the scholarship, reflected in the college survey, and promoted in curriculum recommendations and textbooks are the suggested path to creating this synergy.

Committee:

Tiffany Trimmer, PhD (Advisor); Scott Martin, PhD (Committee Member); Nancy Patterson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Education History; History; Social Studies Education; Teaching

Keywords:

world history; world history education; world history curriculum; US educational policy; social studies education; history education

Winters, John D. P.Prelude to Dreadnought: Battleship Development in the Royal Navy, 1889-1905
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, History
The Royal Navy went through an important period of growth and development between 1889, with the passage of the Naval Defense Act, and 1905, when construction on the Dreadnought commenced. Though the pre-Dreadnought era of ship design and construction is often seen as a period characterized by resistance to change and self-satisfied indifference to the value of new technology for naval warfare, it was instead a period of cautious, measured and successful adaptation of new technology, which produced powerful and effective battleships. The Royal Navy was able to do this because it had developed a systemic method for designing ships and incorporating new technology into those designs. The system was able to effectively decide on the role the battleship would fill within the broader context of naval operations. It decided how to balance the competing demands of the capabilities that were wanted to fill that role in an environment of strict limits on space, weight and money available. The system also evaluated new technology and determined what filled the Navy’s needs and produced better ships. The period between the Naval Defense Act in 1889 and the Dreadnought in 1905 is a vastly underappreciated period in the history of the Royal Navy. It was not a period of failure for the Royal Navy, as least so far as ship design and technological advancement were concerned, that can be dismissed as something that “Jackie” Fisher needed to fix. The Royal Navy had its failures at that time, to be sure. However, the failure effectively design its ships and to grapple with new technology and adapt and adopt it for its ships, most importantly, its battleships, was not one of them.

Committee:

John Guilmartin, F (Advisor); Alan Beyerchen (Committee Member); Jennifer Siegel (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Royal Navy; technology; history; naval history; British History; military history; decision-making; warship design;

Christiansen, Jobadiah TruthCrucifix of Memory: Community and Identity in Greenville, Pennsylvania 1796-Present
MA, Kent State University, 2015, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
Utilizing methodologies laid out by Kitch in Pennsylvania in Public Memory: Reclaiming the Industrial Past (2012), Linkon and Russo in Steeltown U.S.A.: Work and Memory in Youngstown (2002), and Stanton in The Lowell Experiment: Public History in a Postindustrial City (2006), this thesis examines how community memory affects the identity of a typical American Midwestern small town. Located in Western Pennsylvania, Greenville emerged as an industrial crossroads in the late nineteenth century linking Pittsburgh, Erie, and Cleveland via three railroad lines. After the relocation of several industries during the 1980s and `90s the community fell into decline and has since struggled. The Greenville Historical Society portrays the identity of Greenville as a transportation town, based on its history along an Erie Canal route and later as a hub for railroads. Yet for the modern community, this `transportation town’ identity is but a shell of the past and a bitter reminder of what once was. Since the late twentieth century deindustrialization, there is a disconnect between the modern reality lived by the community and the historical identity reflected via local public history. Employing oral histories in comparison to primary and secondary sources, such as newspapers and town and county histories, this thesis examines several elements centered on community memory and small town history by focusing on how the community makes sense of its past and the importance of the town’s history to the community’s identity. Taking a `bottom-up’ approach and focusing on the community as central to the story by drawing from social histories like Russo’s Families and Communities: A New View of American History (1974), where he suggests that until the twentieth century, the “local community exerted the most profound and comprehensive influence on the lives of Americans,” Crucifix of Memory will examine three pivotal points within the history of Greenville. Chapter one will discuss the early settlers and first families who arrived in the late 1790s and the early development of the community. Chapter two will utilize the great fire of 1873 that destroyed the downtown as a flashpoint which ironically pushed the community into a `golden age’ of industry and prosperity. Chapter three will wrestle with the issue of deindustrialization that occurred in the 1980s and how the community has dealt with it. As a study of memory and community, the thesis draws on the theories of oral history and memory as laid out by Abrams’ Oral History Theory (2010). A number of past and present residents of the community will be interviewed to ascertain their memories about Greenville, keeping in mind that there is “a shared authority” between the historian and the public for the responsibility of the history. In A Shared Authority: Essays on the Craft and Meaning of Oral and Public History (1990), Frisch points out that working with the memory of public community results in a more “widely shared historical consciousness.” An impetus for Crucifix of Memory is bridging the division between popular community memory and academic history through oral historical analysis and comparative memory studies. Approaching the collective identity of Greenville via these pivotal points in their history, this thesis draws upon the work of Melucci in “The Process of Collective Identity” (1995), who describes collective identity as developing out of a shared set of traditions, active relationships, and emotional interaction that come together to form unity within a group. Thus I look at the traditions, relationships, and interactions within the memories of the community as the process of collective identity to determine how the people of Greenville make sense of themselves, their community, and by extension, the larger history of the United States.

Committee:

Kenneth Bindas, Ph.D. (Advisor); Leslie Heaphy, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Donna Deblasio, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Community; memory; identity; oral history; local history; public history; Pennsylvania history; deindustrialization;

Kogan Zajdman, JoshuaThe Story of the Jews in Mexico
BA, Kent State University, 2018, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
The Story of the Jews in Mexico recounts the narrative of a community that thrived religiously and socially in a foreign land. The Jewish story in Aztec lands dates back to the year 1492, when Jewish subjects were expelled from Spain, and traveled furtively to the New World. This research shadows the lives of the Jews from the colonial era in Mexico to the present day. It is a story of challenges, achievements, failures, and triumphs. This research project is a multilingual venture. Primary sources written in Spanish, Hebrew, Yiddish, and English were utilized.

Committee:

David Odell-Scott (Advisor)

Subjects:

History; Judaic Studies; Latin American History; Religion

Keywords:

Judaism; Mexico; History; Jewish History; Latin American History; Colonial Era; The Porfiriato; Mexican History; Jewish Immigration; Ashkenazi Jews; Sephardi Jews; Halabi Jews; Shami Jews

Howard, Andrew T.Problems, Controversies, and Compromise: A Study on the Historiography of British India during the East India Company Era
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2017, History (Arts and Sciences)
This essay explores the historiography of the British Indian Empire, specifically during the East India Company Era. Discussing issues such as Mughal decline and regional formalism, East India Company `sub-imperialism’ and the nature of the Company itself, and knowledge formation and `colonial discourse theory,’ this essay interrogates the scholarship of the period from the British imperialists and orientalists themselves through to scholarship of the present day. One of the most contentious issues debated in the scholarship is whether historical change occurs from the top-down or the bottom-up. Both arguments are considered along with an examination of how the original intention of the Subaltern School to explore history from the bottom-up was hijacked by politicized, postmodern scholarship that sought to erase Indian agency from the historical record. The essay concludes by staking out new ground for future scholarship and providing models and frameworks for how to do so.

Committee:

John Brobst (Advisor); Alec Holcombe (Committee Member); Assan Sarr (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; History; South Asian Studies; World History

Keywords:

British India; East India Company; Historiography; Colonialism; Imperialism; Colonial Discourse Theory; South Asian History; European History; History; Intellectual History

Mooney, Ryan E.Guiding “Big Science:” Competing Agency of Scientists and Funding Organizations in American Cold War Research
Master of Arts in History, Youngstown State University, 2015, Department of History
This research project aims to evaluate the agency of scientists participating in American Cold War research initiatives funded by the government. The aim will be to weigh the internal direction of scientific programs versus the external pressures faced from patron organizations such as the Department of Defense. The project utilizes secondary sources supported by governmental documentation as well as written and oral accounts of scientific and technical personnel involved in select research efforts. The two initiatives examined were aerospace research and its eventual adaptation to the space program, as well as nuclear testing and the national laboratories which supported it. Sources strongly suggested significant internal direction on the part of rank-and-file laboratory and technical personnel and very little pressure to orient research toward defense-related activities, despite some cooperative overlap.

Committee:

Brian Bonhomme, PhD (Advisor); Donna DeBlasio, PhD (Committee Member); Daniel Ayana, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; American History; Military Studies; Philosophy of Science

Keywords:

history of science;history of space program;history of nuclear testing;history of aerospace research

Schindler, Mauren ADismantling the Dichotomy of Cowardice and Courage in the American Civil War
MA, Kent State University, 2018, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of History
By examining the lives and battle experiences of three brothers, this thesis explores their perceptions of cowardice and courage as Union soldiers during the American Civil War. Using primary sources from a newly uncovered collection, the Reiter Family Collection, and using a single family, the Bassetts, as a microcosm of both their community and northern society this thesis examines questions such as in the values, motivation, and struggles of loss, remembrance, and survivors guilt. As historians have often understudied the complicated nexus between experiences of cowardice and courage, this research takes an approach not common in the extant literature. What I refer to as the continuum shows that soldiers felt courage and cowardice concurrently. As a result, there was, and is, more to study about cowardice and courage than the obvious dichotomy. This work describes these terms on a continuum, a flexible scale wherein a person can experience cowardice and courage simultaneously. Examining cowardice and courage through the experiences of the Bassett brothers, this thesis explores who the brothers were, where they came from, and how they fit into the greater scheme of Union wartime society. It continues with an analysis of the experiences and perceptions of the brothers and their different cowardly and courageous experiences. Finally, the thesis concludes with a detailed glance at their successful or failed attempts at redemption.

Committee:

Kevin Adams, PhD (Advisor); Leonne Hudson, PhD (Committee Member); Elaine Frantz (Parsons), PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American History; Gender; History; Mental Health; Military History

Keywords:

Civil War; New York; 19th Century; Bassett; 126th New York Infantry; 33rd New York Infantry; Harpers Ferry; Gettysburg; Cowardice; Redemption; American History; Military History; Cultural History; Social History; Masculinity; Victorian Ideals; Letters

Conlon, Katie L"Neither Men nor Completely Women:" The 1980 Armagh Dirty Protest and Republican Resistance in Northern Irish Prisons
Artium Baccalaureus (AB), Ohio University, 2016, History
This thesis focuses on prisons as spaces in which the Great Britain's colonial relationship with Northern Ireland was negotiated during the Troubles, specifically between the British prison administration and female republican prisoners at Armagh Gaol. This research draws from the historiography on the conflict that frames it in terms of settler colonialism rather than ethnic/religious violence or sectarianism. It examines prisons as institutions connected to and representative of the superstructures of colonialism, discussing prison structures as well as the legal mechanisms that categorized prisoners. It focuses on collective tactics of resistance among republican prisoners. The bulk of this discussion of resistance among prisoners is focused on the republican women of Armagh Gaol and their 1980 No-Wash Protest. The protest represented a moment of collaboration between the women of Armagh, male prisoners, republican groups outside of prisoners, and sections of the women's movement. That collaboration was a key factor in fundamentally changing the overall relationship between the women's movement and the republican movement in Northern Ireland and securing women a more prominent position within republican politics than ever before, both in the discussion of women's contributions to the republican struggle and the ways in which women's struggles differed uniquely from those of men.

Committee:

Ziad Abu-Rish, Dr. (Advisor); Miriam Shadis, Dr. (Other)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

History; Northern Ireland; the Troubles; Northern Irish History; Womens History; History of Prisons; Prisons; Political prisoners; Resistance; Anti-colonial struggles

Evans, HugoDe-Basing the San Francisco Bay Area: The Racial, Regional, and Environmental Politics of the 1991-1995 Brac Military Closures
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2013, History
The San Francisco Bay Area played a critical role in supporting military activities throughout the twentieth century. Due to its location, the Bay Area served as one of the key military staging grounds for the Pacific campaign of WWII, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. The region benefited from war-related industry, housing the largest shipyard west of the Mississippi and supporting the burgeoning postwar military industrial complex. Its demographics diversified dramatically as soldiers, Vietnam War refugees, and war workers migrated to the region. As part of the Sunbelt, the Bay Area benefited economically from generous military procurement spending. However, over the course of the 1980s, 1990s, and the 2000s, the Bay Area shifted away from having a significant military presence to having practically none. Compared to the approximately thirty military facilities operating in 1980, today all but a handful are either closed or slated for closure. Residents, experts, and scholars wondered how could a single region in the Sun Belt, which benefited from significant federal defense investment, lose so much, so quickly? Many locals blamed the region's "liberal" people and politicians for inciting the military's wrath. Hence, a popular social narrative evolved. Many contended that the navy and Department of Defense deliberately targeted bases in the Bay Area for closure as a way of punishing the Bay Area for its anti-war intransigence. This dissertation challenges the narrative that the Bay Area was punished. It examines the causal factors that led to the elimination of the region's bases. Through three case studies covering base closures in three Bay Area cities, Alameda (Alameda Naval Air Station), Vallejo (Mare Island Naval Shipyard), and Oakland (Oakland Army Base and Fleet and Industrial Supply Center Oakland), a different explanation for the closures emerges. This project demonstrates that the passage of federal policies and legislation, urban encroachment, the reduction of military need, the advancement of military technologies, the enforcement of environmental policies, and shifts in military procurement processes caused a collective cascading effect, which yielded unintended consequences on the region. Going further, this dissertation likewise investigates the effectiveness and fairness of the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission (BRAC). The BRAC was designed as a way to close bases in an independent, equal, and apolitical manner. Taken together, these factors demonstrate that Bay Area bases closed due to politics, just not the punishment kind.

Committee:

Stephen Ortiz, Ph.D. (Advisor); Douglas Forsyth, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Gary Hess, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Amy Robinson, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

Alameda Naval Air Station; Base Closure and Realignment Commission; BRAC; Environmental History; Fleet Industrial Supply Center Oakland; Mare Island Naval Shipyard; Military History; Oakland Army Base; Policy History; San Francisco Bay Area; Urban History

Baden, John K.Residual Neighbors: Jewish-African American Interactions in Cleveland From 1900 to 1970
Master of Arts, Case Western Reserve University, 2011, History
This master’s thesis examines Jewish and African American relations in Cleveland, Ohio from 1900 to 1970. It argues that interactions between Jews and African Americans in the North have been forged by their history of shared urban space which fostered inter-reliance between Jewish entrepreneurs and their black customers. While this African American-Jewish inter-reliance has been explored in the context of civil rights, an examination of street-level interactions in shared urban spaces such as Jewish-run corner-stores, nightclubs, music shops, housing, and even criminal enterprises reveals that relations between African Americans and Jews have been driven as much by entrepreneurship, markets, and patterns of consumption as by their history as two oppressed peoples. Although this study focuses on Cleveland, it also illustrates some of the basic dynamics of demographic change and inter-ethnic activity in urban America during the twentieth century.

Committee:

John Grabowski (Committee Chair); Rhonda Y. Williams (Committee Member); John H. Flores (Committee Member)

Subjects:

History

Keywords:

black-Jewish relations; Cleveland; African American Jewish relations; ethnic relations; Cleveland Jewish history; Cleveland black history; black Jewish relations; urban geography; Cleveland African American History

Fett, Denice LynInformation, Intelligence and Negotiation in the West European Diplomatic World, 1558-1588
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, History

This dissertation explores the Reformation world that helped to create and solidify many of our modern diplomatic institutions, including concepts concerning resident embassies, ambassadors’ duties, and internationally recognized diplomatic privileges. In the early sixteenth century, Western European governments took hesitant steps toward implementing Italian models of diplomatic discourse developed in the previous century. The advent of the Reformation halted this progression and ultimately caused the early Reformation monarchs to abandon this experiment. Their successors revived the practice the middle of the sixteenth century because of financial constraints; the medieval preference for war instead of diplomacy could no longer be indulged because the key states of Western Europe—England, France and Spain—all verged on bankruptcy and faced internal turmoil caused in large part by the Reformation. Thus, these states turned to diplomacy out of necessity, and adapted the new institutions to suit their needs.

The resurgence of diplomacy in Europe after the ratification of the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559 demonstrated the vital importance of information to the nascent diplomatic system. The need to control all stages of the information cycle—its acquisition, dissemination and utilization—crossed national, religious, political, social and cultural lines. Without accurate and reliable information, governments could not succeed at international negotiations and protect national interests. The logistical limitations of the new practice virtually guaranteed that each nation developed strikingly similar methods of accomplishing their goals, regardless of their political structures or religious position. Ambassadors and governments collected information from their sources, dispatched it through networks of couriers, and utilized it to the best extent possible in their negotiations. This dissertation explores the logistics and processes used to accomplish these goals from a multi-national perspective. It argues that these governments engaged in vital and increasingly prominent forms of diplomatic discourse, and that they endured despite the polarizing impact of the Reformation.

Committee:

Professor Geoffrey Parker (Advisor); Professor David Cressy (Advisor); Professor Alan Gallay (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; International Relations; Religious History

Keywords:

early modern European history; diplomatic history; France; England; Spain; Reformation; religious history

Ferguson, Janice Y.Anna Julia Cooper: A Quintessential Leader
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2015, Leadership and Change
This study is a leadership biography which provides, through the lens of Black feminist thought, an alternative view and understanding of the leadership of Black women. Specifically, this analysis highlights ways in which Black women, frequently not identified by the dominant society as leaders, have and can become leaders. Lessons are drawn from the life of Anna Julia Cooper that provides new insights in leadership that heretofore were not evident. Additionally, this research offers provocative recommendations that provide a different perspective of what leadership is among Black women and how that kind of leadership can inform the canon of leadership. Cooper’s voice in advocacy, education, community service, and involvement in the Black Women’s Club Movement are the major themes in which evidence of her leadership is defined. This leadership biography moves beyond the western hegemonic point of view and the more traditional ways of thinking about leadership, which narrowly identify effective leaders and ways of thinking about leadership development. The findings of this study propose an alternative view of leadership that calls attention to the following critical elements: 1. Black women carry the co-identifers, gender and race, which continue to be nearly nonexistent in leadership theories, discourse, and mainstream leadership literature. 2. The positivist view, as being the only legitimate knowledge claim, must continue to be challenged. 3. There is a need to correct and update our history, making it more inclusive of all human beings. This leadership biography centers on the notion that Cooper, as a quintessential leader, remains paradoxical. For the most part, she continues to be an unknown figure to most Americans, both Black and White. Yet, remnants of Cooper’s ideology and leadership are prolific. It is precisely this dissonance between Cooper the undervalued figure and Cooper the scholar/activist leader that is being analyzed in this study. Under severe adversities, her resistance, persistence, educational excellence as a student and teacher, and community service demonstrates her challenging path to leadership. Cooper’s activism and beliefs in racial and gender equality provides a strong example of quintessential leadership. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLink ETD Center, www.ohiolink.edu/etd

Committee:

Jon Wergin, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Laurien Alexandre, Ph.D (Committee Member); Barbara Nevergold, Ph.D (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; African American Studies; African Americans; American History; Biographies; Black History; Black Studies; Continuing Education; Education; Education Philosophy; Educational Leadership; Gender; Gender Studies; Higher Education; History; Womens Studies

Keywords:

African American Women; equality; leadership; Blacks; Black Women; African Americans; Black History; American History; biography; higher education; history of education; Womens Studies

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