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Carlo, Jennifer A.Presidential Arcs: What Institutional Histories Can Tell Us About The Office
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2014, Leadership and Change
This comparative case study defined and examined the presidential arc at three small, private colleges in the Northeast. The study of an institution's presidential arc is proposed as a more effective means of assessing the success or failure of higher education presidencies than examination of a single presidency in isolation. The presidential arc, a concept introduced in this study, is defined as a comprehensive and integrative examination of: each individual presidency, or, at institutions with a history of short-term presidents who left little impact on, groups of presidencies; the level of success of each presidency, as determined by a definition shared with all correspondents or interviewees; the institutional culture, history, and self-defined "saga" and environmental factors that significantly impact presidencies or institutional history (i.e., enrollment trends, the national or regional economy, trends in curriculum, shifts in the national higher education culture, etc.). Comparative examination of touchpoints (common or parallel themes or events) in each of three arcs yielded four broad themes with wider implications for success and failure in the higher education presidency: founding president syndrome/evolving role of the academic presidency; institutional saga/insularity of small schools with distinctive cultures; competing cultures in modern higher education; and legitimacy of the presidency and individual presidents. The study concludes with a set of recommendations for institutions to take collective responsibility for the success or failure of their presidencies: redefine our expectations of the presidency; jointly plan for success; understand and use the concept of the presidential arc in searching for new presidents; and change the way we search for presidents. This ETD is available in open access in Ohiolink ETD, http://etd.ohiolink.edu/, Center and AURA http://aura.antioch.edu/

Committee:

Alan Guskin, Ph.D (Committee Chair); Theodore Marchese, Ph.D (Committee Member); Jon Wergin, Ph.D (Committee Member); Mary Marcy, Ph.D (Other)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

higher education leadership; higher education presidency; college and university leadership; college and university presidency; higher education; failed presidencies; higher education administration; presidential arc; college presidents

Coates, Chad O.Private Higher Education in Jamaica: Expanding Access in Pursuit of Vision 2030
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2012, Higher Education Administration
The purpose of this study was to gain insight on why private higher education institutions have flourished as key providers of higher education in Jamaica, how these institutions facilitate access to higher education, and to what extent private higher education institutions contribute to the achievement of Jamaica’s national higher education goals. The researcher also examined the extent to which the neo-liberal framework, which supports the notion of education as a tool for economic development, is appropriate for understanding how higher education is unfolding in Jamaica. Although the neo-liberal principles are evident within the Jamaican higher education system the neo-liberal framework alone is insufficient in providing a full understanding of how private higher education is unfolding in Jamaica. The findings of the study suggest that local private higher education institutions in Jamaica serve to challenge the status quo by making higher education accessible to members of the society who have been previously marginalized and underserved by the public higher education system. Local private higher education institutions in Jamaica have emerged in response to excess demand for higher education that the government was unable and unwilling to supply.

Committee:

Patricia K. Kubow, PhD (Advisor); Candace Archer, PhD (Committee Member); Michael D. Coomes, EdD (Committee Member); Robert DeBard, EdD (Committee Member); Gary St.C. Oates, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Caribbean Studies; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

Private higher education in Jamaica; Tertiary education in Jamaica; University Council of Jamaica; International higher education; Caribbean higher education; neoliberal; quality assurance in higher education

Gerda, Janice JoyceA History of the Conferences of Deans of Women, 1903-1922
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2004, Higher Education Administration
As women entered higher education, positions were created to address their specific needs. In the 1890s, the position of dean of women proliferated, and in 1903 groups began to meet regularly in professional associations they called conferences of deans of women. This study examines how and why early deans of women formed these professional groups, how those groups can be characterized, and who comprised the conferences. It also explores the degree of continuity between the conferences and a later organization, the National Association of Deans of Women (NADW). Using evidence from archival sources, the known meetings are listed and described chronologically. Seven different conferences are identified: those intended for deans of women (a) Of the Middle West, (b) In State Universities, (c) With the Religious Education Association, (d) In Private Institutions, (e) With the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, (f) With the Southern Association of College Women, and (g) With the National Education Association (also known as the NADW). Each of the conferences is analyzed using seven organizational variables: membership, organizational structure, public relations, fiscal policies, services and publications, ethical standards, and affiliations. Individual profiles of each of 130 attendees are provided, and as a group they can be described as professional women who were both administrators and scholars, highly-educated in a variety of disciplines, predominantly unmarried, and active in social and political causes of the era. The primary conclusions are: There was little continuity between the conferences and the NADW; the nature of the professional groups and the profiles of the deans of women suggest that the profession underwent a change around 1920; and the careers and lives of the early deans of women were filled with important accomplishments, and are worthy of study. A deeper understanding of the early deans of women and their professional activities can inform research on the history of student affairs and the roles of women in higher education. Finally, the stories of these remarkable women can provide inspiration and illumination for those who continue the work with students in higher education.

Committee:

Michael Coomes (Advisor)

Keywords:

dean of women; student affairs; history of higher education; women in higher education; administration of higher education; student personnel

Price, Monica HatfieldNarrative Policy Analysis of Prior Learning Assessment: Implications for Democratic Participation in Higher Education Policy Making
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2016, Higher Education (Education)
Policy making in higher education is highly consequential. As such, we need to consider how opposing policy advocates strategically craft narratives to advantage their side of a policy issue. In this study, prior learning assessment (PLA), which is the educational practice of awarding college credit for learning that occurred outside the college classroom, provides the sample policy issue through which to consider policy narratives. This is the first research utilizing the Narrative Policy Framework in the study of a higher education policy issue. The PLA policy narratives created by Ohio policy makers, higher education newspapers, and prominent PLA advocacy groups are analyzed. Results suggest the structure of the dominant pro-PLA narrative advantages the pro-PLA policy stance. The results also suggest that PLA policy narratives do not typically include the voices of diverse democratic participants. The findings of asymmetry and bias in PLA policy narratives are discussed.

Committee:

Laura Harrison (Committee Chair); Scott Titsworth (Committee Member); David Horton, Jr. (Committee Member); Michael Williford (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Public Policy

Keywords:

policy narratives; Narrative Policy Framework; democratic participation; policy process; prior learning assessment; higher education policy process; Ohio higher education; higher education newspapers

Adusah-Karikari, AugustinaExperiences of Women in Higher Education: A Study of Women Faculty and Administrators in Selected Public Universities in Ghana
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2008, Curriculum and Instruction Cultural Studies (Education)

Recent research on women's experiences in higher education in Ghana is limited. These few studies have been insufficient, therefore, to serve as a basis for rectifying the ongoing gender imbalances in higher education. Higher education is the portal to enhancing the status of women, especially in developing societies such as Ghana. Increasing the numbers of women in higher education is not the only answer to obtaining gender equality. Pragmatic solutions are needed to improve gender equality.

This study sought to examine the experiences of women in higher education in Ghana by considering the challenges that women face as faculty and administrators. It explored factors that contribute to the underrepresentation of women in senior positions within the universities and further investigated the policies that have been adopted to influence gender equity.

Postcolonial feminist theory, which asserts that women were doubly colonialized by imperial and patriarchal ideologies, offers a reasonable way to understand the experiences of women in higher education in Ghana. Twenty faculty members and administrators representing three public universities were selected for this study. Interviews were adopted to highlight the importance of the women's individual voices on issues that affect them.

Research findings from in-depth interviews and document analysis showed that women faculty and administrators were highly underrepresented. The majority of respondents cited conflicts in managing their multiple roles as mothers, wives and workers, interrupted careers, impact of family dynamics, lack of mentoring and networks, and the power of the "old boys" network as key issues. The results showed a mixed perception of the prioritization of gender issues within the structures of the institutions. It further revealed that two of the universities in the study have instituted Gender Units to focus on gender issues. Additionally, there is a provision for externally funded opportunities for female faculty and administrators at the universities. However, the patriarchal culture of the universities serves to undermine women's authority and frames their identity in subordinated paradigms. The participants of the study exhibited attributes such as perseverance, ability to plan, and the determination to succeed as pivotal characteristics that aided them in their struggle to advance.

Committee:

Francis Godwyll, PhD (Committee Chair); Rosalie Romano, PhD (Committee Member); Marc Cutright, EdD (Committee Member); George Johanson, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education

Keywords:

Women Faculty and Administrators; Women Issues in Higher Education; Higher Education in Africa; Sociocultural Issues in Higher Education

Atuahene, FrancisA Policy Analysis of the Financing of Tertiary Education Institutions in Ghana: An Assessment of the Objectives and the Impact of the Ghana Education Trust Fund
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2006, Higher Education (Education)

Higher education development worldwide at the turn of the century has witnessed a multitude of challenges such as accessibility, affordability, financial austerity, faculty recruitment and retention, and the lack of improvement of physical facilities.Whereas these challenges pose a serious threat to effective higher education systems, two major challenges of massification and financial stringency remain a peril at the pinnacle of education development. Whilst different cost sharing mechanisms have been advanced to address these problems in most advanced countries, the situation is quite different in sub-Saharan African countries, where the introduction of cost sharing has generated serious agitations from students.

In Ghana where the higher education system is constitutionally financed by the state, the introduction of cost sharing policies have not only been politicized and attacked, but also created severe inequalities making higher education the preserve of the socially privileged. Cognizant of these quagmires, and realizing the importance of higher education to national development, Parliament passed a bill that established the Ghana Education Trust Fund (GETFund Act 581) in 2000, which levies a 2.5% Value Added Tax (VAT) on goods and services to supplement government budgetary allocations to education. The purpose is to provide financial resources to support all educational institutions and offer financial assistance to genuinely needy and academically talented students.

Guided by the interpretive theory of social constructivism, this study used qualitative document analysis and interview techniques to investigate the perceptions of university administrators, board of trustees, government officials, and student leadership about the fulfillment of the objectives of the Act. Twenty-five participants representing three major universities, two polytechnics and agencies of the Ministry of Education were selected for this study.

The first phase of the study analyzed existing government and policy documents on education, particularly those on the GETFund. The second phase of open-ended interviews investigated the perceptions of participants of the study. The findings of the study indicated a tremendous contribution of the GETFund towards higher education development in Ghana in the areas of academic and residential infrastructural development, provision of scholarships and financial assistance to needy students, contributions to faculty research and development and the establishment of a student loans scheme.

Committee:

William Cutright (Advisor)

Keywords:

Higher Education Finance; Education Accessibility and Affordability; Challenges Facing Higher Education; Higher Education in Africa

Dlamini, Reuben S.The Evolution of Information Technology Executive Position in Higher Education: The Strategic and Adaptive Chief Information Officer in Higher Education
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2011, Curriculum and Instruction Instructional Technology (Education)

The study examined the evolving role of information technology executives in higher education with the objective of detailing the skills and experiences necessary to be a CIO in higher education, the expectations of the leaders in higher education of these individuals, and how leaders in higher education view the role of the CIO. The position responsibilities have been steadily increasing over the past two decades due to redefinition of the business of higher education. The CIO position is no longer highly focused on technical issues but has influence on the institution’s business strategies, which clearly shows that the position has experienced organizational ascension.

The position’s requirements as advertised on various publications, the CIO needs to be technologically savvy, business savvy, technology advocate, be strategically focused as well as understand governance (Chronicle Careers, 2009; Brown, 2009; Chronicle Careers, 2010). Due to its complexity, the position does not succumb to the notion of one-size-fits-all organizations. In the researcher’s effort to understand the CIO’s place in higher education the Burke-Litwin organizational model was adopted. The model provided the theoretical framework to guide the study in the following parameters: understanding higher education dynamics, higher education strategic leadership, carefully planned technology investment driven by data, policies and procedures, and aligning the decision-making process with the vision and mission of the institution (Burke, 2002).

This triangulated qualitative study used CIOs and higher education executives from the Association of American Universities (AAU) institutions, specifically in the USA. The following qualitative techniques were used to determine the skills, experience, and roles: document analysis, online survey, and interviews. The results indicated the need for CIOs to have multidimensional personalities with the ability to strategically adapt according to the institution’s needs. The CIOs are to be: technically savvy, business savvy, well rounded individuals, good listeners, understand higher education, as well as good organization builders. In short the results indicated that CIOs have diverse work experience and educational background. The CIOs follow the traditional or nontraditional path to the position (Birnbaum & Umbach, 2001). The traditional category includes all executives who came through the ranks in higher education, while the nontraditional category includes those executives whose “careers have alternated between higher education and external positions and those who had no previous higher education experience” (Birnbaum & Umbach, 2001, p. 206). There was a correlation between the CIOs and the higher education executives on the skills, experience, roles, views, and expectations of the position.

Committee:

David Moore, PhD (Advisor); Adah Ward-Randolph, PhD (Committee Member); Valerie Conley, PhD (Committee Member); Albert Akyeampong, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership; Educational Technology; Higher Education Administration; Information Technology; Management

Keywords:

Chief Information Officers; Higher Education IT Executives; Higher Education Administration; Information Technology Management; IT Management in Higher Education

Castellani, JenniferDeconstructing Eve: A Critical Feminist Analysis of Mid-Level Female Administrators in Conservative Evangelical Universities
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Dayton, 2016, Educational Leadership
Research demonstrates that female staff in conservative, Christian colleges experience gender discrimination in a variety of forms, and this oppression is often because evangelical theology dictates women are ontologically second class citizens. This qualitative critical feminist dissertation specifically focuses on the gendered experiences of female mid-level administrators in evangelical academia. Interviews and participant reflective exercises were used to collect data, and findings demonstrate gender inequality exists within Christian academia. Female mid-level supervisors reported difficulty balancing home and work responsibilities, pay disparity, thwarted promotional opportunities, and covert and overt discrimination. Recommended strategies to address gender inequality include leadership development programs, mentoring, advocacy for balanced hiring and salaries, gender equity task forces, climate surveys, and internal and external coalitions.

Committee:

Molly Schaller, Dr (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Gender; Gender Studies; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Religion; Theology; Womens Studies

Keywords:

evangelical higher education; gender discrimination; female administrators; feminist theory in higher education; critical theory in higher education; theology; gender studies; religion

Weinblatt, BrianAn Examination of Academic Decision-Making During Two University Mergers
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2012, Higher Education

This study examined decision-making processes during two university mergers, instances of major organizational change. Processes were evaluated in the context of traditional and modern academic decision-making models. A qualitative method of inquiry, designed as a multiple instrumental case study, entailed interviews with 6 participants at a pilot site, followed by 37 interviews and document analysis at two case study sites. Interview transcripts and documents were coded and analyzed, yielding a thematic evaluation.

Four major themes were found pertaining to the two mergers: avoidance of conflict, need for validation, momentum, and disconnect among views. The study found that more traditional models of decision-making were employed at one institution, while more modern models were used at the other. Both institutions exhibited administrative leadership utilizing tools to exert influence to effect the mergers. Conclusions included a highlight on American higher education institutions in transition from traditional to more modern approaches of decision-making, described as a “grey zone” between the models. Implications of the study included the necessity for modern higher education administrators to maintain a delicate balance between traditional and evolving modern approaches of higher education decision-making.

Committee:

Penny Poplin Gosetti, PhD (Committee Chair); David Meabon, PhD (Committee Member); Ronald McGinnis, MD (Committee Member); Robert Yonker, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Organization Theory; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

university decision-making; higher education decision-making; university mergers; higher education mergers; university consolidation; higher education consolidation

Tomelin, Heloisa Suzana SantosAccess to Higher Education in Brazil
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2002, International Studies - Latin America
This paper will describe the opportunities for higher education in Brazil since the colonial period (1500-2000). It will show the creation of the first institutions of higher education in Brazil and their proliferation in time. In addition, this paper will also provide information about access to elementary and secondary education in order to analyze its impact on access to higher education. It will focus on the long-lasting reduced access to higher education depicting its restriction to segments of the Brazilian society in the basis of race and social class.

Committee:

Thomas Walker (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Higher

Keywords:

Brazil; Higher Education; History of Education in Brazil; Access to Higher Education and Income Distribution; Social Inequality and Access to Higher Education

Geise, Mary JoA Longitudinal Analysis of Outcomes Associated with Ohio's Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2011, Higher Education Administration

Dual enrollment programs, once created for the most advanced students, are now seen as a way to provide an accessible and affordable bridge to postsecondary education for a broader range of students. Research on the outcomes of such programs has been limited in scope and exists for only a few states. This quantitative study analyzed 10 years of postsecondary data from the Ohio Board of Regents to assess outcomes of traditional-aged college students enrolled in the state university system who previously participated in Ohio’s Postsecondary Options Program (PSEOP) as a high school student compared with students of similar academic ability who did not participate in PSEOP. Astin’s I-E-O Model served as the conceptual framework for this study. Several quantitative statistical methods including chi-squared, t-tests, hierarchical logistic regression, and analysis of covariance were used to assess student outcomes.

Ten research questions guided this study, eight of which were successfully answered. The first question descriptively compared demographic and environmental characteristics of students who participated in PSEOP with students who did not participate. The remaining questions investigated significant differences in students’ major field of study choice, first-year retention rates, first-year cumulative grade point average, graduation cumulative grade point average, graduation rates, time-to-degree, and the pursuit of graduate or professional studies within one year of baccalaureate degree attainment. Questions relating to the choice of undergraduate institution and the pursuit of a second major were not answered due to insufficient data to adequately research the outcomes of the two student groups.

Key findings centered on attributes which were significantly related to PSEOP participation and outcomes to which PSEOP participation was a significant contributor. Gender, ethnicity, academic performance, and family characteristics were all related to the decision of whether or not to participate in PSEOP. Students that did participate in PSEOP showed this experience as a significant factor in choosing certain majors and had a statistically significantly shorter time-to-degree completion than those students who did not participate in PSEOP. Results from this study showed areas where participation in PSEOP could be improved, thus widening the access of higher education to a larger pool of students.

Committee:

William E. Knight, PhD (Committee Chair); Kenneth J. Ryan, PhD (Committee Member); Michael D. Coomes, EdD (Committee Member); Robert DeBard, EdD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Higher Education

Keywords:

Dual enrollment; concurrent enrollment; access to higher education; higher education; accelerated learning options; transitioning to college; public policy; Ohio higher education; Ohio K-12 education; hierarchical logistic regression

Christensen, Terri LIndividual, Institutional and Leadership Facets Influencing Faculty Curricular Leadership: A Mixed Methods Sequential, Exploratory Study
PHD, Kent State University, 2014, College and Graduate School of Education, Health and Human Services / School of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum Studies
The purpose of this exploratory, mixed- methods-study is to describe the individual, institutional, environmental, and leadership variables expressed by individual faculty members and administrators regarding curricular leadership. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in two exploratory phases, each building upon the previous to gain greater insight into the phenomena. Phase I, a series of focus groups with administrators, provided insight into a definition of curricular leadership from the administrators’ perspective. Responses were used to shape the survey administered to faculty in Phase II. Descriptive and univariate statistics were used to explore the patterns that emerged from Phase I and Phase II. The results indicate that, despite the lack of a widely accepted definition of curricular leadership in higher education and the multitude of dimensions covered by this topical construct, many study respondents self-identified as curricular leaders. The study reveals that faculty members are driven by a personal desire to participate in curriculum development and course creation in the presence of three key elements: a supportive environment, clear and consistent institutional leadership, and individual drive. The study concludes with an exploratory definition of curricular leadership in higher education as well as an analysis of and recommendations for understanding and engaging in the process.

Committee:

James Henderson (Committee Chair); Todd Hawley (Committee Member); Sonia Alemagno (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Curriculum Development; Education; Educational Leadership

Keywords:

Higher Education; faculty; curricular leadership; higher education curriculum; Exploratory Study

Johnson, David JA Phenomenological Study of University Leadership: Exploring the Leadership Practices Used to Implement Change that Increases Student Success
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2017, Educational Leadership
There is scarce literature explaining how leaders leverage the influence necessary to change universities. This study aimed to illuminate leadership practices that seek to make universities more responsive to, and responsible for, the needs and success of students. In doing so, this research explored practices that leaders used to align a university’s diverse constituents around shared goals. Specifically, this constructivist, phenomenological study sought to identify the essence of leadership associated with the creation and implementation of a student success model at a faith-based medium-sized institution referred to in this study by its pseudonym St. Paul University. I collected data through semi-structured interviews with 14 staff, faculty and administrators who were involved in the development of the university’s student success model, the St. Paul Pathway Program. To my surprise, this study became a remarkable exploration of 12 years of institutional change. The research participants expressed that the creation of St. Paul’s student success model was but one part of a larger story of change and transformation. To understand the St. Paul Pathway Program, it was necessary to understand a chapter of St. Paul’s history that was set in motion 12 years prior with the arrival of the University’s new president. Although the scope of the study changed, the focus remained the same—leadership practices used to facilitate broad and deep institutional change. Faculty, staff and administrators shared rich, detailed descriptions of their experiences of the practices used to facilitate change and their analysis of the degree to which those practices catalyzed or muted action, collaboration, and positive change. In the findings, I identify several challenges for facilitating change, including: catalyzing change; generating buy-in and directing change; refining and sustaining change initiatives; engaging faculty; promoting innovation; and changing culture. Related to those challenges, I also identify lessons to inform leadership practices for facilitating change, including: (1) Context determines the appropriate leadership practices for facilitating change; no one leadership practice is best for a university at all times; (2) Change is a multi-dimensional and long-term process; change programs must align a university’s diverse constituents behind broad, forward- looking plans and synergistic priorities that result in coordinated activity; (3) Universities need to focus their change efforts not on mitigating problems but instead on pursuing mission; mission can be utilized to govern, guide, and inspire change; and (4) Presidents must utilize their position and influence to catalyze and orchestrate change, sometimes necessitating hierarchical leadership.

Committee:

Elisa Abes (Committee Chair); Perez David (Committee Member); Shaw Mahauganee (Committee Member); James Anthony (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Leadership; Educational Theory; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Management; Organization Theory

Keywords:

education; leadership; change; change management; student success; student success and change; educational leadership; change in higher education; higher education;

Quinlan, ColleenWomen's Career Development: The Lived Experience of Canadian University Women Presidents
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2012, Higher Education
As of July 2011, the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) reported 17 of Canada’s 95 universities were led by women. While this represents considerable change from 1974, when Pauline Jewett became the first woman president to lead a co-educational Canadian university, progress for women climbing the educational leadership ladder to the office of the university president in Canada has been slow. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe the lived experience of Canadian university women presidents as they developed their career paths to the presidency. This was accomplished through an examination of the women’s own perceptions and experiences about the development of their careers specifically related to personal and professional opportunities and barriers, the role of gender, the integration of their work and non-work lives, and their advice to women who aspire to become university presidents. The participants included eight women presidents of Canadian universities and data were collected through individual, semi-structured interviews. The findings showed that each of the women journeyed through a unique path to the presidency, yet their stories shared common themes. Personal characteristics, family background, educational experiences, and mentoring relationships were identified as critical influences on their career development experience. Challenges stemmed from the struggle to balance career goals with caring responsibilities, cope with the inherent difficulties of the role of a university president, and navigate gender issues. Advice for women aspiring to become university presidents, included (a) advice based on personal development and (b) advice based on professional development.

Committee:

David Meabon, PhD (Advisor)

Subjects:

Canadian Studies; Educational Leadership; Gender Studies; Higher Education; Womens Studies

Keywords:

women and leadership; women and higher education; women's career development; women academic presidents; canadian higher education

Alexander, Stephanie J. H.Views from the Summit: White Working Class Appalachian Males and Their Perceptions of Academic Success
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2013, Cultural Studies (Education)
This research study explored how White working class Appalachian males who have completed, or who were within one term of completing a program of study at one of ten community and technical colleges in West Virginia perceived academic success. It examined their definitions of academic success, the perceptions they held regarding their own past and present academic successes, as well as their views regarding factors from their lived experience that they felt contributed to their program of study completion. Using qualitative methodology, data was collected through semi-structured interviews with eight participants. It was designed to reflect the tenets of Appreciative Inquiry. While reflecting the changes within White working class identity formation in response to the deindustrialization of the economy, the findings of this study present two contradictions with the research literature. The first is that these men were found to define academic success from a working class perspective. This demonstrated their adherence to working class cultural capital while successfully completing a postsecondary program of study. This implies they did not need to abandon their working class cultural capital in lieu of new cultural capital in order to be successful at the college level. Furthermore, the factors from their lived experience that participants named as contributing to their program of study completion were factors that have previously been identified in research literature as factors that commonly present as barriers to postsecondary success for working class students. However, the participants in this study indicated these factors presented as positive influences that assisted in facilitating their academic success. Additionally, the perceptions of past and present academic success held by participants were noted as those that 1) reflect the development of/presence of positive psychological capital within these individuals and 2) demonstrate the educational experiences of these men represent the working class identity in transition.

Committee:

Jaylynne Hutchinson, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Michael Hess, Ph.D (Committee Member); Jerry Johnson, Ed.D (Committee Member); Yegan Pillay, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Community College Education; Community Colleges; Education Philosophy; Educational Sociology; Educational Theory; Higher Education

Keywords:

working class; academic success; community colleges; West Virginia community and technical college system; rural education; academic success and working class; higher education and working class; White working class men; West Virginia higher education

Gordon, Seth EAttitudes and Perceptions of Independent Undergraduate Students Towards Student Debt
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2013, EDU Policy and Leadership
Two-thirds of college students will borrow money to attend college or university. Among them is a group categorized as `independent’ according to federal criteria, including age, income, familial status, veterans, and those for whom dependency is not possible, such as foster children. This qualitative study explores the meaning that independent undergraduate students ascribe to the debt they encumber while enrolled in college. What is their perception of their student debt? Do they believe their education is worth the debt? The researcher originally sought to ask twenty independent undergraduate students in their junior year or above about their experience of student debt while enrolled at a large regional public university in the Midwest. In addition to interviewing, twenty individuals who met the original criteria, an additional eight were interviewed who expanded the original definition of independence beyond the federal criteria and the need to focus on those close to graduation. Results suggest that student debt is considered a necessity by all of the participants as it relates to their college attendance and their lifestyle choices. College attendance was seen as a requirement to gain access to future employment. Student loans often were used to supplement or provide full support for external living expenses. Acceptance of this syllogism may explain expanded levels of debt tolerance, consistent with the application of prospect theory to the data. Their own needs and networks facilitated the participants’ understanding of their student debt. Some of the participants viewed the impact of debt on their academic and social experience as negative, while the majority recognized student debt as a “necessary evil” and a personal “investment” in their own human capital. Student debt was viewed as distinctly different from other kinds of debt. While all of the participants recognized the value of their education, some level of distrust of the current structure of higher education emerged related to the high cost of higher education. There are many implications for practice and policy. The current federal definitions of independence do not account for those who are technically classified as dependents but do not receive financial support from their parents. For them as well as those individuals who through circumstance or personal initiative become responsible for their own finances, difficult bureaucratic barriers remain to establish financial independence and gain the benefits of being labeled independent in terms of increased borrowing limits and Pell grant eligibility. Expanded and detailed financial aid literacy training may reduce stress caused from student debt, as many participants were unaware of the variety of options related to repayment. In addition, targeted proactive financial aid advising that addresses the needs of non-traditional and self-supporting dependent students would provide more value to students. Opportunities that utilize loan forgiveness, such as AmeriCorps, were popular with the participants and could be expanded. Future research on dependent students could illuminate how financial literacy is connected to student development. Exploration of the impact of student debt on specific demographic and social groups could positively impact advising of first generation, minorities, and uninformed independent students.

Committee:

Ada Demb, Ed.D. (Advisor); Scott Sweetland, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Chris Zirkle, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Adult Education; Education; Education Finance; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration; Public Administration; Public Policy

Keywords:

Student Debt; Financial Aid; Independent Students; Adult Students; Financial Aid Policy; Prospect Theory; Emerging Adulthood; Higher Education Finance; Education Finance; Economics of Higher Education;

Dogan, DeryaThe Erasmus Programme In The Internationalization of Turkish Higher Education
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Cross-Cultural, International Education
Europe has been leading the world’s largest university student exchange program, ERASMUS (EuRopean Community Action Scheme for or the Mobility of University Students), since 1987. The program has proven its success with participation of 3 million students in 25 years. Turkey has been part of this program since 2003. Then, internationalization has moved beyond being a dream for the Turkish higher education system becoming a reality. Participation in ERASMUS has brought many adjustments to the Turkish universities such as the implementation of the European Credit Transfer System, offering courses in English, internationalizing the curricula and establishment of international relations offices on campuses. In addition, a common ERASMUS experience started spreading not only among the university students but also among the faculty and university administrative personnel. The purpose of this study was to examine how the ERASMUS Programme has influenced the internationalization of Turkish higher education and explore the perceptions of the university communities in Turkey. The objective was to analyze how the impact of a strong European international education program directs educational globalization of a developing country. An e-mail was sent to the university students, faculty and administrative personnel through convenience sampling with a link to an online survey to participate in the study. There were three different surveys composed of 20 questions. The last eight questions were shared by all surveys in addition to two questions shared by the faculty and the administrator surveys. Survey questions consisted of multiple-choice, rating iii scale, dichotomous and open-ended questions. In total, 254 respondents participated in the study. The responses show the perceived value of the ERASMUS Programme by the university communities in Turkey. All the results show that, without ERASMUS, it would have been very difficult for the Turkish higher education to reach its current internationally active level yet it still needs further improvements. However, it is clear to that higher education in Turkey is internationalizing from a European dimension and the ERASMUS Programme and related EU programs have played a significant role in that. Despite the slowly increasing interest in the world outside of Europe, both by the university communities and the government, due to the monetary power of the EU, the need for a European dimension makes up a big portion of educational globalization of Turkish higher education.

Committee:

Bruce Collet, PhD (Advisor); Toni Sondergald, PhD (Committee Member); Kelly Balistreri, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

ERASMUS; European Union; Higher Education; Turkish Higher Education; Internationalization; International Mobility; Globalization; Europeanization

Allen, William L.The Demise of Industrial Education for African Americans: | |Revisiting the Industrial Curriculum in Higher Education
Master of Humanities (MHum), Wright State University, 2007, Humanities

The purpose of this study was to examine the causes that led African Americans to resist industrial education higher education, which ended industrial training programs in predominantly Black colleges and universities during the 1920s.

Three key factors helped create this reform movement: 1) the death of Booker T. Washington; 2) the improved educational levels of African Americans; and 3) the rise in aspirations of African Americans to expand the benefits of higher education. The loss of the Civil War caused a reorientation of southern and economic conditions.

Newly freed slaves had to be granted citizenship. Southern Whites were more concerned with rebuilding the South while holding onto the power. Several key characters emerged as leaders within the debate of African American education during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Armstrong, Washington, and Jones were among the many supporters of industrial education, while DuBois and Miller supported the argument of the liberal arts education for African Americans.

Three research questions addressed the issues surrounding the ideology of African Americans’ education: (1) What role did hegemony and ideology play in African American education and how did they influence Booker T. Washington’s and W. E. B. Dubois’s position on how African Americans should be educated; (2) What was the Black ideology of African American education; and (3) What was the White ideology of African American education?

Committee:

Ava Chamberlain (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, United States

Keywords:

industrial education; higher education; segregation; Jim Crow; Black higher education

Seaver, AllisonSuccess of International Students in Higher Education
Specialist in Education (Ed.S.), University of Dayton, 2012, School Psychology
This research study examines the various definitions of success that international undergraduate students hold for themselves, how they seek help when needed, and what resources and study strategies they used. Data for this study were collected in two phases through qualitative interviews and an online survey. International and American undergraduate students at a private Midwestern university were selected through random sampling. Sample groups were matched according to gender and major. Results from this study indicate that the primary way international undergraduate students define academic success for themselves is by applying their education to a future career. In contrast, American undergraduate students most often define their academic success by earning good grades. Both International and American students prefer to ask the class professor for help with an academic issue, and ask a friend's help when the issue is personal. International and American students both report using time management strategies at least once per week in addition to frequent use of the computer and internet for their studies. In addition, International students reported higher use of dictionaries and translations devices, as well as more frequent trips to the library. A significant difference was found for grade pointaverages below 3.0 and English language test scores. The information collected through this study will inform higher education administrators of academic characteristics common among international students and help to revise university support services and admission procedures so they are better equipped to serve this population.

Committee:

Susan Davies, EdD (Committee Chair); Sawyer Hunley, PhD (Committee Member); Amy Anderson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education; Multicultural Education

Keywords:

international students; international student success; international students in higher education; higher education administration

Moore, LaDonna R.The Relationship Between Experiences with Microaggression and the Leadership Practices of Mid-Level Student Affairs Professionals
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2016, Higher Education Administration
Microaggressions reflect the active manifestation of oppressive worldviews that create, maintain, and perpetuate marginalization (Sue, 2010a). Individuals from marginalized backgrounds “describe their work climate as hostile, invalidating, and insulting because of microaggressions that assail their race, gender, or sexual-orientation identities” (Sue, 2010a, p. 213). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between microaggression and the work experience of mid-level student affairs professionals within higher education, specifically those from marginalized populations that pertain to race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, or disability. Participants completed a web-based survey that measured their interactions with microaggression and its relationship with their leadership practices. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analyses were performed to analyze the data for this study. The results of this study confirm what the extant literature, focused on the experience of higher education professionals, has demonstrated. Prior studies have found that administrators within higher education encounter microaggression (Alabi, 2014; Garvey & Drezner, 2013). Within this study, 78.3% of participants reported that they have experienced microaggression within the workplace. These individuals also revealed that the forms of microaggression they experience most frequently included microinvalidations, followed by microinsults. Although the populations were different in studies prior, the extant literature does reflect higher occurrences of microinvalidations and microinsults (Clark et al., 2014; Garvey & Drezner, 2013; Grier-Reed, 2010; Guzman et al., 2010; Harwood et al., 2012; Minikel-Lacocque, 2012; Poolokasingham et al., 2014; Yosso et al., 2009). The findings of this study offer compelling suggestions for the improvement of the student affairs profession.

Committee:

Dafina-Lazarus Stewart (Advisor); Judith Jackson May (Committee Member); Nicholas Bowman (Committee Member); Patrick Pauken (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

Microaggression; microinvalidations; microinsults; microassaults; Mid-level student affairs professionals; higher education administration; leadership practices; leadership; Kouzes and Posner; subtle discrimination; higher education

Steinke, KorineMadwoman, Queen, and Alien-Being: The Experiences of First-Time Women Presidents at Small Private Colleges
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Higher Education Administration

This study examined the experiences, challenges, and transitions of eight college and university presidents who were the first women senior executives at their respective institutions. A qualitative research method, following the principles of the constructivist paradigm, was used as the underlying framework. Two in-depth sequential interviews were conducted with each president. Case studies were created for each participant and were aggregated to form the basis for these results.

Most of the participants in this study did not plan to become presidents. Usually the role emerged as a possibility later in their careers, while priorities—such as being with their families, remaining professionally challenged, and serving others—shaped their career directions. Although cognizant of gender, most did not believe that it significantly impacted their presidencies; yet because in each case, a woman, instead of a man, was appointed for the first time, several changes and adjustments occurred. In their view, the influence of gender was essentially peripheral, meaning that it affected major operations and concerns less than smaller matters located on the edge of their agendas. The professional demands of the presidency inevitably affected their personal lives, and finding a balance between professional and personal responsibilities often proved challenging. Several factors, such as individual management strategies or the kinds of external services employed, impacted the personal demands placed on them. The greatest challenges frequently related to the state of the institution when they assumed the office, addressing various leadership issues, and resolving intrapersonal issues. The participants recommended that presidential candidates be articulate and adept regarding financial and philanthropic issues, acquire a broad understanding of higher education, prepare for the magnitude of the position, and gain various leadership skills.

More attention needs to be paid to the mentoring and leadership opportunities women receive, while governing boards require education regarding non-traditional career paths. Before assuming a presidency, women need to examine their support systems, while assumptions about the position need to be analyzed. Further research should consider how the presidency affects personal relationships and explore the impact of institutional context, race, and generational influences on the experiences of first-time women college presidents.

Committee:

C. Carney Strange (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Higher

Keywords:

women college and university presidents; first-time women presidents; higher education administration; presidential leadership; gender studies; private higher education; career paths of women presidents; challenges of women presidents

Anderson, Gary C.The Transfer of Cultural Assumptions About American Higher Education in a Global Society: Perceptions of Visiting Russian Scholars
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2005, Higher Education Administration
This study examined the transfer of ideas about higher education gleaned from Russian administrators and faculty members, who returned to home institutions in the former Soviet Union following an exchange visit to the United States to gain insight into the workings of our complex higher education model. At the core of this assessment were these Russian educators’ perceptions of institutional output and process goals attributed to the U.S. institutions that hosted them, and their comparative experiences and expectations in the Russian system. The instrument used in this study is an adaptation of the Institutional Goals Inventory (IGI), a 95-item, Likert-type measure (Peterson, 1970) that assesses the importance attributed to 13 institutional output and 9 institutional process goals. For purposes of this study each goal was evaluated by respondents, as they perceived its associated items to reflect what they observed in the U.S., what they experience in their home institutions, and what they idealize for institutional aspiration in the Russian system. Data were gathered on-line through a Web-based survey, offered both in English and Russian, with minor modifications for clearer cross-cultural understanding. Through a combination of program participant lists, electronic networks, and direct solicitation, this method yielded a usable sample of 70 respondents, all of whom were individuals with careers in various disciplines from colleges and universities in the former Soviet Union. Most impressive to these Russian scholars were the U.S. emphases on the Research, Advanced Training, and Meeting Local Needs output goals. Equally impressive were their perceived emphases on the Community, Democratic Governance, and Intellectual/Aesthetic Environment process goals. In similar fashion these scholars attributed the greatest emphases in their own institutions to the output goals of Research, Social Egalitarianism, and Academic Development, as well as the Accountability, Miscellaneous, and Intellectual/Aesthetic Environment process goals. In addition to a range of significant U.S.-Russia discrepancies, these respondents idealized greater emphases for their own institutions on Research, Intellectual Orientation, Advanced Training, Community, Democratic Governance, and Intellectual/Aesthetic Environment. Conclusions were drawn and implications considered for the implementation of future scholar exchange programs and the conduct of additional research to evaluate their impact.

Committee:

C. Strange (Advisor)

Subjects:

Education, Higher

Keywords:

Russian Higher Education; Higher Education; Institutional Goals; Web-based surveys

Marsh, Brent AlanEXAMINING THE PERSONAL FINANCE ATTITUDES, BEHAVIORS, AND KNOWLEDGE LEVELS OF FIRST-YEAR AND SENIOR STUDENTS AT BAPTIST UNIVERSITIES IN THE STATE OF TEXAS
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2006, Higher Education Administration
For nearly four decades scholars from various disciplines have studied college students' personal finance characteristics, primarily examining collegians' knowledge of consumer finance issues, but occasionally considering their attitudes or behaviors. In recent years there has been a surge in research projects examining college students' personal finance characteristics. No studies were found that simultaneously examined students' personal finance attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge, nor did the literature reveal research focused on the subjects of this study: students enrolled at Baptist universities in Texas. The purpose of this study, which was guided by eight research questions, was to examine the personal finance attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge levels of freshmen and seniors at Baptist universities in Texas, and to allow student affairs administrators employed at these institutions to offer their perceptions of students' personal finance characteristics and to provide suggestions regarding how institutions might address personal finance education. Online surveys were employed for data collection. Six Baptist universities in Texas were included in the study, 2,100 students (350 per institution, 175 first-year students and 175 seniors) were systematically sampled, and 408 (19%) usable surveys were completed. A convenience sample of student affairs administrators (n = 169) was selected and 100 (59%) usable surveys were completed. Data were primarily quantitative in nature, though administrators were encouraged to provide written comments that were analyzed through basic qualitative techniques. Most research questions, however, were answered through descriptive statistics, t tests, or ANOVA procedures. Seniors demonstrated significantly better personal finance attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge than first-year students. To a significant degree compared with first-year students, seniors credited their university experience with helping to improve their knowledge, while first-year students significantly differed from seniors in attributing the university experience with influencing their attitudes. Student affairs administrators consistently rated students' personal finance characteristics significantly lower than students rated themselves, and administrators generally felt college students lacked sound personal finance attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge. It was concluded that Christian-based universities should implement personal finance initiatives to fulfill their distinctive missions and prepare graduates for successful stewardship of fiscal resources, emphases that could become a hallmark of Christian-based higher education.

Committee:

Robert DeBard (Advisor)

Keywords:

Personal Finance; College Students; First-year Students; Freshmen; Seniors; Baptist Higher Education; Christian Higher Education

Spalla, Tara LynnBuilding the ARC in Nursing Education: Cross-Cultural Experiential Learning Enabled by the Technology of Video or Web Conferencing
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, EDU Policy and Leadership

Nurse educators must prepare students to care for a diverse population. Web-conferencing across diverse groups is one teaching method that may assist students to develop intercultural skills. Mixed-methods research was used to examine web-conferencing’s influence on cultural competence and transcultural self-efficacy of American undergraduate nursing students.

The Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education and the National League for Nursing address importance of cultural competence in nursing, underscored by the disparity between nursing and US population: majority (83.2% nurses, 63% US population), minority (16.8% nurses, 37% US population).

Current strategies to increase cultural competence of students include theory dissemination, study abroad, service learning, distance education, and simulation. Study abroad, the higher education platinum standard, is costly, and not feasible for all institutions/students. Merely 1.4 percent of US students study abroad. Thus, new experiential learning tools should be explored.

Video and/or web-conferencing is used by disciplines world-wide to bridge distance and assist multicultural communication through live voice/video, and engage more students interculturally without the typical constraints of geography and resources, both human and financial. Technology is utilized for mutual scaffolding and social construction of knowledge. Content and culture are learned together with international peers.

Freshman nursing students in a required general education course were recruited (n=33). Study participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n=18) or a control group (n=15). A student cohort from a University in Dublin, Ireland participated in the web-conferences but did not participate in this research.

Students in the treatment/web-conferencing group participated in two web-conferences, covering topics presented in traditional lecture format with the control group. Thirteen students from web-conferencing group participated in one of four qualitative focus group interviews. Two Likert-style survey instruments measuring cultural competence and transcultural self-efficacy were administered pre –post. Data were analyzed with SPSS - ANOVA.

Cultural competence post scores revealed a nine percent rise for the treatment group and no change for the control group. Web-conferencing did not influence transcultural self-efficacy. Focus group qualitative data triangulated survey findings. Categories of data themes for qualitative research questions included: cultural awareness, impact of pedagogy, and development of cultural competence.

Web-conferencing with diverse peers may help to increase cultural competence of nursing students. Strategic placement throughout grade levels and curricula may increase cumulative impact of this experiential learning pedagogy.

Committee:

Ada Demb, EdD (Advisor); Antoinette Errante, PhD (Committee Member); Margaret Clark-Graham, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Educational Technology; Health Care; Health Education; Higher Education; Nursing; Pedagogy; Teaching

Keywords:

cultural competence; nursing education; higher education; experiential learning; transcultural self-efficacy; intercultural; transcultural; web-conferencing; video-conferencing; technology in higher education; interactive pedagogy ; distance education

Gomaa, NabilaA Case Study of a Public Higher Education Institution’s Engagement in Authorizing Charter Schools
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Toledo, 2011, Higher Education

Higher education institutions have been engaging with public schools in different forms, such as teacher preparation, curriculum design, and research. Starting in the 1990s, higher education institutions began to collaborate with a new form of public school called charter schools. This collaboration is called “sponsorship” or “authorization.” Nationally, very few higher education institutions have taken advantage of this collaboration opportunity. However, a number of higher education institutions in the State of Michigan entered into relationships with charter schools through authorization. Even though different forces, such as public school officials and teacher unions, resisted this collaboration, colleges and universities in Michigan have continued to engage with charter schools and their collaboration has grown and flourished.

The purpose of this study is to understand the reasons behind the choices made by higher education institutions in Michigan to authorize charter schools. By studying the history and experience of one higher education institution’s engagement with charter schools through authorization, it was hoped that this study would shed light on the reasons that might have led higher education institutions in Michigan to work closely with and authorize charter schools.

A qualitative design that employed a case study approach was utilized. Methods of data collection, such as interviews and document analysis, were used to try to understand the motives behind the initial decision of the chosen higher education institution to authorize charter schools. The study was guided by the stewards of place conceptual framework.

The results revealed that the decision to sponsor charter schools was made by the institution’s leadership without the constituencies being either consulted or informed of the decision. The results also showed that political forces, such as the Governor and the Michigan state charter school law, were the influential factors behind the institution’s leadership decision to sponsor charter schools. Justification for the decision was the use of stewardship of place and mission, as well as engagement. The results of the study suggested that the institution’s leadership needs to include its constituencies, especially faculty members, in the decision-making process and to build mutual trust with them. Other higher education institutions that are reluctant to sponsor charter schools out of fear of community and constituency opposition can learn from this institution’s experience that building trust and shared decision-making can aid in gaining approval.

Committee:

Ron Opp, PhD (Advisor); Penny Poplin Gosetti, PhD (Committee Member); Lynne Hamer, PhD (Committee Member); Mary Ellen Edwards, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education History; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Higher Education; Higher Education Administration

Keywords:

Public Higher Education Institutions, Charter Schools Authorizers; Charter School Law; Michigan Charter School Legislation; Engagement with Charter Schools; Political Forces; Higher Education Instiotution's Environment; Stewards of Place

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