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Szalvai, EvaEmerging Forms of Globalization Dialectics: Interlocalization, a New Praxis of Power and Culture in Commercial Media and Development Communication
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2008, Communication Studies
This critical research seeks to better understand the hegemonic process of globalization. Due to power differences, globalization results in differential advantage and disadvantage for the involved cultures. The dialectical criticism of globalization aims to monitor social injustice and advance concepts on media homogenization, uneven information flow, and cultural imperialism. This interdisciplinary study explores the practices of globalization that are less culturally biased. Particularly, it makes a first attempt to conceptualize a new globalization form, interlocalization. Premised upon a competitive and free market system, the study explores the ways interlocalization might offer a more equitable relationship for the players of different cultures. Some interlocalization practices are also elaborated through two critical case studies. While studying forms of commercial minority media, the first critical case study examines the implications of interlocalization in the media expansion of a Catalan communication firm, Grupo Planeta. Based on the Roma projects of the Open Society Institute in Europe, the second critical case study presents research on the role of interlocalization in social change. Analyzing cross-cultural participatory communication, this second study explores the use of interlocalization as tool in the creation of global practices for sustainable development. The overarching goal for this research is the advancement of equity and justice in media and development communication practices globally.

Committee:

Alberto Gonzalez, PhD (Advisor); Oliver Boyd-Barrett, PhD (Committee Member); Louisa Ha, PhD (Committee Member); Peter VanderHart, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; International Relations; Management; Mass Media; Multicultural Education; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

Globalization; Globalization dialectics; Critical theories; Qualitative research; International communication; Glocalization; Intercultural communication; Cross-cultural communication; Identity; Media convergence; Media development; Media imperialism

Roberts, Louisa Lisle HayThe Globalization of the Acceptance of Homosexuality: Mass Opinion and National Policy
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2017, Sociology
This dissertation examines how and why worldwide attitudes toward homosexuality and national policies that affect the lives of gay men and women have changed over time. I use three main theories to frame my analysis of attitudes and laws. The first – world society theory – describes the globalizing influence of an elite “global culture.” Support for gay rights has, in recent years, become institutionalized within this global culture. Second, multiple modernities theory points to the effect of region-specific cultural programs. Third, the postmaterialist thesis casts the experience of existential security or insecurity as a main influence on societal norms. Results indicate that both global and region-specific cultures have driven change over time in worldwide attitudes toward homosexuality. I use data from the integrated World Values Survey/European Values Survey (1981-2012) and a longitudinal multilevel design to investigate how societal attitudes toward homosexuality have changed over time – and to test the relative power of world society theory, multiple modernities theory, and the postmaterialist thesis to explain worldwide attitudinal change. In line with world society theory, the results show that there has been a broad global upswing in the acceptance of homosexuality, driven in large part by the diffusion of favorable global cultural messages. The results provide perhaps the strongest evidence yet that global culture has shaped collective attitudes globally. High levels of religiosity may, however, act to moderate the positive influence of exposure to global culture. And, even as attitudes toward homosexuality in most societies have become more accepting, the pace of change has been uneven. My analysis finds a widening attitudinal gap between countries, and, consistent with multiple modernities theory, suggests this is due in part to the role of anti-gay region-specific cultural programs in the Muslim World, sub-Saharan Africa, and the former Soviet and Eastern Bloc. Contrary to the postmaterialist thesis, existential security is not found to have influenced attitudes. Next, I examine the global spread of national policies for: (1) the prohibition of employment discrimination based on sexual orientation, (2) the legalization of same-sex unions, and (3) the decriminalization of same-sex sexual relations. The world society literature has found that exposure to global culture, via national ties to international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), promotes the global diffusion of national policies. But here I investigate whether the domestic societal “uptake” of global culture can also promote global policy diffusion from the “bottom up.” If, moreover, national policy adoption is shaped by prevailing norms and notions of legitimacy, as world society theory would indicate, then whose notions of legitimacy are more influential: those of an international cultural elite or those of the domestic society? Results from event history models indicate that national ties to INGOs strongly promote the adoption of both anti-discrimination and same-sex union policies while accepting domestic attitudes toward homosexuality promote the adoption of same-sex unions but not anti-discrimination polices. I argue that this difference in the effect of attitudes can be explained by the greater salience of same-sex union policies with national publics, which would lead us to expect that public opinion would be more influential in this case. The strength of domestic lesbian and gay civil societies, meanwhile, had no effect. And results for the decriminalization of homosexuality present something of an anomaly: INGO ties had little or no effect on the likelihood of decriminalization even while domestic factors and region effects were more consequential. I suggest that, since the decriminalization of homosexuality has been by far the most widely adopted of the three gay-rights policies, many of those countries that had still not decriminalized by the 1991-2014 period were highly resistant to the global gay rights norm, and thus not receptive to pro-gay cultural messages conveyed through INGO ties. The results indicate that favorable domestic public opinion can help drive global policy diffusion from the bottom up – and that global norms can become inconsequential in the face of strong domestic resistance. This dissertation extends our understanding of global culture’s impact at the level of the domestic society. This study also shows how sub-global resistance to global culture can be highly impactful, even to the point of blunting the effect of exposure to global culture.

Committee:

Ryan King (Advisor); Hollie Nyseth Brehm (Committee Member); Evan Schofer (Committee Member); Christopher Browning (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European Studies; Gender Studies; International Law; International Relations; Islamic Studies; Latin American Studies; Legal Studies; Political Science; Sociology; Statistics; Sub Saharan Africa Studies; World History

Keywords:

cultural globalization; world society theory; world polity theory; gay rights; LGBT; sexuality rights; globalization of human rights; attitudes; global diffusion; multiple modernities theory; postmaterialist; homosexuality; national policy

Kelly, Robert Edwin'A lot more than the NGOs seem to think': the impact of non-governmental organizations on the Bretton Woods Institutions
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Political Science
My research questions are: Do non-governmental organizations (NGOs) impact the Bretton Woods Institutions, and why or why not? I advance four hypotheses to explain change at the BWI which accord with NGO preferences: H1) Response to Member States (Null), H2) Organizational Defense, H3) Mission Efficiency, H4) Institutional Redefinition. These hypotheses are based in the three main paradigms of international relations theory: H1 from neorealism; H2 and 3 from neoliberal institutionalism; H4 from social constructivism. I use organizational theories to fill out the substance of H2-4. Systems theories of organization suggest that organizations adapt to pernicious environmental impacts; I term this ‘organizational defense.’ Structural-functional organizational theories suggest organizations adapt for the rational purpose of more efficient mission completion. Finally, interpretive and sociological theories of organization suggest that organizations, like any social institution, may learn from environmental pressures and so redefine their self-understanding. In the case the null is incorrect, I postulate a battery of indicators of NGO impact to correspond to the counter-hypotheses. Change on these indicators suggests support for the parallel hypotheses. These indicators begin with the adaptive behavior of simple organizational defense and rise to the deep organizational learning of institutional redefinition: I1) Organizational Change (H2), I2) Program Consultation (H2), I3) Program Impact (H3), I4) Evaluation (H3), I5) Legitimacy (H4), I6) Policy Change (H4). The method is a structured, focused comparative study across this spectrum of indicators of NGO impact. Each institution is mapped against the scale of indicators, with evidence, or the lack, for each indicator presented individually. The means of data collection were 1) a survey, 2) interviews, 3) documentary analysis, and 4) participant observation. I found that the Bank has moved further down the list of indicators of NGO impact than the Fund. The Bank engages NGOs because they, 1) improve mission performance (H3), and 2) (to a lesser degree) ‘represent’ grassroots demands (H4). The Fund, by contrast, is still negotiating the NGO challenge primarily as a public relations exercise (H2). NGOs do not improve its mission accomplishment (H3), nor does the Fund accept NGOs as legitimate representatives of the populations affected by its programming (H4).

Committee:

Chadwick Alger (Advisor)

Keywords:

World Bank; International Monetary Fund; International Organization; Non-governmental Organization; NGO; Globalization; Global Governance; Global Civil Society; Anti-Globalization

Kissinger, Kendel AResisting Neoliberal Globalization: Coalition Building Between Anti-globalization Activists in Northwest Ohio
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2005, American Culture Studies/History

Few scholars have attempted to document the nature of coalition building within the anti-globalization movement, and this study is an attempt to analyze part of this complex and important social movement. This study is a synopsis of Northwest Ohio’s anti-globalization movement and concentrates on the nature of alliances across movements and the numerous dilemmas they encounter. The major assumption of this project is that neoliberalism dominates the globalization process through the policies and practices of various governance institutions and that the anti-globalization movement arose as a counter-movement in response to neoliberal changes. Based on thirteen interviews conducted within Northwest Ohio’s activist community, this study is a qualitative research project that explores the motivations of labor, peace, farm worker, environmental, and anarchist activists, their concerns about the nature of globalization, and their experiences with cross-movement alliance building.

The objective of this study is, first, to provide some historical context on globalization, political and economic thought, coalition building, anti-globalization’s antecedent movements and the broader national and international movement; second, to explain how and why various social movements in Northwest Ohio became part of the anti-globalization movement and identify the problematic issues of cross-movement alliances. The study begins with a review of literature on coalitional movements, anti-globalization activism, and the antecedent movements of Northwest Ohio’s anti-globalization movement. I also provide a history of contending liberalisms and the process of globalization. Finally, interviews with Northwest Ohio activists are analyzed to examine personal recollections of the emergence of concerns about the nature of globalization, anti-globalization activism, and experiences with coalition building across movements. The findings of this study center around the dilemmas of coalition building and the utility of theories on neoliberalism for explaining anti-globalization activism. Northwest Ohio’s anti-globalization movement is not a cohesive movement based on a collective anti-globalization identity but rather a diverse group of activists joined together by the perceived threats of neoliberal globalization. As they attempt to form alliances across movements, differences in social characteristics, group structures, leadership styles, decision-making models, and tactics pose considerable challenges.

Committee:

Rekha Mirchandani (Advisor)

Keywords:

coalition building; neoliberal globalization; anti-globalization

Dadras, Danielle MinaCirculating Stories: Postcolonial Narratives and International Markets
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, English

Many postcolonial scholars assert that there has been a shift away from the global dominance of the nation-state system toward the so-called postnational. Why, then, do such a large number of popular and provocative postcolonial narratives, both through their rhetorical intent and through their circulation histories, indicate that the nation remains a primary site of textual negotiation? And why does the nation remain a central facet of international marketing and distribution campaigns? In an effort to answer these questions, my dissertation attends to both what narrative texts marketed to an international audience do (rhetorically, aesthetically, and politically) and what is done with these narratives in the processes of circulation and distribution. I demonstrate the benefits of this dual model of reading by offering three chapter-length case studies from various genres, regions, and post/colonial conditions.

“Circulating Stories: Postcolonial Narratives and International Markets” borrows from the methodologies of rhetorical narrative theory and cultural studies as well as from the important theoretical distinction between postcolonialism and postcoloniality, formulated by Graham Huggan in The Postcolonial Exotic (2001). Huggan defines postcolonialism as textual and cultural agencies of resistance and postcoloniality as the late-capitalist system of global cultural exchange that inevitably manipulates and perverts texts through channels of distribution and reception. My analytic strategy in each chapter is to confront the “entanglement” of these two tendencies, and then to extricate postcolonialism from postcoloniality in order to accomplish the following two purposes: (1) to better understand the complex designs and potential effects of postcolonial texts and (2) to consider how authors and filmmakers committed to postcolonialism seek to navigate the treacherous waters of postcoloniality. My goal is to respect the voices and visions of postcolonial artists and, at the same time, resist perpetuating critical naiveté about the possibility of unmediated or “authentic” rhetorical exchange between postcolonial artists and their audiences.

Committee:

Chadwick Allen, PhD (Advisor); James Phelan, PhD (Committee Member); Pranav Jani, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Comparative Literature; English literature; Literature; Motion Pictures

Keywords:

postcolonial; postcolonial film; narrative; nationalism and internationalism; culture market; globalization; raoul peck; zadie smith; bahman ghobadi; rigoberta menchu

Dzikus, LarsFrom violence to party: a history of the presentation of American Football in England and Germany
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2005, Educational Policy and Leadership
While scholars have widely discussed the cultural, economic, and political influence of the United States on Europe in general and Germany in particular, the realm of sports has received surprisingly little attention. This study ties in with the scholarly debate about Americanization and / or globalization that started in the first half the 1990s. It examines the presentation of American football in England from the 1890s through World War II as well as in Germany following the war to the present day. The study discusses what non-Americans wrote about football and what their countrymen and –women read about it. The study draws on English and German newspapers and magazines, particularly the London Times and the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. It also examines the role American military, radio, television, and movies played in the diffusion of American football. In the case of Germany, the researcher draws on extensive qualitative interviews with several of the “founding fathers” of American football in Germany as well as his own experiences in the sport. The work demonstrates that American football arrived in Germany on a field that had been prepared by a three-hundred-year process of imagining Amerika. The author uses this context to explain why football has been relatively popular in Germany compared to other European countries. The study also explores football’s failure to get established in Germany during the post-World War II era, and describes how Germans finally formed their own clubs and leagues in the late 1970s. Using selected illustrations, this study describes (1) how German Amerikabilder—images, ideas, and symbols associated with America—have been constructed in and around football in Germany and (2) how these constructs reflect a number of heterostereotypes Germans have cultivated over centuries. As part of this process, the press presented football as a violent American game and entertainment spectacle. The study closes with an epilogue that shifts the focus from what was written about football to the meanings spectators, players, and coaches brought to the sport.

Committee:

Melvin Adelman (Advisor)

Subjects:

History, European

Keywords:

American Football; England; Germany; American Football Bund Deutschland; Globalization; Americanization; Diffusion; NFL; NFL Europe; World League of American Football; Michael Oriard; Joseph Maguire

Miser, Martha FreymannThe Myth of Endless Accumulation: A Feminist Inquiry Into Globalization, Growth, and Social Change
Ph.D., Antioch University, 2011, Leadership and Change
This theoretical dissertation examines the concept of growth and its core assumption—that the continual accumulation of wealth is both socially wise and ecologically sustainable. The study challenges and offers alternatives to the myth of endless accumulation, suggesting new directions for leadership and social change. The central question posed in this inquiry: Can we craft a more ethical form of capitalism? To answer this question, the study examines conventional and critical globalization studies; feminist scholarship on standpoint, political economy, and power; and the Enlightenment notions of progress and modernism, drawing on a number of works, including Aristotle on the three intelligences, Thomas Aquinas on human need and value, and Karl Marx on capitalism. From this broad disciplinary and historical perspective, a compelling narrative emerges, one that describes how the idea of growth has intersected with power and privilege to create an overarching global imperative that threatens the viability of our species and planet. The closing sections explore potential responses to that threat, introducing consciousness, wisdom, and caring to our understanding of growth, and emphasizing the importance of relational practice to effect real social and institutional change. The electronic version of this dissertation is at OhioLINK ETD Center (www.ohiolink.edu/etd).

Committee:

Carolyn Kenny, PhD (Committee Chair); Philomena Essed, PhD (Committee Member); Amanda Sinclair, PhD (Committee Member); Valentine Moghadam, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Economic History; Environmental Economics; Environmental Philosophy; Finance; Gender; Gender Studies; History; Management; Medieval History; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Modern History; Organization Theory; Science History; Sustainability; Womens Studies

Keywords:

economic growth; capitalism; consumerism; wealth accumulation; consumption; prosperity; critical globalization studies; sustainability; leadership; privilege; power; phronesis; relational practice; feminist theory; gender; world systems theory; myth

Pina, Guadalupe RaquelStaging the Subject. Traces of globalization in Contemporary Argentine Cinema
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, Spanish and Portuguese
At the same time as globalization unfolded as a new cultural formation that engulfed Latin America in profound economic transformations that affected its social, political, and cultural fabric, Argentina witnessed the emergence of the so-called “New Argentine Cinema”: an outstanding production by a new generation of filmmakers characterized by a formal and thematic break with the country’s filmic tradition. My project argues that this new trend in filmmaking, like a seismographic device, captures the unsettling consequences of cultural globalization: the emergence of new subjectivities, postmodern forms of individuation and modes of sociability and political intervention. These films, characterized by a minimalist aesthetics highlighting casual contact, chaotic moments, and erratic flows, portray a landscape where social bonds are a by-product of chance encounters, traditional institutions are deemed obsolete, and indifference permeates interpersonal relationships. Therefore, this project revolves around three interrelated issues: the social and psychological implications of globalization; the production of new social imaginaries; and the configuration of new subjectivities. In order to analyze these issues, I develop a critical-theoretical framework encompassing film studies and discourse analysis; cultural and globalization studies; and studies on subjectivity and citizenship. Focusing on the films’ innovative aesthetics, I analyze them as primary cultural products which stage the rearticulation of new forms of subjectivity and new patterns of affect predominant in contemporary Argentinean society, primarily among its youth. Such an approach allows me to enquire into the refracting relationship between cultural products and the dynamics of a globalized society in the Third World; the shaping of new subjectivities in an atmosphere where nations are being increasingly replaced by global capital and transnational corporations; and the construction of new forms of sociability that put into question established notions of citizenship and national identity.

Committee:

Abril Trigo, Prof. (Advisor); Ana Del Sarto, Prof. (Committee Member); Laura Podalky, Prof (Committee Member); Vodovotz Yael (Other)

Keywords:

Globalization-Subjetivity-Cinema-Argentine-South Cone-Latin American Cultural Studies

Selden, DianneResurrecting the Red Dragon: A Case Study in Welsh Identity
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2010, Political Science (Arts and Sciences)
Despite increases in globalization and multiculturalism, national identities acutely influence politics on both domestic and international levels. Through a qualitative analysis of Welsh identity, I examine how contemporary phenomena such as supra-state institutions influence national identities. Instrumental, political identity has increased in the Welsh case in part as a result of involvement in the European Union and of devolution. The Welsh case shows trends in modern nationalism, with many national identities becoming increasingly instrumental and decreasingly cultural.

Committee:

Myra Waterbury (Committee Chair); Harold Molineu (Committee Member); James Mosher (Committee Member)

Subjects:

European History; History; International Relations; Minority and Ethnic Groups; Political Science; Social Psychology

Keywords:

Wales; political identity; postmodern national identity; identity politics; nationalism; devolution; United Kingdom; globalization; European Union

Kulbaga, Theresa A.Trans/national subjects: genre, gender, and geopolitics in contemporary American autobiography
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2006, English
This dissertation is situated at the intersection of 20th-century American literary and cultural studies, particularly contemporary formulations that urge a comparativist, hemispheric, or transnational approach to American literatures and cultures. Taking up this critical conversation through a study of genre, namely autobiography, I argue for a comparative and transnational approach to ethnic women's life narratives. Scholars of autobiography have examined how the genre, in its construction of the autobiographical subject as model citizen, participates in the project of U.S. citizenship and nation-building. What is less recognized is how ethnic and immigrant women autobiographers have pushed the borders of the genre and, by extension, have challenged the fantasy of the representative citizen-subject in the U.S. I argue that a number of contemporary autobiographers are rewriting the genre in order to represent the transnational subject—that is, the subject who does not identify with a single nation-state or whose national identity is inseparable from global social and economic contexts. These writers, I argue, use genre as a rhetorical strategy in order to redefine identity, citizenship, and rights through a global or transnational lens.

Committee:

Wendy Hesford (Advisor)

Keywords:

autobiography; transnational; american studies; american literature; women; gender; gender studies; women's studies; ethnicity; ethnic studies; race; geopolitics; globalization; genre; life narrative; life writing; documentary film; citizenship

Yuan, GuofangAn Analysis of National Educational Assessment Policy in the People’s Republic of China and the United States
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Education, Cleveland State University, 2007, College of Education and Human Services
Ongoing changes in educational assessment policies within China and the U.S. are complicated. On the one hand, educational assessment policies seem to be diverging, with the U.S. moving towards more standardized testing and China moving away from it. On the other hand, the policies and the reforms seem to converge, with both nations utilizing standardized testing for educational improvement. In China, after the reinstallation of college/university entrance examination in 1977, a series of testing policy reforms and measures were implemented. The goal was to achieve a quality education to best serve China’s economic development in a global market. Since 1983, American education reform focused on creating and implementing more competitive educational standard for students, teachers, and school administration for a global competition. This dissertation will attempt to uncover the economic and political forces that have driven the national educational assessment reform in the two societies in a global context.

Committee:

James Carl (Advisor)

Keywords:

Assesment; Policy; Globalization; Reform; Equity

O'Mera, Megan ColleenImplementing Successful Intranets: The Case Study of a Virtual MNC Team
Master of Arts (M.A.), University of Dayton, 2015, Communication
By the nature of their geographic dispersion, multinational corporations (MNCs) and the teams that comprise them must rely on virtual communication to some extent. The present study extends knowledge on virtual MNC teams, specifically in the areas of building collective organizational identities, enactment of locally motivated strategies, media channel preferences, and optimizing Intranets to their full potential. It analyzes the case of a geographically dispersed, functionally diverse, and culturally diverse virtual team that is part of a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States. Through content analysis of preliminary and follow-up survey data, this study contributes findings with practical implications for managers, website designers, internal marketers and consultants whose work relates to virtual MNC teams.

Committee:

Teresa Thompson, PhD (Advisor); Jeffrey Griffin, PhD (Committee Member); Anna Langhorne, PhD, JD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Cultural Resources Management; Information Technology; Organizational Behavior; Technical Communication; Web Studies

Keywords:

Multinational corporations; globalization; organizational communication; information and communication technologies; virtual teams

Zhang, FanBuilding and Negotiating Religious Identities in A Zen Buddhist Temple: A Perspective of Buddhist Rhetoric
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Media and Communication
This dissertation is an exploratory attempt at understanding the practices of a Zen Buddhist temple locates in Northwest Ohio against the backdrop of globalization. Drawing on the previous scholarship on Buddhist modernization and westernization, my primary goal in this study is to better understand the westernization of Buddhism and its adapted practices and rituals in the host culture. Utilizing rhetorical criticism as my methodology, I approach this temple as an embodiment of Buddhist rhetoric with both discursive and non-discursive expressions within the discourses of modernity. By analyzing rhetorical practices of the temple through abbot’s teaching videos, the temple website, members’ dharma names, and the materiality of the temple space and artifacts, I examine how Buddhist rhetoric functioned to constitute and negotiate religious identities of the community members through its various rituals and activities. At the same time, I explore how the generative space and settings of the temple facilitated the collective Buddhist identity formation and preservation. Through a nuanced discussion of Buddhist rhetoric, this study illuminates a new rhetorical methodology to understand religious identity construction. Furthermore, this study offers further insight into the future development of modern Buddhism, which is also applicable to other major world religions.

Committee:

Alberto González (Advisor); Marilyn Shrude (Committee Member); Radhika Gajjala (Committee Member); Ellen Gorsevski (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Religion; Rhetoric

Keywords:

Buddhist temple; Zen temple; globalization; religious communication; intercultural rhetoric; Buddhist rhetoric

Wiederhold, Charles E TMedia Theory and Architecture in Rural Places: Dispatch from the Internet Swamp
MARCH, University of Cincinnati, 2018, Design, Architecture, Art and Planning: Architecture
This thesis navigates the opportunities and consequences of social technologies as they relate to architecture in rural places in the age of late capitalism. A two-fold response that addresses the problems facing rural American communities emerges on a hermeneutic journey through media theory, phenomenological, and pragmatist texts reveals the masking, virtualization, and disembodiment that characterize social technologies. The first response is programmatic; identifying a typological proposal with the potential to reconstitute public space in rural communities that behaves according to the rules of late capitalism – a social service agency. The second response is formal; hacking a ubiquitous, globalized icon of rural architecture, the Pre-Engineered Metal Barn (P.E.M.B.), by overlaying programmatic glitches within the familiar experience of the section of the P.E.M.B. that intensify a body’s understanding of the site’s history, nature, and culture through the body’s engagement with sequence, volume, and material. This approach to program development and building in rural places tethers community to nature and history, restores deep meaning in daily experience, and maintains a connection to the globalized world.

Committee:

Aarati Kanekar, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Michael McInturf, M.Arch. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Architecture

Keywords:

late capitalism;social media;internet;rural;globalization;social service

Tidy, Charlotte K.“The First Emperor: China’s Terracotta Army” and the Politics of Representation and Resistance
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2010, American Culture Studies/Communication
This thesis describes the “First Emperor” exhibition as a rhetorical artifact that functions as a vector of shifting identities in the contemporary context of a global political economy that involves Britain, China, and the U.S. I describe how the exhibition’s content represents and communicates competing dominant narratives about the positions of Britain, China, and the U.S. within the global political economy that are expressed in terms of finance, culture, corporatization, and government. These dominant narratives work to reassert the colonial politics of Britain and the U.S. and, alternately, to assert the new identity of modern China as a world leader in terms of global trade in both manufactured and cultural products. I identify the visiting audience for the exhibition as an implied public of “global citizens”, which replace the conventional implied public that is hailed at museum exhibitions. The identity of the global citizen is more closely aligned with that of the corporate sponsor of the exhibition, Morgan Stanley, than with conventional domestic national identity. “The First Emperor” marks the beginnings of a new era of exhibition and display that has emerged in the contemporary context of globalization. In this context the conventions of exhibition and display of non-western peoples and cultures by western museums and curators is revised at the same time as it is informed by the genealogy of colonial politics. Finally, I describe the acts of protest and resistance that took place at the “First Emperor” exhibition and the privatization of the public sphere, in which the protests took place, as facilitated by the exhibition’s corporate sponsor, Morgan Stanley. As in the exhibition content itself, the ostensibly counter-hegemonic protests that took place at “The First Emperor” were multivalent in that they served to reinforce Eurocentric and Sinophobic dominant narratives at the same time as they employed strategies of counter-hegemonic resistance in order to communicate these narratives to the public audience.

Committee:

Dr Ellen Gorsevski (Advisor); Dr Allie Terry-Fritsch (Committee Member)

Subjects:

American Studies; Museums

Keywords:

Museum exhibitions; The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army; globalization; rhetorical-critical; resistance

Christensen, Julie AMore Than Duffle Bag Medicine: An Ethnographic Analysis of a Student Movement for Global Health
BA, Oberlin College, 2013, Anthropology
Student activism around global health is occurring with visibility and fervor in the United States collegiate setting. Over the past two years, I have traveled across the US and Vietnam to immerse myself in the life of a nonprofit organization called GlobeMed. A largely student-led organization, GlobeMed partners each chapter with its own unique community health organization. My thesis is an ethnographic study that draws from narratives of young people, analyzes the organizational structure, and provides a broad contextualization of GlobeMed. First, I explore the history and development of GlobeMed. I then present life histories of young people involved in the organization to illustrate social and power dynamics within the network. Finally, I analyze how these components contribute to the way GlobeMed interacts with the simultaneously humanitarian and professional field of global health. This thesis contributes to existing anthropological scholarship by providing ethnographic insight into student activism in the United States around global health.

Committee:

Baron Pineda (Advisor); Crystal Biruk (Advisor)

Subjects:

Behavioral Sciences

Keywords:

global health; student activism; GlobeMed; network; movement; globalization; institution; ethnography; autoethnography; microentrepreneurship; transnational; partnership

Mitra, RahulOrganizational Colonization, Corporate Responsibility and Nation-Building in India: “More Dreams Per Car”, or Less?
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2009, Communication Studies
This study examines the discourse of organizational colonization of the life-world and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in India through the launch of the world's cheapest car, the Nano, by leading automotive company Tata Motors in January 2008. At stake is the affirmation of corporate responsibility as a “national” task of social uplift in the emerging economy context, and the framing of alternative views as opposed to nation-building. A three-dimensional mode of analysis (Fairclough, 1992) was used to study organizational discourse at the levels of social context/ practice, text, and discursive practice. Accordingly, a vast corpus including the company's web site, various reports and documents produced by the company, media releases issued by it, research reports by investment houses, CSR reports by non-governmental organizations, and news articles published by India's largest English daily corresponding to the Nano launch were examined. Four specific research questions were asked: (1) How is the Organization crafted as a social agent, in the case study at hand? (2) How is the Organization-State relationship framed in the case study, and what implications does this have for the nation-building ethic of corporate development and social responsibility? (3) How does the Organization address or engage with dissidents to the Nano project, especially the rural farmers protesting the land acquisition for the car factory? (4) How is the Organizational Project framed between the Organization-authored text (media releases) and the Media coverage? The analysis reveals dialectical understandings of corporate responsibility, spanning the “business case”, stakeholder accountability, ethical-philanthropic and Gandhian ethics, and Statist models. Corporate development is framed in terms of nation-building, especially in terms of (urban) emerging economy aspirations, Othering rural voices. While the infusion of politics operates as an effective organizational strategy against dissidence, the Organization-State linkage problematizes the role of the organization as neo-capitalist agent. Moreover, the Organization-Media linkage addresses the role of social memory, whereby organizational colonization is enacted. The limitations of the research design and implications for future study are also discussed.

Committee:

Radhika Gajjala, PhD (Advisor); Joshua Atkinson, PhD (Committee Member); Canchu Lin, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication; Journalism; Mass Media; Organizational Behavior

Keywords:

organizational colonization; corporate social responsibility; India/ South Asia; globalization; media; discourse analysis; stakeholders; media discourse; nation-building; emerging economies

Duty, Lisa MarieChanging Teachers’ Conceptualizations of Teaching for Citizenship in a Globalized World
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, EDU Teaching and Learning

This study contributed to the broader scholarly discussion on global citizenship education by examining and documenting an inquiry into three secondary social studies teachers’ changing conceptualizations of teaching for citizenship in a globalized world. The study theorized that 1) Teachers change their conceptualizations of teaching for citizenship by shifting or recreating their identities and 2) Teachers’ identities are locations of agency for global citizenship and global citizenship education.

While thinking about, reflecting on, or constructing new understandings of the concept of citizen and teaching for citizenship in a globalized world was important to changing teachers’ conceptualizations, it was insufficient. Each teacher had a concept of what it means to be a citizen—an identity as a citizen—and this helped to define their understandings of teaching for citizenship. As the teachers are citizens themselves, change in their conceptualizations had ramifications for them personally. The findings indicate that teachers must fundamentally practice new forms of being and relating to others. The study concluded that teachers' identities are locations for making choices about who we are, how we want to relate to others, and what kind of world we want to live in.

Committee:

Merry Merryfield (Committee Chair); Steve Miller (Committee Member); Cynthia Tyson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Education; Education Policy; Educational Leadership; Multicultural Education; Political Science; Social Studies Education; Teacher Education; Teaching

Keywords:

Global citizenship education; world citizenship; cosmopolitanism; globalization; participatory action research; identity; teaching and learning

Aguirre, LinaENTRE LA VULNERABILIDAD Y EL GOCE: PRECARIEDAD Y GLOBALIZACION EN EL ARTE JOVEN CHILENO ACTUAL
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2012, Spanish and Portuguese

In Chile, globalization has taken place through the imposition of neoliberalism; it started in Augusto Pinochet’s dictatorship and remained unquestioned in democracy. This dramatic process has caused a strong impact in multiple aspects of social and subjective life. This dissertation studies how the artistic practices or young poets and visual artists in Chile materialize the way globalization is experienced in this country and the positions that young generations are taking toward globalization and its social consequences. The visual and poetic practices of many young artists reveal a sense of precarity: a deep and pervading sensation of instability and uncertainty that adopts diverse forms of expression and meanings. The sensation of precarity is rooted in the social conditions produced by globalization and generates imaginaries and modes of representation that are materialized in art. This project explores the diverse manifestations of precarity in several aspects of artistic practices and identifies its potential of creativity and resistance both at the aesthetic level and in the cultural field.

Artistic practices include works as well as other actions that artists perform as part of their artistic activity. This comprehensive approach is necessary for understanding how the sensation of precarity motivates practical actions related to aesthetic experimentation, the production of a critical position in relation to globalization, or an intervention in local cultural scene. The main aspects of the artistic practice considered in this project are the creative process and the involvement of artists in independent projects of production and circulation of art.

The analysis of poetic and visual practices reveals that precarity can be expressed in multiple ways: as a condition lived by the subjects represented in the texts, as a characteristic of form and materiality and as a condition for the production of art. Although precarity can adopt multiple meanings, two opposite meanings that interact and combine in artistic practices can be identified: enjoyment and vulnerability. In poetry, precarity is expressed as vulnerability, a feeling of fragility and defenselessness that shows how wide sectors of Chilean population have been weakened by the interventions of neoliberal governments and have been put in a condition of inferiority and marginality. In the poems, individuals overcome this feeling through their involvement in transitory intensities (dance and sex) as well as in group practices. The texts emphasize that the compensation of vulnerability is only possible when collective action is involved. The works and practices also reveal a relationship between precarity and poverty. Poets represent vulnerable subjects in situation of poverty, while visual artists use poor materials and create alternative projects of exhibition and sale based in low price art and community-directed activities. Finally, precarity, as a feeling shared by people around the world, can be considered as a main variable for the internationalization of contemporary art.

This project's comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to the practices of young artists and poets in Chile will contribute to a better understanding on the role of art in current globalized societies and of the capacity and creativity of youth for cultural intervention.

Committee:

Ana Del Sarto (Advisor); Laura Podalsky (Committee Member); Abril Trigo (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Art History; Latin American Studies

Keywords:

Precarity; precariousness; globalization; contemporary chilean poetry; contemporary chilean art

Campbell, Kelly KathleenFilm, French, and Foie Gras: Examining the French Cultural Exception
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2010, French and Italian

This dissertation considers and evaluates the notion of the “French cultural exception” (l’exception culturelle) in three distinct domains: cinema, language, and gastronomy. Through a detailed analysis of these three domains, I trace the historical importance of these cultural institutions and their associated cultural capital in French culture. A discussion of each of these areas begins by examining how each of these culture industries has been instrumental in the cultivation of French identity and France’s global image. I argue that while cinema, language, and gastronomy have historically exemplified the French cultural exception, they have also become fertile ground for mounting tension and debate over the past several decades. The debate in each of these areas centers on an underlying notion of national protection, whether through government-backed subsidies in cinema, nationally driven bans in the food industry, or the espousal of Republican ideals in the French education system.

The discussion of each culture industry has a significant intertextual component, as I draw on literature, film, and current events to provide examples of the significant histories of each cultural domain as well as those issues that color their contemporary statuses. My analyses of these three areas also reveal the enormous obstacles facing those organizations and institutions that champion the cultural exception and support continued attempts at meaningful differentiation from other cultures. Through an analysis of these three culture industries within the context of cultural particularity, I reveal the developing uncertainty that faces three of the principal pillars of French identity in the twenty-first century.

Committee:

Jean-Francois Fourny, PhD (Advisor); Judith Mayne, PhD (Committee Member); Jennifer Willging, PhD (Committee Member)

Keywords:

Cultural Exception; French National Identity; Cultural Capital; Cultural Diversity; Globalization; French Gastronomy; French Cinema; French Language

Keida, Mark StephenGlobalizing Solidarity: Explaining Differences in U.S Labor Union Transnationalism
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2006, Political Science
The purpose of this research is to explain differences in the transnational organizing strategies of U.S. trade unions. Of particular interest is the degree to which economic globalization (e.g., import competition, foreign direct investment, and multinationalization) influences the nature, scope, and priority U.S. labor unions assign to transnational organizing strategies. Toward this end, this research compares the transnational strategies of three U.S. labor unions — the United Steelworkers of America (USW), the Service Employees International Union (SEIU), and the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) — each of which represents a distinct sector of U.S. labor market (manufacturing, service, and professional) and experiences a different level and type of exposure to economic globalization (high, moderate, and low). Using an updated theory of labor transnationalism and primary source data, this study finds that transnational organizing strategies are highly correlated with exposure to economic globalization, particularly multinationalization in a union’s core industries. At the same time, in cases where exposure to economic globalization is low, transnational strategies are better explained through intra-organizational dynamics, such as leadership ideology, membership interests, and union size. In the main, this study suggests that in order to explain differences in transnational organizing strategies, one must consider both the level and type of exposure to economic globalization, as well as organizational dynamics in cases where exposure is minimal.

Committee:

John Rothgeb (Advisor)

Subjects:

Political Science, General

Keywords:

Globalization; Transnationalism; US Labor Movement; Labor Politics; Labor Union Transnationalism; Labor Union Internationalism; USW; SEIU; AFT

Simmons, NathanielNegotiating Boundaries in a Globalized World: Communication Privacy Management between Foreign English Teachers and Japanese Co-workers in Japan
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2014, Communication Studies (Communication)
In order to better understand ways in which globalization influences intercultural communication, this study examines ways in which foreign English teachers in Japan and Japanese co-workers manage privacy. Using Petronio's (2002) communication privacy management theory, as well as thematic (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002) and cultural discourse analysis (Carbaugh, 2005, 2007), this study analyzed interview transcripts from 77 participants (39 English language teachers, and 38 Japanese co-workers) regarding ways in which (a) privacy is conceptualized and managed, (b) cultural premises guide such negotiations, and (c) larger structures enable and constrain privacy management between foreign English teachers and Japanese co-workers. English language teachers (ELTs) defined privacy as a multi-dimensional construct encompassing personal information, space, and actions. ELTs perceived their privacy boundaries to be breeched when asked about one's: (a) space and place, (b)bodies, (c) sexuality, and (d) dating/romantic relationships. ELTs employed the following management strategies: (a) withdrawal, (b) cognitive restructuring, (c) independent control, (d) lying, (e) omission, (f) avoidance, and (g) gaijin smashing. Japanese co-workers defined privacy as information that should be hidden and managed such information by: (a) drawing clear boundaries by not talking or changing contexts, and (b) being pre-emptive by demarcating privacy boundaries early on within a relationship. In terms of cultural premises, ELTs revealed: (a) they should not be constructed as a "free space" for privacy inquisition by Japanese co-workers, (b) they expected voluntary reciprocity in (egalitarian) workplace relationships, and (c) they expected coworkers to be co-owners who would not share private disclosures. Japanese co-workers revealed: (a) privacy inquisitions are acts of kindness/caring, (b) time matters for privacy disclosure in Japan, (c) age matters for privacy disclosure in Japan, and (d) that ELTs should "Do as Japanese do"; or, in other words, accommodate Japanese cultural norms and regulations for privacy management. Rooted in English hegemonic and xenophobic practices, I identified the ideological construction of ELTs as "not real teachers" which is heightened through the commodification of ELTs' culture. This construction negated opportunities for successful privacy management through co-owner relationships. Similarly, Japanese coworkers viewed ELTs as guests or special visitors which positioned ELTs as inadequate teachers. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Committee:

Yea-Wen Chen (Committee Chair); Claudia Hale (Committee Member); Laura Black (Committee Member); Gregory Janson (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Communication

Keywords:

globalization; English language teachers; Japan; cultural discourse analysis; thematic analysis; communication privacy management; migrant workers; intercultural communication; interpersonal communication; foreign teachers; intercultural workplace

Dogan, DeryaThe Erasmus Programme In The Internationalization of Turkish Higher Education
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2015, Cross-Cultural, International Education
Europe has been leading the world’s largest university student exchange program, ERASMUS (EuRopean Community Action Scheme for or the Mobility of University Students), since 1987. The program has proven its success with participation of 3 million students in 25 years. Turkey has been part of this program since 2003. Then, internationalization has moved beyond being a dream for the Turkish higher education system becoming a reality. Participation in ERASMUS has brought many adjustments to the Turkish universities such as the implementation of the European Credit Transfer System, offering courses in English, internationalizing the curricula and establishment of international relations offices on campuses. In addition, a common ERASMUS experience started spreading not only among the university students but also among the faculty and university administrative personnel. The purpose of this study was to examine how the ERASMUS Programme has influenced the internationalization of Turkish higher education and explore the perceptions of the university communities in Turkey. The objective was to analyze how the impact of a strong European international education program directs educational globalization of a developing country. An e-mail was sent to the university students, faculty and administrative personnel through convenience sampling with a link to an online survey to participate in the study. There were three different surveys composed of 20 questions. The last eight questions were shared by all surveys in addition to two questions shared by the faculty and the administrator surveys. Survey questions consisted of multiple-choice, rating iii scale, dichotomous and open-ended questions. In total, 254 respondents participated in the study. The responses show the perceived value of the ERASMUS Programme by the university communities in Turkey. All the results show that, without ERASMUS, it would have been very difficult for the Turkish higher education to reach its current internationally active level yet it still needs further improvements. However, it is clear to that higher education in Turkey is internationalizing from a European dimension and the ERASMUS Programme and related EU programs have played a significant role in that. Despite the slowly increasing interest in the world outside of Europe, both by the university communities and the government, due to the monetary power of the EU, the need for a European dimension makes up a big portion of educational globalization of Turkish higher education.

Committee:

Bruce Collet, PhD (Advisor); Toni Sondergald, PhD (Committee Member); Kelly Balistreri, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Higher Education

Keywords:

ERASMUS; European Union; Higher Education; Turkish Higher Education; Internationalization; International Mobility; Globalization; Europeanization

Mainville, SebastienThe International System and Its Environment: Modern Evolutionary, Physiological and Developmental Perspectives on Change in World Politics
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2016, Political Science
In this dissertation I critique the Darwinian perspective on the international system, an important set of assumptions that underlies the foundational claim that the international system is a competitive anarchy. The Darwinian perspective assumes that the international system is a population of states that simultaneously constitutes the primary security environment for individual states, and that the evolution of this population is governed by the logic of Darwinian competition. I challenge this perspective, which is widely shared across the paradigmatic divides of the International Relations (IR) discipline, by offering a complete redescription of the evolutionary origins, organization, structure, and development of the international system. To do so, I draw from three modern biological theory perspectives that have yet to get the attention of IR scholars: Major Evolutionary Transitions to Individuality (METI), Self-Producing Systems, and Developmental Systems Theory (DST). From these perspectives, I argue, the international system appears in the process of becoming an individual superorganism. This claim challenges a number of popular beliefs in IR, such as the belief that Darwinism legitimates Realism’s pessimistic take on the international system, that the international structure is at its most fundamental level an anarchy, and that the evolutionary origins of the international system give us straightforward answers to its present and future transformations. In addition to challenging these core assumptions of IR theory and others, the dissertation also subsumes some of the most important and puzzling contemporary phenomena in international politics under a single transformative logic: the decline of inter-state war; the growth of international cooperation, integration, and organization; the displacement of collective security threats from states to non-state actors and phenomena; the growing net benefits from statehood; the persistence, expansion, and entrenchment of the international system in the face of globalization challenges; and the relationship of mutual construction between the international system and globalization.

Committee:

Alexander Wendt, Professor/Dr. (Committee Chair); Bear Braumoeller, Professor/Dr. (Committee Member); Alexander Thompson, Professor/Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; International Relations; Political Science

Keywords:

International Relations; International System; Evolution; Physiology; Development; Major Evolutionary Transitions; Autopoiesis; Developmental Systems Theory; War; Peace; Cooperation; Organization; Sovereignty; Globalization

Okango, Joyce Khalibwa"Fair and Lovely": The Concept of Skin Bleaching and Body Image Politics In Kenya
Master of Arts (MA), Bowling Green State University, 2017, Popular Culture
The practice of skin bleaching or chemically lightening of skin has become a worldwide concern particularly in the past three decades. In Africa, these practices are increasingly becoming problematic due to the circumstances surrounding the procedure and the underlying health risks. Despite these threats, skin bleaching and other body augmentation procedures remain prevalent around the world. This thesis uses a multi-pronged approach in examining the concept of skin bleaching and body image politics in Kenya. I argue that colonial legacies, globalization, increase in the use of technology, and the digitization of Kenya television broadcasting has had a great impact on the spread and shift of cultures in Kenya resulting to such practices. I will also look at the role of a commercial spaces within a city in enabling and providing access to such practices to middle and lower class citizens. Additionally, this study aims at addressing the importance of decolonizing Kenyans concerning issues surrounding beauty and body image.

Committee:

Jeffrey Brown, Dr. (Advisor); Jeremy Wallach, Dr. (Committee Member); Esther Clinton, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

African Studies; Gender Studies; Sub Saharan Africa Studies; Womens Studies

Keywords:

Skin bleaching; Skin lightening; Gender; Consumerism; Colonization; Globalization; Body; Beauty

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