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Whalen, Kevin ChristopherA map system to disseminate national science on forests for the creation of regional tree planting prioritization plans
MS, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
In the United States, urban forestry efforts are sustained through efforts from individuals, businesses, philanthropic organizations, and government agencies across local, state, and national levels. The i-Tree Tools suite of software promotes the use of, peer-reviewed science to explain the benefits that trees provide in a method intended for the general public. This thesis shares the computer-specific knowledge collected during the design, implementation, and continued expansion of i-Tree Landscape. The i-Tree Landscape application is a web-browser based, online, geographic information system, referred to as a web-GIS app. The "pages" of the web-app are part of a system of software libraries and services, along with dedicated hardware, which were specifically researched, compared, selected, and optimally configured for their roles in supporting the system as a whole. This work will also briefly touch upon the open source libraries and services running in the Landscape system, as well as, some of the decisions they influenced with acquiring hardware to support its deployment. Delivering the data and formulas associated with the benefits of trees for the entire geographic area of the United States becomes difficult over the internet, especially when it must be achieved via a non-expert interface. To manage this, the flow of the application is separated into five, non-sequential steps, prefixed with a landing page, and postfixed with a publishable report. This partitioning helps with code responsibility separation, as well. In addition to producing a tailorable report for describing the benefits of trees, the primary purpose of the application is to help prioritize tree planting efforts. This is well needed by foresters to help allocate for popular practice of mass tree plantings. The planning is done via a customizable model utilizing nearly all of the possible attributes as weighting options. The regional aggregations for this are available to users through nine boundary layers, most notably including counties, block groups, and watersheds. The research supporting the data on trees is from working directly with the authors of peer-reviewed research from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service laboring at the Northern Research Station at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse, New York. i-Tree Landscape has succeeded in becoming a science dissemination facility, by the use of information visualization, with the purpose of making decisions that promote urban forestry stewardship through modern web-GIS, and data processing techniques.

Committee:

Cheng-Chang Lu, PhD (Advisor); Austin Melton, PhD (Committee Member); Gokarna Sharma, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Ecology; Environmental Science; Geography; Urban Forestry; Urban Planning

Keywords:

budget national map processing; geographic information system; GIS; national land cover; forestry; tree planting prioritization; GDAL; GEOS; GeoServer; PostGIS; JTS; Open Geospatial Consortium; OGC; Open Source Geospatial Foundation; OSGeo;

Chen, WeiDeveloping a Framework for Geographic Question Answering Systems Using GIS, Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning, and Ontologies
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Geography
Geographic question answering (QA) systems can be used to help make geographic knowledge accessible by directly giving answers to natural language questions. In this dissertation, a geographic question answering (GeoQA) framework is proposed by incorporating techniques from natural language processing, machine learning, ontological reasoning and geographic information system (GIS). We demonstrate that GIS functions provide valuable rule-based knowledge, which may not be available elsewhere, for answering geographic questions. Ontologies of space are developed to interpret the meaning of linguistic spatial terms which are later mapped to components of a query in a GIS; these ontologies are shown to be indispensable during each step of question analysis. A customized classifier based on dynamic programming and a voting algorithm is also developed to classify questions into answerable categories. To prepare a set of geographic questions, we conducted a human survey and generalized four categories that have the most questions for experiments. These categories were later used to train a classifier to classify new questions. Classified natural language questions are converted to spatial SQLs to retrieve data from relational databases. Consequently, our demo system is able to give exact answers to four categories of geographic questions within an average time of two seconds. The system has been evaluated using classical machine learning-based measures and achieved an overall accuracy of 90% on test data. Results show that spatial ontologies and GIS are critical for extending the capabilities of a GeoQA system. Spatial reasoning of GIS makes it a powerful analytical engine to answer geographic questions through spatial data modeling and analysis.

Committee:

Eric Fosler-Lussier, Dr. (Committee Member); Rajiv Ramnath, Dr. (Committee Member); Daniel Sui, Dr. (Committee Member); Ningchuan Xiao, Dr. (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Cognitive Psychology; Computer Science; Geographic Information Science; Geography; Information Science; Information Systems; Information Technology; Language

Keywords:

geographic information system; GeoQA; geographic question answering framework; geolinguistics; spatial ontologies;

Flessner, Brandon PSPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELING OF AMERICAN BEECH (FAGUS GRANDIFOLIA EHRH.) DISTRIBUTION IN SOUTHWESTERN OHIO
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2014, Geography
The ability to predict American beech distribution (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) from environmental data was tested by using a geographic information system (GIS) in tandem with species distribution models (SDMs). The study was conducted in Butler and Preble counties in Ohio, USA. Topography, soils, and disturbance were approximated through 15 predictor variables with presence/absence and basal area serving as the response variables. Using a generalized linear model (GLM) and a boosted regression tree (BRT) model, curvature, elevation, and tasseled cap greenness were shown to be significant predictors of beech presence. Each of these variables was positively related to beech presence. A linear model using presence only data was not effective in predicting basal area due to a small sample size. This study demonstrates that SDMs can be used successfully to advance our understanding of the relationship between tree species presence and environmental factors. Large sample sizes are needed to successfully model continuous variables.

Committee:

Mary Henry, PhD (Advisor); David Gorchov, PhD (Committee Member); Jerry Green, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Botany; Ecology; Forestry; Geography

Keywords:

American beech; Fagus grandifolia; species distribution model; SDM; boosted regression tree; BRT; GIS; geographic information system; predictive modeling; Ohio; generalized linear model; GLM;

Hoffer, Justin EugeneExploring the Presence of Oil Skimmers in the US: An Application of Geographic Information System for the Needs of the US Coast Guard's Marine Environmental Response.
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2014, Environmental Sciences
As an on-scene coordinator during oil spills, the Coast Guard minimizes response time by pre-staging Coast Guard oil-skimmers at various locations. This practicum report explored the presence of mechanical oil-skimmers in the US to assist the Coast Guard with policy decisions regarding skimmer locations. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to identify the number of private sector skimmers within 70 miles of the Coast Guard skimming locations (n=15). Four of the staging locations had little or no representation by the private sector. An additional four locations lacked private sector ownership diversity. GIS was also used to determine the total number of Coast Guard and private sector skimmers within various distances from two historic oil-spill centroids (2002-2012). The two spill centroids were in the Gulf of Mexico and the Northeast coast. Of all the Coast Guard and private sector skimmers (n=524), 34% are contained within 300 miles of the spill centroids.

Committee:

Robbyn Abbitt, MS (Advisor); Thomas Crist, PhD (Committee Member); Suzanne Zazycki, M En, JD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Geographic Information Science

Keywords:

Geographic Information System; GIS; Coast Guard; Oil Spill; Centroid; Skimmmer

Germain, Richard JamesDrought management using a geographical information system
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1996, Civil Engineering (Engineering)

Drought management using a geographical information system

Committee:

T. Chang (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Scioto River Basin; Kriging; Geographic Information System

Roth, CarynThe Geographic Distribution of Cardiovascular Health in SPHERE
Master of Public Health, The Ohio State University, 2014, Public Health
Introduction: Coronary heart disease and stroke are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States (US) and cost the healthcare system an estimated $315.4 billion annually. Area-level factors which impact health may affect the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD), given its multifactorial and chronic nature. Objective: We sought to characterize the geographic distribution of cardiovascular health (CVH) among women over 65 years of age involved in the ongoing Stroke Prevention in Healthcare Delivery EnviRonmEnts (SPHERE) Study. Methods: Data derived from electronic health records (EHRs) were collected from all women over 65 years of age in two Midwest primary care clinics. We characterized CVH according to the American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 campaign, which scores modifiable risk factors for CVH and attributes a higher score to better health. We characterized these factors using the collected patient data, and geocoded patient addresses to the level of the US census tract. We integrated census tract population characteristics into the analysis to determine if they were associated with CVH. We conducted sensitivity analyses for missing data on the overall CVH score, as well as for some of the individual components of the score. We calculated the mean fractional score, the actual CVH score divided by the maximum possible. The association between US census tract characteristics and CVH was measured using univariate linear regression. Results: The mean fractional score was .63 across both clinics. Few patients were in ideal CVH, and the distribution of overall CVH and individual factors differed geographically. Only weekly per capita expenditure on fruits and vegetables was associated with CVH score at the 0.05 significance level. Imputing missing values had little effect on overall patient CVH classification. Discussion: Our patient population has significant room for improvement in modifiable behaviors and factors that contribute to CVH. By empowering patients to understand their health with their primary care physicians, we can encourage behavior changes and shift the population distribution of CVH. In order to do this most effectively, we must deploy interventions that are relevant and actionable for diverse patient and provider populations, which can vary within one medical center. Augmenting EHR-based data with available census tract-level data provides additional opportunities to understand our patient population and consider the lifestyle and socioeconomic factors that impact their health.

Committee:

Philip Payne, PhD (Committee Chair); Foraker Randi, PhD (Advisor); Lai Albert, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Health; Health Care; Public Health

Keywords:

Electronic Health Records; Cardiovascular Health; Primary Care; Prevention; Geographic Information System; Learning Healthcare System

Meyer, Eric WilliamPerforming Location Allocation Measures with a GIS for Fire Stations in Toledo, Ohio
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2011, Geography
The locations of fire stations are an extremely important decision for emergency service providers and public officials to make in order to efficiently and effectively carry out fire and EMS service coverage to a jurisdiction’s population and property. The provision of these essential services is vital and their deployment should be strategically located to allow for faster response times traveled by emergency vehicles. This study examines the current location set of all fire stations that deploy fire protection and emergency medical services (EMS) services in Toledo, Ohio. The goals of this study are to improve the efficiency of coverage in terms of decreasing total travel times and employing an 8 minute travel time constraint due to National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) standards, in order to increase overall protection and safety. This study employs the methodologies of the MINISUM location allocation strategy and will utilize a maximum distance constraint to exclude long and unacceptable response times, increase efficiency of emergency services, reduce response times, thus increasing overall effectiveness in service delivery. The location allocation study of Toledo fire stations will be implemented with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to allow for a systematic and thorough location analysis approach. By using a GIS, the information and data collected from the relocation analysis will show that a lower objective function (z) can be achieved by decreasing total weighted aggregate travel time by fire station vehicles from its respective fire station. After choosing which fire stations in the current location set should be relocated, the study will recommend where they should be built and a comparison will be conducted of analyzing the opportunity costs associated with moving fire stations and altering the service area territories from fire station relocation.

Committee:

Peter Lindquist, Dr. (Committee Chair); Sujata Shetty, Dr. (Committee Member); Daniel Hammel, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geographic Information Science; Geography

Keywords:

Travel time; location allocation; MINISUM; maximum distance constraint; response time; Geographic Information System; objective function; fire station

Liao, Hsin-ChungThe Association of Spatial Accessibility to Health Care Services with Health Utilization and Health Status Among People with Disabilities
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Studies and Public Affairs, Cleveland State University, 2010, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs

The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis was to determine the importance of spatial accessibility to health care services utilization and to the health status of persons with disabilities. This study utilizes two datasets (Survey of Access to Outpatient Medical Service in the Rural Southeast and Ohio Family Health Survey) to analyze. ArcGIS 9.2 was use to measure spatial accessibility to health care services. Bivariate analysis for health services utilization and health status included t-tests, and Chi-square, as appropriate for the level of measurement. Logistic regression models identified for the three outcomes (health care visit, regular check up visit, and perceived poor health status).

The multivariate analyses of "Survey of Access to Outpatient Medical Service in the Rural Southeast" dataset revealed that those residing within an area that had a higher primary physician to population ratio were less likely to have made a health care services visit in the past year. Perceived travel time was significantly associated with poor health status; adults who had to drive longer to access health care services were more likely to perceive themselves to be in poor health compared to adults who were faced with a shorter drive.

The analyses of the "Ohio Family Health Survey" dataset indicate that participants of the survey who resided within areas that had a higher primary care physician to population ratio were less likely to perceive themselves to be in poor health. Likewise, those residing in areas that had a hospital located within a 30-minute commute were also less likely to report being in poor health.

Further analyses of the Ohio Family Health Survey dataset, which is comprised of data collected from urban and rural areas, revealed that those driving longer to access health care services were more likely to perceive themselves to be in poor health compared to adults who were faced with a shorter drive in urban area. The model of rural areas revealed that those residing within an area that had a higher primary physician to population ratio were less likely to have made a health care services visit in the past year. Adults who had to drive longer time to get health care service were more likely to perceive themselves to be in poor health compared to adults who had a shorter drive. Participants who lived within areas that had a higher primary care physician to population ratio were less likely to perceive themselves to be in poor health. Those having hospital within a 30-minute commute were less likely to report being in poor health.

These results show the importance of spatial accessibility in health care utilization and health status for people with disabilities. These also indicate that spatial accessibility must be addressed in public policy.

Committee:

William Bowen, PhD (Advisor); Sonia Almemagno, PhD (Committee Member); Mieko Smith, PhD (Committee Member); Sung-Gheel Jang, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Public Health

Keywords:

spatial accessibility; disabilities; public health; primary care; health care utilization; health status; geographic information system

Woodard, John RBUILDING AN ENTERPRISE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FROM AN ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE FOUNDATION
MDS, Kent State University, 2017, School of Digital Sciences
The information explosion of today’s society has been paralleled by the growth of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been leveraged by many fields outside the discipline of geography. Historians have successfully created a digital version of the Battle of Little Bighorn for real-time analysis by creating an artifact location database and then mapping the battle’s progress with GIS. Public Health and Emergency Management officials have used GIS to predict, track, and respond to disease outbreaks around the world. GIS has become a valuable tool to government, industry, and business leaders. The growth and development of many GIS systems has followed an ad hoc pattern. Early successes results in the hiring of a person dedicated to establishing a GIS department or enterprise system that provides services and programs to all levels of the organization. Although the system shares folders, files, data and results of analysis, it is not a true enterprise system because it lacks organization and focus. GIS Professionals can use Enterprise Architecture (EA) to provide order and strategy for chaotic Enterprise GIS systems. This paper is based on research that identified a knowledge gap between Enterprise GIS and Enterprise Architecture. This knowledge gap lies in the fundamental differences in the systems application. The main goal of an Enterprise GIS is to provide access to system tools, data, and analysis to anyone within the organization. Current Enterprise GIS is concerned about spreading GIS philosophy and considers supporting business goals to be a secondary function. This paper provides research that demonstrates Enterprise GIS systems can benefit from Enterprise Architecture ideas and methods. It also guides the reader through the process of using elements of Enterprise Architecture to build an Enterprise GIS system. The final conclusion is that Enterprise GIS can be improved by incorporating the ideas of Enterprise Architecture.

Committee:

Robert Walker (Committee Chair)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Geographic Information Science; Information Science

Keywords:

GIS, Enterprise Architecture, Information Architecture, geospatial,geographic information system,

Cochran, Nancy EDetection of Urban Heat Islands in the Great Lakes Region with GLOBE Student Surface Temperature Measurements
Master of Arts, University of Toledo, 2014, Geography
Modern urbanization changes the albedo, temperature and hydrography of the natural landscape resulting in an increase in surface temperature of urban areas compared to the surrounding rural areas. This urban-rural temperature difference is called Urban Heat Island (UHI). This research utilizes GLOBE student surface temperature data in the study of UHIs and provides a critical analysis of the viability of GLOBE data. The GLOBE Program is a worldwide program that engages students in scientific observation by providing protocols for the collection and reporting of environmental observations to a public database. The first objective of this research was to establish focus areas using climate and physiographic regions, for study of UHI using available GLOBE data in the Great Lakes region. The second objective compared GLOBE surface temperature data to Landsat thermal imagery in order to determine validity of GLOBE measurements and ability to detect UHI. Previous research has established an expected temperature difference between Landsat Thermal Imagery and in-situ ground measurements to be within 2.7°C (Goetz, 1997). Inherent to the student data is the potential for errors such as temperature reported in Fahrenheit rather than Celsius, local time instead of UTC time, inaccurate GPS coordinates of study site, and accuracy of surface temperature measured by the student. It is also difficult to find GLOBE data that was collected at the exact same time as the Landsat overpass time. Within these limitations, GLOBE data is most comparable to Landsat on vegetated surface cover within 1 hour of overpass time. Generally where Landsat detects UHI, GLOBE schools detect a UHI with the same magnitude. Finally, this research utilized GLOBE data in a comparison of surface temperature by cover type. This research found that impervious surface and urban location had the greatest warming influence on surface temperature. Urban areas tended to have a warming effect and when coupled with impervious surface cover; there was a strong warming effect.

Committee:

Kevin Czajkowski (Committee Chair); Beth Schlemper (Committee Member); Patrick Lawrence (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Climate Change; Geographic Information Science; Geography

Keywords:

Urban heat island, GLOBE Program, Remote sensing, surface temperature, Geographic Information System, Landsat-5

HURD, JOHN KA GIS MODEL TO ESTIMATE SNOW DEPTH USING DIFFERENTIAL GPS AND HIGH-RESOLUTION DIGITAL ELEVATION DATA
MA, University of Cincinnati, 2007, Arts and Sciences : Geography
In April 2005 near Barrow, Alaska, a Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) survey was conducted along a snowdrift formed by a 2.2 km long snow fence. A snow machine pulled a sledge equipped with the DGPS, recording geographic location and elevation along transects parallel to the snow fence. Empirical measurements of snow depth were collected with a calibrated probe along transects perpendicular to the snow fence, and were used for an accuracy assessment. Five GIS models were established each using different interpolation methods to estimate snow depth. The base map was a Digital Surface Model of the snow-free surface derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) data. A natural neighbor interpolation algorithm provided the most accurate snow depth estimates with an RMSE of 21.29 cm. The snow drifts cover an area of 227,150 m 2; the mean snow depth is 1.87 m and occupies a volume of 425,974 m 3.

Committee:

Dr. Kenneth Hinkel (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geography

Keywords:

GIS; Geographic Information System; Model; GPS; Arctic; Cryosphere; Snow; Digital Surface Model; Remote Sensing

Shafique, Naseer AhmedSpatial Biostratigraphy of NW Pakistan
Doctor of Philosophy, Miami University, 2001, Geology & Environmental Earth Science
Mesozoic to Cenozoic biostratigraphy of NW Pakistan has been conducted in order to document the temporal and spatial relationship between different marine strata with the help of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). These relationships were then used to help distinguish different tectonostratigraphic units in the Waziristan and the Kurram areas located at the northwestern margin of the Indo-Pakistani craton. Extensive biostratigraphic work in the Waziristan and Kurram areas enabled to distinguish five tectonostratigraphic units and two significant unconformities in the study area. Different foraminiferal zones from Early Jurassic to Middle Eocenewere developed, although due to random samples these zones are not continuous in the sedimentary record. However continuous biozonation from the Late Paleocene P4 to the Early Eocene P9 (Bolli, 1985) biozone was observed. It is observed that the Santonian stage is generally missing in the sedimentary sequence, and it is only found in the olistoliths. This implies that during the Campanian stage there was instability in the shelf due to ophiolite obduction, which caused the displacement of the Santonian strata. The absence of Early Paleocene (Zone P1 - P3) microfauna is suggested by rapid subsidence of the NW Indian shelf beginning in the early Paleocene. Moreover, index fossils for the Pa, P1a, b, c, d, P2 and P3 biozones are absent in the mélange of the Thal area suggesting regional uplift during the Paleocene. The presence of Planorotalites pseudomenardii P4 zone microfauna above the unconformable Upper Cretaceous Kahi mélange strata suggest the India-Asia collision age between 58 Ma - 56 Ma. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of upper Cretaceous olistoliths was conducted from the Mughal Kot gorge, Baluchistan, Pakistan in order to reveal the depositional history of Late Santonian aged (Dicarinella asymmetrica zone) olistoliths and associated upper Cretaceous to early Tertiary Indo-Pakistani shelf strata. These olistoliths a re embedded in uppermost Campanian strata of the Mughal Kot Formation. Similar olistostromes are found at approximately the same stratigraphic level across a broad region of NW Pakistan. These olistostromes are similar in age to radiometrically constrained deformation in the Zhob and Waziristan ophiolites 50 and 90 km to the west and northwest respectively and may record incipient underthrusting of the NW Indo-Pakistani craton beneath oceanic crust now in Waziristan and northern Baluchistan. This Campanian event precedes stratigraphically constrained Paleocene and Early Eocene deformation in Parachinar, Orakzai and the Attock-Cherat Ranges, which is interpreted as the collision of NW Indo-Pakistan with Asia and the Kabul Block. A turbiditic depositional environment of the Mughal Kot Formation was developed due to the regional collapse of the NW Indo-Pakistani shelf margin during the Late Campanian (G. calcarata zone ~ 80 74 Ma), possibly as a result of ophiolite obduction as the Indo-Pakistani plate moved beneath Tethyan oceanic crust.

Committee:

Brian Currie (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geology

Keywords:

Biostratigraphy; Geographic Information System; Ophiolite Obduction; Foraminifera

Hoover, Mark A.Analysis of water quality in Lake Erie using GIS methods
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 1997, Civil Engineering (Engineering)
Analysis of water quality in Lake Erie using GIS methods

Committee:

Tiao Chang (Advisor)

Subjects:

Engineering, Civil

Keywords:

Geographic Information System; Limnology; Zebra Mussel

Hartkorn, Janice M.Using Geographic Information Systems to Select Sites for Wetland Restoration in West Central Ohio’s Agricultural Areas
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2008, Biological Sciences

The Mississippi River Basin, includes a major part of Ohio has encountered increasing phosphorus and nitrogen loads from agricultural fields since the 1800’s when intensive agriculture moved into the Midwest. Agriculture has drained ninety percent of Ohio’s native wetlands. A portion of those drained wetlands can be restored to functional wetlands to intercept excess nutrients from non-productive or low yield agricultural fields to improve overall water quality. Little is known about finding potential restoration sites, partly because of the difficulty in locating sites capable of supporting successful restoration.

This study investigated the utility of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a tool to improve the process of identifying and selecting sites for wetland restoration throughout Greene and Clark Counties in west central Ohio. Site selection was based on a scoring system that utilizes geographic information data sets available in the public domain. Combined with a scoring system, the suitability of selected sites for potential wetland restorations was quantified. Identification of the appropriate restoration sites was based on the Ohio Wetland Inventory data set properties. Suitability of a site for building wetlands was based on factors, such as: soil type, potential water supply, agricultural land, topography and isolation from development. Each attribute was scored and weighed to predict restoration potential. Sites were prioritized based on those that met necessary wetland restoration criteria and scored high. A methodology utilizing vector data sets was used to narrow the two county searches to show land that has ideal conditions: hydric soils, one kilometer from development, 0-2% slope, agricultural land and shallow depth to water. Land with these characteristics has the potential to be a restored wetland. These GIS methods could be customized for any geographic location, to locate specific wetland types and to locate sites that have the necessary restoration characteristics of hydric soils, land availability and low slopes.

Committee:

James Amon, PhD (Committee Chair); James Runkle, PhD (Committee Member); Songlin Cheng, PhD (Committee Member); Joseph Thomas, PhD (Other); David Goldstein, PhD (Other)

Subjects:

Biology; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Science; Geography

Keywords:

geographic information system; GIS; Clark County; Greene County; Ohio; wetlands; restoration;