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Jiang, HuaEffect of Changes in Flow Geometry, Rotation and High Heat Flux on Fluid Dynamics, Heat Transfer and Oxidation/Deposition of Jet Fuels
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), University of Dayton, 2011, Mechanical Engineering

Jet fuel is used in high-performance military flight vehicles for cooling purposes before combustion. It is desirable to investigate the influence of the flow and heating conditions on fuel heat transfer and thermal stability to develop viable mitigation strategies. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and experiments can provide the understanding of the fuel physical phenomena which involves the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and chemical reactions. Three distinct topics are studied: The first topic considers the effect of flow geometry on fuel oxidation and deposition. Experiments and CFD modeling were performed for fuels flowing through heated tubes which have either a sudden expansion or contraction. It was found that the peak deposition occurs near the maximum oxidation rate and excess deposition is formed near the step. This study provides information for the fuel system designer which can help minimize surface deposition due to fuel thermal oxidation.

In the second area of study, the fuel passed heated rotational test articles to investigate the effect of rotation on fuel heat transfer. The coupled effects of centrifugal forces and turbulent flow result in fuel temperatures that increase with rotational speed. This indicates that the convective heat transfer is enhanced as rotational speed increases. This work can assist the understanding of using jet fuel to cool the turbine engine.

In the third segment of research, the fuel was exposed to “rocket-like” conditions. This investigation is to explore the effect of high heat flux and high flow velocity on fuel heat transfer and oxidation/deposition. Simulations show a temperature difference over several hundred degrees in the radial direction within the very thin thermal boundary layer under rapid heating. The fuel contacting the interior wall is locally heated to a supercritical state. As a result, the heat transfer is deteriorated in the supercritical boundary layer. Both simulated and measured deposit profiles show a peak deposit near the end of the heated section. These observations may eventually have an application to the design of high speed supersonic vehicles with improved cooling capabilities.

Committee:

Jamie S. Ervin, PhD (Advisor); Steven Zabarnick, PhD (Committee Co-Chair); Timothy J. Edwards, PhD (Committee Member); Kevin P. Hallinan, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Aerospace Engineering; Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

jet fuel; heat transfer deterioration; high heat flux; temperature peak; supercritical; fuel properties; nozzle; sudden expansion/contraction in flow path; fuel deposition; turbulence models; rotation passage; recirculation flow; excess deposition

McMasters, Brian PhilipEffect of Fuel Chemical Composition on Pyrolytic Reactivity and Deposition Propensity under Supercritical Conditions
Master of Science (M.S.), University of Dayton, 2014, Chemical Engineering
As modern hypersonic aircraft designs evolve, increasing heat sink capabilities are required. One potential approach is the use of endothermic fuels, which supplement fuel heat sink via sensible heating with endothermic chemical reactions. Endothermic reactions can proceed by thermal or catalytic decomposition of the fuel. Regardless of the specific methodology, thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) will occur at the expected reaction conditions. Improved understanding of the effect of chemical composition on supercritical pyrolytic reactivity and deposition propensity is needed to provide a basis of understanding for advanced fuel and system development. In this effort, a small-scale flow reactor system was developed to study the reactivity and deposition propensity of various hydrocarbon fuels and solvents of differing chemical composition. Experimental and computational studies were performed to investigate the relationship between fuel chemical composition and reactivity under supercritical conditions. Nine fuels and solvents of varying chemical composition were studied to evaluate pyrolytic reactivity and decomposition pathways. Chemical classes studied included normal paraffins, iso paraffins, and cycloparaffins in various combinations. Experimental studies were performed at reaction temperatures of 500-650°C and inlet flow rates of 0.50-3.00 mL/min, with a nominal system pressure of 500 psig. Corresponding equivalent residence times at these reaction conditions ranged from 0.2-11.4 sec. A fuel conversion metric was defined to allow comparison of the reactivity of multi-component fuels at equivalent inlet reaction conditions. Normal and iso-paraffinic solvents, as well as a blend of the two, had similar overall reactivities at equivalent inlet reactor conditions. Normal paraffins formed primarily lower-molecular weight normal paraffins and a-olefins, while iso-paraffins formed primarily lower-molecular weight iso-paraffins and branched olefins. It was observed that normal paraffins decomposed at a higher rate than iso paraffins in a blend of the two classes, indicating that iso-paraffins accelerate the relative decomposition rate of the linear compounds. Fuels and solvents with cycloparaffins had lower extents of conversion at equivalent reaction conditions. Aromatic species were formed at higher yields from fuels and solvents with higher cycloparaffin concentrations. It was observed that multi-component solvents decomposed under similar reaction pathways to single-component compounds; likewise, fully formulated fuels were found to decompose under similar pathways to multi component solvents of similar chemical compositions. The supercritical pyrolysis of the fuels and solvents was modeled as a first-order irreversible reaction to assist with reactivity comparisons among fuels and allow subsequent predictions. Supercritical pyrolysis was found to deviate from first-order reaction behavior at high conversion levels (> 30%), which limited the use of this simple kinetic analysis. The normal paraffinic solvent (Norpar-13) had estimated kinetic parameters of 60.7 kcal/mol activation energy and 1015.1 s-1 pre-exponential factor, while a specification JP-7 fuel sample was found to have kinetic parameters of 56.2 kcal/mol and 1013.5 s-1. Valid kinetic analysis is dependent upon accurate modeling of physical properties for estimation of residence times. A preliminary investigation of the deposition propensity of seven fuels and solvents was also performed in this effort. Significant differences in deposition rates were observed between fuels and solvents with similar chemical compositions, indicating that deposition propensity may not be solely determined by bulk chemical composition. Further investigation is needed to better understand the mechanisms of deposition formation in supercritical pyrolysis.

Committee:

Matthew DeWitt, Ph.D. (Advisor); Kevin Myers, D.Sc. (Committee Member); Steven Zabarnick, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Donald Phelps, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Zachary West, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Chemical Engineering

Keywords:

Endothermic fuels; Pyrolysis; Jet fuel; Deposition