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Rypma, Richard BlaineThe structure and pattern of the primary forests of Athens and Washington Counties, Ohio /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1961, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

Forests and forestry;Forests and forestry

Dimke, Kelley C.Valuation of Tree Canopy on Property Values of Six Communities in Cincinnati, Ohio
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2008, Horticulture and Crop Science
The value of the urban forest as a component of the urban environment is significant. Environmental benefits of the urban forest include improved air quality, energy conservation through reduction of heating and cooling costs, climate moderation, flood control, reduction in noise levels and wildlife habitat. The urban forest also provides many social benefits. Studies have shown that trees reduce stress and improve the physical health of urbanites. Financial support for urban forestry in many cities is on the decline. The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact trees have on property values of six communities (Bond Hill, Carthage, Clifton, Hyde Park, Kennedy Heights and North Avondale) of varying socio-economic levels in Cincinnati, Ohio. Tax assessor records were obtained from property sales between the years 2000 and 2005. One hundred sites were randomly selected from each of the six communities. Data were collected from each site during the winter as well as the summer months. Dominant genus, caliper of dominant genus, estimate of tree cover, and overall property maintenance were recorded. Using the hedonic method of cost benefit analysis it was determined that each percentage increase in tree cover added $783.98 to the property value. The average value of tree canopy across the 600 sites is $20,226 or 10.7% of the sale price of the home. The findings from this research will be useful to Urban Forestry Departments in their requests for funding.

Committee:

David Gardner, PhD (Advisor); James Metzger, PhD (Committee Member); Steven Still, PhD (Committee Member); T. Davis Sydnor, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Horticulture; Landscaping; Urban Planning

Keywords:

tree canopy; property values; hedonics; urban forestry

Sudia, Theodore WilliamA comparison of forest ecological sampling techniques with the use of a known population /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1954, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Agriculture

Keywords:

Forests and forestry

Laverne, Robert James Loss of Urban Forest Canopy and the Related Effects on Soundscape and Human Directed Attention
Doctor of Philosophy in Urban Studies and Public Affairs, Cleveland State University, 2016, Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs
The specific questions addressed in this research are: Will the loss of trees in residential neighborhoods result in a change to the local soundscape? The investigation of this question leads to a related inquiry: Do the sounds of the environment in which a person is present affect their directed attention? An invasive insect pest, the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis), is killing millions of ash trees (genus Fraxinus) throughout North America. As the loss of tree canopy occurs, urban ecosystems change (including higher summer temperatures, more stormwater runoff, and poorer air quality) causing associated changes to human physical and mental health. Previous studies suggest that conditions in urban environments can result in chronic stress in humans and fatigue to directed attention, which is the ability to focus on tasks and to pay attention. Access to nature in cities can help refresh directed attention. The sights and sounds associated with parks, open spaces, and trees can serve as beneficial counterbalances to the irritating conditions associated with cities. This research examines changes to the quantity and quality of sounds in Arlington Heights, Illinois. A series of before-and-after sound recordings were gathered as trees died and were removed between 2013 and 2015. Comparison of recordings using the Raven sound analysis program revealed significant differences in some, but not all measures of sound attributes as tree canopy decreased. In general, more human-produced mechanical sounds (anthrophony) and fewer sounds associated with weather (geophony) were detected. Changes in sounds associated with animals (biophony) varied seasonally. Monitoring changes in the proportions of anthrophony, biophony and geophony can provide insight into changes in biodiversity, environmental health, and quality of life for humans. Before-tree-removal and after-tree-removal sound recordings served as the independent variable for randomly-assigned human volunteers as they performed the Stroop Test and the Necker Cube Pattern Control test to measure directed attention. The sound treatments were not found to have significant effects on the directed attention test scores. Future research is needed to investigate the characteristics of urban soundscapes that are detrimental or potentially conducive to human cognitive functioning.

Committee:

Wendy Kellogg, Ph.D. (Committee Chair); Sanda Kaufman, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Helen Liggett, Ph.D. (Committee Member); William Sullivan, Ph.D. (Committee Member); Nicholas Zingale, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Acoustics; Behavioral Psychology; Ecology; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Environmental Studies; Forestry; Natural Resource Management; Psychology; Urban Forestry; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Urban forestry; Urban planning; Emerald Ash Borer; Soundscape Ecology; Directed Attention;

Buckler, Daniel C.Post-Fire Forest Recovery on Sofa Mountain in Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta, Canada
Master of Science in Environmental Science, Youngstown State University, 2012, Department of Geological & Environmental Sciences
Landscape response to disturbance and variable topography is an important topic of research for land managers in fire-prone regions of North America, particularly the mountain west. Waterton Lakes National Park, in southwest Alberta, was the site of a 1998 fire on Sofa Mountain in which 1521 ha of mostly coniferous forests were burned. An investigation of successional growth over the last fourteen years has enabled research to current, emergent vegetation types, and spatial distribution of the mosaic, particularly as associated with topographic factors. This was accomplished with remote sensing, ArcGIS, and ground truthing, allowing a vegetation classification of the burn area which delineates emergent patterns of land cover. Statistical regressions indicated that some vegetative groupings were influenced by specific topographic features, most notably the aspect r-value which was negatively correlated with tree emergence. Slope was the only topographic factor determined to influence the survival of tree patches through a weak negative correlation between slope and surviving trees. Understanding the spatial nature of vegetation regrowth, particularly as associated with topography, can allow land managers to better plan conservation strategies.

Committee:

Dawna Cerney, PhD (Advisor); David Butler, PhD (Committee Member); Colleen McLean, PhD (Committee Member); Ian Renne, PhD (Committee Member); Brad Shellito, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Ecology; Forestry; Geographic Information Science; Geography; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

Forestry; fire ecology; landscape ecology; GIS; geography; remote sensing; wildfire; Alberta

Merse, Cynthia LaurenA Study of Urban Forestry in Baltimore, Maryland: Analyzing the Significance of Street Trees in Bolton Hill
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2005, Environmental Studies (Arts and Sciences)

The incorporation of trees in an urban environment has been recognized as an asset for hundreds of years. A rich database of research exists touting the environmental, economic, and social benefits provided by trees to humans and the surrounding environs. Many cities across the United States have embraced urban trees and have established forestry programs to nurture their existence. Baltimore, Maryland has been recognized for its system of urban forests and urban forest management; however, the city is experiencing a continuous decline in the percentage of tree canopy cover. One Baltimore neighborhood that is defying this trend is the eclectic community known as Bolton Hill. Through active community participation, regular tree maintenance, and a healthy relationship with the Forestry Department, Bolton Hill exhibits a healthy street tree population and can serve as an important model for communities in Baltimore, and across the nation, in pursuing a successful urban forest in a time of tight budgets and environmental uncertainty.

Committee:

Geoffrey Buckley (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Sciences

Keywords:

Urban forestry; Street trees; Baltimore; Urban ecology

Fritts, Harold C.Relations of radial growth of beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) to some environmental factors in a central Ohio forest during 1954-55 /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1956, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Biology

Keywords:

Beech;Forests and forestry

Beymer, Betsy AnneWomen's Views on the Political Ecology of Fuelwood Use in the West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania
Master of Arts, Miami University, 2005, Geography
This study examines women’s views on the political ecology of fuelwood use in the West Usambaras and asks how they view their access to fuelwood: (1) across the local landscape; and (2) as it is influenced by local, regional, national and international factors? Between May and August 2003, I worked with women in Mgwashi and Sagara villages to compile activity schedules, resource maps, photos and narratives, and Venn diagrams. This study demonstrates how the work of fuelwood can intersect women’s triple role, and considers the complex relations among regulated forests, the Sagara Community Forest, and locally-driven initiatives that are promoting agroforestry. My participatory research suggests that women’s unique, situated environmental knowledges need greater recognition in the ‘community’ management of Sagara Community Forest. The conservation of forest resources must be a collaborative process that supports women’s empowerment and encourages their self-mobilization.

Committee:

Kimberly Medley (Advisor)

Subjects:

Geography

Keywords:

Feminist Political Ecology; Community Forestry; East Africa

Coronado, Carlos JThe Economic Contributions of Ohio's Forest Products Industry: Changes Over Time, and the Value of Timber as a Resource
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2015, Environment and Natural Resources
Market forces have driven the downsizing and restructuring of the U.S. forest economy, which prompted our assessment of the current conditions of forestry and forest products manufacturing in Ohio. Economic modeling was used to determine the current state of Ohio's forest products industry. We constructed a series of input-output models with 2011 year data using the IMpact Analysis for PLANning system to determine the economic impacts of Ohio's forest-based industries. We then compared the 2011 findings to those from 2001, the year for which the industry impacts had last been assessed. Direct impacts of all forestry and forest products sectors in 2011 summed to 47,200 employees, $4.00 billion in value added, and $13.7 billion in outputs. Nearly all of the 2011 industry values in real terms were lower than those from 2001, which were inflation-adjusted to 2011 constant dollars. Input-output models were also constructed to describe the economic impacts of timber product outputs in Ohio and its three timber market regions - the Northeast, West, and Southeast- for 2012. Impact Analysis for PLANning was used to describe these impacts in terms of employment, output, and value added based on 1) the total value of outputs delivered to market by each region;s logging sector and 2) a per-unit change in the regionalized delivered value of one million board feet (MMBF) of hardwood sawtimber. Direct impacts of timber products were greatest in the Northeast (for output and value added) and Southeast (for employment). The total economic impacts of timber products in Ohio were 2,880 employees, $287 million in output, and $147 million in value added. The per-unit impact results were more varied due to regional differences in economies and timber price determinants. Employment and output economic impacts per MMBF were both highest in the Southeast.

Committee:

Stephen Matthews, Dr. (Advisor); Eric McConnell, Dr. (Committee Member); Joseph Donnermeyer, Dr. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Environmental Economics; Forestry

Keywords:

Forestry; IMPLAN; input-output model, forest products, forest products manufacturing

Tian, XiaohuiThree Essays on the Economics of Carbon Sequestration, Timber Production and Land Use
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2014, Agricultural, Environmental and Developmental Economics
My dissertation develops a wide range of quantitative tools to examine the carbon policies for wood biomass production, explore the potential policy instruments to create incentives for carbon sequestration and investigate the implications of increasing industrial plantations for timber markets. The first chapter examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) effects of wood biofuel policies and the implications of potential carbon policies with biomass production. Previous literature suggests that an increase in wood biomass demand will cause more carbon emissions, and they suggest emissions from wood based biomass should be taxed. These studies, however, are static, and they ignore forest growth and sequestration. This paper develops a forward looking dynamic general equilibrium model with a dynamic forestry sector. By taking into account the dynamic land use adjustment in the forest sector, we show that the optimal strategy is to subsidize carbon growth in forests and to tax carbon emissions. Proposed strategies that would only tax carbon emissions from the forest sector including biomass energy production without compensating forest sequestration actually causes more net carbon emissions than if forest based bioenergy is simply treated as carbon neutral and ignored. This study makes two major contributions to the economics literature. It is the first study that develops a dynamic general equilibrium model with a dynamic forest sector. Second, the study illustrates a critical problem with several prominent studies that address biofuel policy. The economic potential of carbon sequestration in forests is widely acknowledged but there is no consensus on the policy instrument that should be adopted to promote it. The second chapter focuses on the comparison of efficiency of different forest carbon policies recommended by past studies. We employ an optimal control model of timber management to examine the effects of different policies numerically, taking into account market effects and intertemporal adjustments. We find that the optimal policies are the ones which pay by explicitly tracking carbon in and out of forests. A `per hectare’ land subsidy could be 5 to more than 10 times more costly than a `per ton’ carbon Tax & Subsidy or carbon subsidy policy depending on the carbon prices. A carbon tax on forest emissions without compensating the sequestration leads to net carbon emissions and is thus the least efficient policy choice. The third chapter examines the implications of wood production in the emerging regions on timber output in the United States, and specifically in the Southern U.S. A key component of the work involves updating GTM with new information on yields from emerging region plantations and more detailed representation of the Southern US. The preliminary results show that technological change in timber plantations could have very important influences on timber markets, nationally and globally.

Committee:

Brent Sohngen (Advisor); Ian Sheldon (Committee Member); Sathya Gopalakrishnan (Committee Member); Ron Sands (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Economics

Keywords:

Carbon sequestration, general equilibrium, forestry, land use

Hartman, Kurt MThe Impacts, Invasibility, and Restoration Ecology of an Invasive Shrub, Amur Honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii)
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Ohio University, 2005, Biological Sciences (Arts and Sciences)
Invasive species are an environmental problem of increasing global concern. Invasives have been intentionally and accidentally transported across previously impeding barriers to new regions where they interact with native species. One invasive shrub, Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii), was introduced into the US from Manchuria in the late 1800s for conservation and horticultural purposes. Since then, it has become ecologically problematic in open areas and forested habitats. The goals of this research were to (1) investigate the impacts of L. maackii on the structure and composition of native plant communities, (2) measure changes in the productivity of overstory trees at invaded sites using dendrochronological techniques, (3) study the growth and biomass allocation of L. maackii seedlings and generate a predictive model regarding their establishment, and (4) investigate the restoration ecology of this species in terms of its eradication and replacement with native tree species. First, using the chronosequence method, sites with various invasion times were sampled, and long-invaded sites were found to have significant reductions in species richness and have a simplified structure relative to recently invaded and non-invaded sites. Thus, successional trajectories were likely being diverted by L. maackii. Second, trees were cored, and annual tree-ring growth was measured. Reductions in tree growth indicate that L. maackii is able to successfully compete with overstory trees and significantly suppress productivity. Third, L. maackii seedlings were grown in various combinations of light and water and glaciated and unglaciated soils. Findings suggest that light was the most important factor influencing seedling growth. Drought conditions limited seedlings’ plastic ability to respond to increases in irradiance, and interestingly, glaciated soil was found to have greater L. maackii growth potential than unglaciated soil. Finally, the most effective means of restoring sites infested by L. maackii was investigated comparing the use of a 22-caliber herbicide injection gun and the cut-and-paint technique. Both methods were equally effective, and L. maackii eradication facilitated native seedling growth and survival. Overall, findings indicate that L. maackii is an aggressive weed with substantial negative ecological impacts on invaded forest ecosystems. Restoration practices involving prevention and removal of this shrub are recommended.

Committee:

Brian McCarthy (Advisor)

Keywords:

Predicting invasive species impacts; exotic weed ecology; dendrochronology; dendroecology; modeling forest succession; tree seedling recruitment; Ohio forestry; conservation biology; life history theory; invasive plants; non-native; nonindigenous

Meeusen, Karl M.FORESTS, CARBON, AND BIOMASS ELECTRICITY GENERATION: TWO ESSAYS IN NATURAL RESOURCE ECONOMICS
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 2011, Agricultural, Environmental and Developmental Economics
Chapter One of this research examines the effects of using forest and forest waste products for both electricity generation and traditional timber products, looking specifically at the optimal rotation age of forests and the maximum net present value (NPV) of forest land. This research uses both a deterministic setting characterized by the traditional Faustmann model and various scenarios where prices, growth rates, and interest rates are uncertain to look at how foresters’ decisions may change when they also take into consideration the value of forests for carbon storage and offsets and the value of mill and forest residues as an alternative fuel source for electricity generation. A numerical example is developed showing the methods applied to Oak-Hickory forests in Ohio. In the deterministic model, when carbon prices are added, the forester maximizes the NPV of the forest using only mill waste for electricity generation until carbon price reach $160. At carbon prices greater than $160, the forester maximizes the NPV by harvesting the forest waste as well as using the mill waste for electricity generation. The environmental benefits of using mill waste and forest waste for electricity can offset from 191,108 to 222,205 tons of carbon per year in the state of Ohio. Using a Monte Carlo simulation to account for uncertainty in growth rate, timber price and carbon price this research shows the rotation age decreases, but not at statistically significant level until carbon prices exceed $200 per ton. However, additional flexibility in the rotation age allows the forester to take advantage of the spikes in prices caused by uncertainty, improving the NPV of the forest land. The research conducted in Chapter two examines a global forestry model with multiple uses for harvested timber. Specifically, utilizing dynamic linear programming, this research addresses the global effect on optimal forestry planning and carbon sequestration when forest products are used for either traditional timber products or electricity generation. In this model, a biomass electricity sector is defined and comprised of electricity generated from forest residues, milling residues, and a choice variable to determine if otherwise merchantable timber is best used for energy production or timber. This research finds that using forest residues for electricity production leads to increased quantities of timber harvested, reduced timber prices, and a slight decrease in the total carbon stored in the forest. The Alternate Scenarios showed quantities harvested between 0.83 percent and 6.82 percent greater than the Baseline Scenario. Timber prices in the Baseline Scenario are as much as 3.85 percent greater than prices in the Alternate Scenarios. The results also show that adding biomass electricity from forest residues, while offsetting as much as 2.9 Pg of carbon over all periods tested, may not lead to positive or sustainable net carbon storage in the total forestry system.

Committee:

Brent Sohngen, DF (Advisor); Tim Haab, PhD (Committee Member); Doug Southgate, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Agricultural Economics; Economics; Environmental Economics

Keywords:

Forestry; Faustmann; Carbon Sequestration; Biomass; Uncertainty

Yadama, Gautam NagabushanaComparative analysis of governmental and nongovernmental community development programs: A study of community forestry programs in Andhra Pradesh, India
Doctor of Philosophy, Case Western Reserve University, 1990, Sociology
This study compares the effectiveness of Nongovernmental and Governmental organizations involved in planning and implementing community forestry and social forestry programs. The study was conducted in Vishakapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The following study also compares the participation of small and large farmers in these community development programs to determine if non-governmental organizations are in fact more receptive to low income groups than governmental organizations. Data were collected in two non-governmental and two governmental social fores try programs. The study is based on a sample size of two hundred respondents. One hundred respondents were from the non-governmental organizations and the remaining one hundred respondents were from the governmental organizations. The study found that participants in governmental social forestry programs were more involved in decision making and implementation aspects of these programs than the participants in non-governmental organizations. The study also found that the larger farmers were more involved in decision making activities and the small farmers were more involved in implementation activities of these programs. Overall the study also concludes that non-governmental organizations are not any more effective in involving the poor in project activities than the governmental social forestry programs. The findings of the study challenge the current assumption that non-governmental organizations are more effective than governmental organizations in carrying out development work. The study calls for a closer monitoring and evaluation of non-governmental organizations and a reevaluation of the assumption that invariably non-governmental development work is better than governmental development work.

Committee:

Claudia Coulton (Advisor)

Keywords:

community forestry Andhra Pradesh

Hoffman, Deborah L.Community-based sustainable forest managment: A case study of Rutland Township, Ohio
Master of Science (MS), Ohio University, 2006, Environmental Studies (Arts and Sciences)

Sustainable forest management, as a part of the move towards sustainable development worldwide, is becoming the preferred technique for managing forests in North America. With a simultaneous emphasis on ecology, society, and economy, sustainable forest management takes a comprehensive approach to keeping the forests and their ecosystems healthy while, at the same time, considering the needs of humans, both equitably and economically.

In this case study, I have evaluated the forest management practices of a small group of landowners in Rutland Township, Ohio. The majority of these landowners are knowledgeable and environmentally conscious forest owners who want to protect their forested ecosystems. I interviewed each landowner in the community and compared their answers to gauge their forest management as sustainable or not, based on a set of guidelines I developed from the appropriate literature. While there is a decidedly solid commitment to care for their forest ecosystems, establish some sort of management plan, and contribute to their surrounding community, it seems the community in Rutland is in the embryonic stages of sustainable forest management. They are nearing yet not quite accomplishing sustainable forest management as I have established it. Further studies about communities of non-industrial private forest owners, especially in boom-and-bust regions, can prove valuable to the future of the country’s forests.

Committee:

Nancy Manring (Advisor)

Subjects:

Environmental Sciences

Keywords:

sustainable forest management; community-based forestry; economic incentives

Beatley, Janice C.The primary forests of Vinton and Jackson Counties, Ohio /
Doctor of Philosophy, The Ohio State University, 1953, Graduate School

Committee:

Not Provided (Other)

Subjects:

Agriculture

Keywords:

Forest ecology;Forests and forestry;Plant communities

Monarch, Elizabeth AnneGround-flora Composition and Diversity of Young and Mature Wildfire-Regenerated Jack Pine Stands
Master of Science, The Ohio State University, 2014, Environment and Natural Resources

Ecological forestry is an increasingly important tool for forest management and restoration efforts looking to incorporate the structures and spatial patterns created by natural disturbances into management practices. In northern Lower Michigan, jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) plantations are managed as habitat for the endangered Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii Baird, KW) and have been criticized for creating homogenized stand structures, reducing natural jack pine regeneration, and excluding other threatened species. Historically, jack pine forests experienced stand-replacing wildfires on intervals of 26 to 69 years, and little is known about the impact these natural disturbances had on ground-flora composition and structure. If management plans are to incorporate ecological forestry principles, it is important to understand the disturbances and ecological processes that influence vegetation patterns and development. Ground-flora vegetation can indicate disturbance and environmental stress in an ecosystem and provide insight into ecological processes for forest managers.

Ground flora composition, structure, and diversity were examined at 12 wildfire-regenerated jack pine sites either < 8 years post-wildfire (young) or > 22 years post-wildfire (mature) in northern Lower Michigan. Percent cover of woody and herbaceous vegetation ( < 1 m tall) was collected within nested 1-m^2 quadrats, in conjunction with information of the overstory composition and structure, and fuel loadings. Semivariograms were also used to examine the spatial autocorrelation in ground-flora species richness and Shannon's Index of Diversity.

Young stands were dominated by blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and sedges (Carex spp.), while mature stands were dominated by eastern teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens), mosses, and lichens. On average (± SD), mature stands had significantly higher species richness, with 13.4 ± 3.3 species per m^2 in young stands and 17.4 ± 4.8 species per m^2 in mature stands (P < 0.01). Gradient analyses suggest ground-flora composition and structure shift as stands develop over time, and these changes are related to changes in the overstory and fuel structure. Young stands showed strong positive correlation with seedling density and a negative correlation with overstory basal area, while the mature stands showed a positive correlation to overstory basal area. The mature stands also appeared to cluster into three groups along the first canonical axis, presumably along a productivity gradient (as indicated by the strong, positive relationship with live herbaceous cover). This suggests ground-flora composition and structure is variable within the wildfire-regenerated stands despite having similar environmental characteristics. Spatial analyses suggest that the variability of species richness and diversity is expressed at relatively small spatial scales, as the sill and range values were low for most of the sites. These results suggest that the ground flora developing in wildfire-regenerated jack pine forests can be variable and shift in terms of species dominance and functional groups over time. The changes in the ground-flora composition and diversity appear to be driven by stand structure and fuel loadings, factors influencing light availability and forest floor conditions. Restoration and management practices emulating natural disturbance patterns could enhance flora diversity and composition, as well as promote ecosystem services such as habitat for additional threatened bird species.

Committee:

P. Charles Goebel (Advisor); David Hix (Committee Member); Stephen Matthews (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Ecology; Environmental Management; Environmental Science; Forestry

Keywords:

jack pine; ecological forestry; Kirtlands Warbler; ground flora; composition; diversity; Pinus banksiana; Dendroica kirtlandii; spatial heterogeneity; Michigan;

O'Connor, Erin E.Post-fire Vegetative Regrowth Associated with Mature Tree Stands and Topography on Sofa Mountain
Master of Science in Environmental Science, Youngstown State University, 2015, Department of Geological & Environmental Sciences
Plant compositions are constantly changing in response to biotic and abiotic factors. Adaptability of these vegetative assemblages to change is a concern for land managers and ecologists in fire-prone montane regions of North America. In 1998, a holdover fire event burned 1521 ha of primarily coniferous forest on Sofa Mountain, located in Waterton Lakes National Park, southwestern Alberta, Canada. This was the first significant burn within the park in 130 years and offers a unique opportunity to study possible effects of topographic influences on the spatial relationship of residual mature tree stands within the burn and associated reestablished vegetation with these stands. A mixed-methods approach utilizing GIS, remote sensing, and statistical regressions determined that clustering of vegetation was influenced by topographic features slope and aspect. New growth was more likely to be a product of fallen trees and debris rather than associations with mature trees.

Committee:

Dawna Cerney, PhD (Advisor); Peter Kimosop, PhD (Committee Member); Lynn Resler, PhD (Committee Member); C. Robin Mattheus, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Biology; Ecology; Environmental Science; Forestry; Geographic Information Science; Geography; Remote Sensing

Keywords:

fire ecology; forestry; forest management; landscape ecology; GIS; remote sensing; geography; Alberta; wildfire

Sullivan, Amy ErinLOGGING DEBRIS PROTECTS SUGAR MAPLE (Acer saccharum) SEEDLINGS FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER (Odocoileus virginianus) HERBIVORY IN WOLF-OCCUPIED FOREST
Master of Science (MS), Wright State University, 2015, Biological Sciences
White-tailed deer are a species of great economic and ecological concern. Foresters sometimes leave logging debris known as slash on the forest floor with the intent to protect seedlings from deer herbivory and promote forest regeneration. I examined the effects of slash on rates of deer browsing on sugar maple seedlings in a forest of northern Wisconsin and measured deer foraging behavior using giving-up density and vigilance rates by employing trail cameras. Rates of browsed stems were almost twice as high in the open as within and adjacent to slash. These findings underscore the usefulness of slash for mitigating the effects of deer on tree seedlings.Deer vigilance did not vary by night and day but photos were rarely taken during dawn and dusk. These results may suggest that rather than using reactive vigilance behavior, deer are using proactive antipredator behavior and avoiding the study site at high-risk times.

Committee:

Thomas Rooney, Ph.D. (Advisor); Jeffrey Peters, Ph.D. (Committee Member); John Stireman III, Ph.D. (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Animals; Biology; Ecology; Forestry

Keywords:

deer; risk-sensitive; foraging; behavior; behavioral ecology; trophic cascade; ecology of fear; forestry; terrain fear factor; white-tailed deer; wolf

Battaglia, Michael J.A Multi-Methods Approach to Determining Appropriate Locations for Tree Planting in Two of Baltimore's Tree-Poor Neighborhoods
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2010, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
Research has shown that urban trees provide a variety of environmental, economic, and social benefits. Because of these benefits, cities have been developing aggressive urban forest management plans to drastically increase tree canopy cover. City officials in Baltimore have implemented one such plan with the intent of doubling the tree canopy over the next several decades. Successful tree planting in Baltimore's neighborhoods is dependent on two criteria, available planting space and resident support. This thesis explores both issues in two neighborhoods with a history of anti-tree sentiments. Results of a spatial analysis show that potential planting space is limited in both neighborhoods, while qualitative interviews with residents revealed mixed feelings about tree planting. The current situation appears to be the result of complex social and economic processes. The neighborhoods present significant challenges to Baltimore's urban forest managers.

Committee:

Geoffrey L. Buckley, PhD (Committee Chair); Gaurav Sinha, PhD (Committee Member); Harold Perkins, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Geography

Keywords:

Urban Forestry; Planting Space; Landscape Preferences; GIS; East Baltimore; Madison-Eastend; Berea

Bhatta, Deen BCOMMUNITY APPROACHES TO NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: SACRED AND NON-SACRED LANDSCAPES IN NEPAL
Master of Environmental Science, Miami University, 2003, Environmental Sciences
This study examines the different kinds of management approaches practiced by local people in far-western Nepal for the management and conservation of two kinds of forests, sacred groves and community forests. It reveals the role of traditional religious beliefs, property rights, and the central government, as well as the importance of traditional ecological knowledge and local participation in management and conservation of the natural resources. In Nepal, the ties of local people with the forest are strong and inseparable. Forest management is an important part of the local livelihood strategies. Local forest management is based on either religious and cultural or utilitarian components of the local community. Management of the sacred grove is integrated with the religious and cultural aspects, whereas the management of the community forest is associated with the utility aspects. Overall, the management strategies applied depend on the needs of the local people.

Committee:

Adolph Greenberg (Advisor)

Keywords:

Community-based Natural Resources Management; Sacred grove; Bathyau Patal; Community Forestry; Bashulinga Community; Forest Management and Conservation in Nepal

Whalen, Kevin ChristopherA map system to disseminate national science on forests for the creation of regional tree planting prioritization plans
MS, Kent State University, 2017, College of Arts and Sciences / Department of Computer Science
In the United States, urban forestry efforts are sustained through efforts from individuals, businesses, philanthropic organizations, and government agencies across local, state, and national levels. The i-Tree Tools suite of software promotes the use of, peer-reviewed science to explain the benefits that trees provide in a method intended for the general public. This thesis shares the computer-specific knowledge collected during the design, implementation, and continued expansion of i-Tree Landscape. The i-Tree Landscape application is a web-browser based, online, geographic information system, referred to as a web-GIS app. The "pages" of the web-app are part of a system of software libraries and services, along with dedicated hardware, which were specifically researched, compared, selected, and optimally configured for their roles in supporting the system as a whole. This work will also briefly touch upon the open source libraries and services running in the Landscape system, as well as, some of the decisions they influenced with acquiring hardware to support its deployment. Delivering the data and formulas associated with the benefits of trees for the entire geographic area of the United States becomes difficult over the internet, especially when it must be achieved via a non-expert interface. To manage this, the flow of the application is separated into five, non-sequential steps, prefixed with a landing page, and postfixed with a publishable report. This partitioning helps with code responsibility separation, as well. In addition to producing a tailorable report for describing the benefits of trees, the primary purpose of the application is to help prioritize tree planting efforts. This is well needed by foresters to help allocate for popular practice of mass tree plantings. The planning is done via a customizable model utilizing nearly all of the possible attributes as weighting options. The regional aggregations for this are available to users through nine boundary layers, most notably including counties, block groups, and watersheds. The research supporting the data on trees is from working directly with the authors of peer-reviewed research from the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service laboring at the Northern Research Station at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse, New York. i-Tree Landscape has succeeded in becoming a science dissemination facility, by the use of information visualization, with the purpose of making decisions that promote urban forestry stewardship through modern web-GIS, and data processing techniques.

Committee:

Cheng-Chang Lu, PhD (Advisor); Austin Melton, PhD (Committee Member); Gokarna Sharma, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Computer Science; Ecology; Environmental Science; Geography; Urban Forestry; Urban Planning

Keywords:

budget national map processing; geographic information system; GIS; national land cover; forestry; tree planting prioritization; GDAL; GEOS; GeoServer; PostGIS; JTS; Open Geospatial Consortium; OGC; Open Source Geospatial Foundation; OSGeo;

Rodier, Meghan L.Urban Community Forestry in Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD: The Role of Nonprofit Organizations
Master of Arts (MA), Ohio University, 2011, Geography (Arts and Sciences)
Since the 1980s environmental service delivery funding at both the state and city government level has been in decline, limiting urban community forestry programs. This research used governance theory to explore how Casey Trees in Washington, DC and the Parks and People Foundation in Baltimore, Maryland work with municipal resource agencies to promote urban community forestry. This in-depth analysis advances our understanding of governance theory at the citywide and neighborhood scale by examining how these local nonprofits have entered the playing field of environmental service delivery. Two neighborhoods, Petworth in Washington, DC and Franklin Square in Baltimore, were selected to address how nonprofits operate on the ground to promote change at a local scale through neighborhood revitalization. Exploring the role of nonprofits sheds light on the complexity of urban community forestry partnerships.

Committee:

Geoffrey Buckley, PhD (Advisor); Harold Perkins, PhD (Committee Member); Risa Whitson, PhD (Committee Member)

Subjects:

Natural Resource Management; Urban Forestry; Urban Planning

Keywords:

Governance; neighborhood revitalization; urban community forestry